Perspectives On Public Administration
BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
1 Discuss the meaning, nature and scope of public administration.
Ans: Public administration
The word Administration has been derived from the Latin words ‘ad’ and ‘ministiare’ which means to serve.
In simple language it means the ‘management of affairs’ or ‘looking after the people’. In general sense Administration can be defined as the activities of groups co-operating to accomplish common goals.
It is a process of management which is practiced by all kinds of organisations from the household to the most complex system of the government.
According to L. D. White, Administration was a ‘process common to all group effort, public or private, civil or military, large scale or small scale’.
Nature of Public Administration:
There are two divergent views regarding the nature of the Public administration. These views are following: BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
1 Integral View According to this view, Public administration is a sum total of all the activities undertaken in pursuit of and in fulfillment of public policy.
These activities include not only managerial and technical but also manual and clerical.
Thus the activities of all persons from top to bottom constitute administration although they are of varying significance to the running of administrative machinery.
LD White adopts this view of Public administration. According to him, Public Administration ‘consists of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfilment or enforcement of public policy.
This definition covers a multitude of particular operations, many in fields. Another scholar Marshal E Dimock also shares the same view.
He holds that administration is concerned with the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of government. The ‘what’ is the subject matter, the technical knowledge of a field that enables the administrator to perform his tasks.
The ‘how is the technique of management, the principles according to which cooperative programs are carried to success.
2 Managerial view. According to this view, the works of only those persons who are engaged in the performance of managerial functions in an organisation constitute administration.
In this managerial view the administration has the functions of planning, programming and organise all the activities in an organisation so as to achieve the desired ends.
Luther Gullick and Herbert Simon subscribe to this view. Gullick says ‘Administration has to do with getting things done; with the accomplishment of defined objectives’.
These two views are deals the nature of public administration. In simply the nature of Public Administration deals the execution.
Scope Of Public Administration:
In the modern time Public administration have a pivotal role. There are many discussions about the scope of Public Administration, some scholars are argued that in the Neo-liberal time the scope of Public administration is very less and Private administration have growing importance.
Some argues that the neo-liberal time the term Public administration has significant one because the neo liberal state has faced many problems like environmental and technological issues. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The scope of Public administration deals in many ways Public Administration and People. Public Administration is an organisational effort it needed a close relation to people.
In every Administrative system they have good relation between people and
It influenced the day to day life of the common people. Public Administration and Democracy o In a Democratic political system scope of public administration is related in many ways.
It have close link to people and at the same time they are the watch -dog of the political system.
The Modern democratic state gave more important to the welfarism, In a welfare democracy the effective administration is essential.
Q 2 Describe the various approaches to public policy.
Ans: Various approaches to public policy:
From the early 1970s increasing analysis of the way government policies affected the public resulted in a concept called the “public policy approach” to administration.
This examines to what extent each stage in devising and executing a policy affects the overall shape and impact of the policy.
According to the concept, the way a problem is conceived in the first place influences the range of remedies considered. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The nature of the decision-making process may determine whether a course of action is merely incremental or truly radical.
Indeed, it has been argued that the nature of the decision-making process shapes the outcome of the decision itself, particularly when the process is dominated by a powerful interest group.
Following ere the various approaches to public policy:
1 Institutional Approach to Public Policy Analysis: In a democratic society, the State as a web of government structures and institutions performs many functions including formulation, implementation and evaluation of public policies.
The government institutions give public policy three different characteristics. Firstly, the government gives legal authority to policies.
Public policy is the outcome of certain decisions and is characterised by the use of legal sanctions. Secondly, the applications of public policy are universal.
Only public policies extend to all citizens in the state. Thirdly, public policies involve
coercion. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
2 Rational Policy Making Model: Rationality and rationalism are words too often found and used in the literature of social science, but they are more widely espoused than practised in policy-making.
However, rationality is considered to be the ‘yardstick of wisdom’ in policy-making. This Approach emphasizes that policy-making is about making a choice among policy alternatives on rational grounds.
Rational policymaking is “to choose the one best option.” Thomas Dye (2004) equates rationality with efficiency.
3 Group Model: Policy as Group Equilibrium: The Group Model of public policy-making is based on the “hydraulic theory of politics” in which the polity operates as being a system of forces and pressures pushing against one another in the making of public policy.
A Group is a collective of individuals distinguished by some common attributes or shared relationship. As per this Theory/Model, public policy is the product of group struggle.
4 Elite-Mass Theory : Policy as Elite Preference: C. Wright Mill (1956) is, perhaps, the leading representative of the Elite-mass Model.
According to this Theory, public policy is the product of elites, reflecting their preferences and values. Elite Theory or Model contends that the people are apathetic and ill-informed about public policy. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Elites actually shape mass opinion on policy questions more than masses shape elite opinion.
5 Political Public Policy Approach: A significant departure from the rationality model is the Political Policy Process Approach espoused in policy-making.
Writers, such as, Laurence Lynn and Peter deleon have advocated this Approach.As policy analysis is a rational process, it cannot resolve value conflicts. On the other hand, politics is the management of conflicts.
People have different ideas about what are the major concerns and problems confronting society and about what the government should do about them.
6 Strategic Planning Approach of Policy-Making: Strategic Planning is an attempt to combine the Incremental and Rational Approaches to public policy-making.
This Approach has the feature of reconciling the day-to-day demands with long-range strategies for the future.
Strategic Planning concentrates on making decisions but blends rational analysis with economic and political analysis.
Q 3 Describe the views of J.S. Mill and Hegel on bureaucracy.
Ans: Views of J.S.Mill on bureaucracy:
J.S. Mills’ Essay titled ‘Considerations on Representative Government’ was written about half a century before Weber’s publication on Bureaucracy.
According to Mill, the term Bureaucracy implies direct work of government and sometimes he refers to bureaucrats as the actual governors.
Mill clarifies the meaning of bureaucracy as: “the essence and meaning of bureaucracy lies when the work of government has been in the hands of governors in this context bureaucrat) by profession”. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
In terms of recruitment, Mill prefers to have recruitment based on merit (competition), where the candidates’ intelligence, education, and potential governmental skills could be tested.
Citing bureaucracy as the “permanent strength of the public service” and the bureaucratic functions as highly professional in nature, Mill recommends
“tests for selecting the best officers, rules for promotion, appropriate provisions for order and convenient transaction of business, good record keeping, and proper measures for responsibility and accountability”.
Views of Hegel on bureaucracy:
One of the influential thinkers who acknowledged bureaucracy as the main governing organisation in the modern State was G.W Friedrich Hegel.
In his Philosophy of Right, published in 1821, he deliberates about how liberal States can be organised, and endorses the role of civil service as an essential element of government.
Interestingly, Hegel upholds the role of civil service as a “universal class” since the end of their activities is to realise universal interest.
Misra points out that Hegel raised the concept of bureaucracy to a higher level by defining it as the State’s will’ and considered it as “a transcendent entity, a mind above individual minds”. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The organizational characteristics that Hegel envisions for a modern bureaucracy include the following features: functional division of authority, the principle of hierarchy, separation of office from its incumbent, merit-based recruitment through competition, fixed remuneration, and exercise of authority in compliance to the common good.
Q 4 Examine Simon’s concept of Bounded Rationality.
Ans: Simon’s concept of Bounded Rationality
Herbert Simon’s work on “Administrative Behaviour” is the seminal work in the field of decision making.
He believed that the rationality model in decision making is non-realistic and its principles are unattainable.
His idea of organisation is a real one and not an ideal one. He emphasised that all Decision Making should be based on rational choices.
According to him, rationality is “concerned with the selection of preferred behaviour alternatives in terms of some system of values whereby the consequences of behavior can be evaluated”.
This requires that firstly, the decision-maker should have knowledge about all available alternatives.
Secondly, the decision-maker should also be able to anticipate the consequences of each of the alternatives. He has classified rationality into various types in which the decision should be:BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
1 Objectively Rational: It is correct behaviour for maximising given values in a given situation.
2 Subjectively Rational: The decision maximises attainment relative to knowledge of the subject.
3 Consciously Rational: Adjustment of means to ends is a conscious process.
4 Deliberately Rational: Adjustment of means to ends has been deliberately brought about.
5 Organisationally Rational: Oriented to the organisational goals.
6 Personally Rational: Directed at the individual goals.
Simon rejected the concept of total rationality as it is based on totally unrealistic assumptions. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
To put it in simple terms, an individual cannot have complete knowledge on all aspects of an issue in order to know every alternative to arrive at a decision.
On the contrary, total rationality is based on the belief that decision makers are omniscient (all knowing) and have knowledge about all available alternatives as well as their consequences.
Secondly, the assumption is that the decision maker has unlimited computational ability. Finally, it believes that the decision maker has the capacity to put in order all the possible
Q 5 Discuss the features of Public Choice approach.
Ans: Features of Public Choice approach
The public Choice approach aims at giving greater choice to individuals and it encourages the government to provide a plurality of institutional choices or quasi-markets.
It promotes competitive market arguing that if the bureaucracy monopolises service delivery, the result will be over-supply and inefficiency.
By breaking the monopoly of the monolithic State as the provider and by introducing choice and participation, this Approach seeks to redefine the power equations between the State and the citizens. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Based on the basic propositions of this Approach, the characteristic features of PCA can be deduced as:
1 It is an anti-bureaucratic approach. It sees bureaucracy as an absolute evil, as it seeks its own selfish interests, at the expense of public interests.
2 It encourages institutional pluralism in the provisions of public goods and services.
3 It is a critique of the bureaucratic model of administration. It assumes that the self-seeking administrator and the vote-maximizing politicians, instead of acting in public interest, produce goods and services for their own benefit.
As a result, the collective interest of society suffers.
4 Plurality of governments and public agencies is supported on the ground of consumer preferences.
5 It applies economic logic to the problems of public services distribution.
6 It stands for diverse democratic decision-making centres, decentralisation and popular participation in administration. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
This is suggested on the ground that it creates opportunity for the promotion of competition among government agencies, and in the process, the individual citizen’s choice increases.
7 It promotes more competition in the delivery of public services.
8 It emphasizes privatization or contracting out to reduce wastage.
9 It encourages the dissemination of more information for public benefit about the availability of alternatives to public services offered on a competitive basis, and at competitive costs.
Q 6 What do you mean by Differential Piece Rate System?
Ans: Differential Piece Rate System: Differential Piece Rate System was introduced by Taylor, the father of scientific management.
The underlying principle of this system is to penalise a slow worker by paying him a low piece rate for low production and to reward an efficient worker by giving him a higher piece rate for a higher production.
Taylor was of the view that an inefficient worker should have no place in the organisation and he should be compelled to leave the organisation by paying him a low piece rate for low production. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Taylor proceeded on the assumption that through time and motion study it is possible to fix a standard time for doing a particular task.
To encourage the workers to complete the work within the standard time, Taylor advocated two piece rates,
so that if a worker performs the work within or less than the standard time, he is pad a higher piece rate, and if he does not complete the work within the standard time, he is given a lower piece rate.
Q 7 Write a short note on Relay Assembly experiments.
Ans: Relay Assembly experiments: Relay assembly test room experiments were designed to determine the effect of changes in various job conditions on group productivity as the illumination experiments could not establish relationship between intensity of illumination and production.
For this purpose, the researchers set up a relay assembly test room two girls were chosen. These girls were asked to choose for more girls as co-workers.
The work related to the assembly of telephone relays. Each relay consisted of a number of parts which girls assembled into finished products.
Output depended on the speed and continuity with which girls worked. The experiments started with introducing numerous changes in sequence with a duration of each change ranging from four to twelve weeks. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
An observer was associated with girls to supervise their work. Before each change was introduced, the girls were consulted.
They were given opportunity to express their viewpoints and concerns to the supervisor. In some cases, they were allowed to take decisions on matters concerning them.
Q 8 Comment on the concepts of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers.
Ans:Concepts of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers:
A satisfier is a feature which makes a customer/user happy. This is a feature or a service whose absence does not cause any pain, but the presence makes the customer happy.
In this scenario, we are looking for items that can please a customer. On their own, these aspects generally fall under the category of convenience, ease of use – reactive dashboards, interactive designs etc.
A dissatisfer is a feature which on its own doesn’t make a customer happy. But its absence will severely impact the user.
In other words, you will run the risk of upsetting a customer if a feature or service under this list is not provided. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
These are generally under the category of must have/ should have considering the impact they have on the customer, user and the business.
Naturally I am inclined to place these under the category of core functionality and the purpose for which a product is bought from a supplier.
Q 9 Explain the normative theory of Public Interest Approach.
Ans:Normative theory of Public Interest Approach:
The normative conception in political theory is known by different names. Some people prefer to call it philosophical theory, while others refer to it as ethical theory.
The normative conception is based on the belief that the world and its events can be interpreted in terms of logic, purpose and ends with the help of the theorist’s intuition, reasoning, insights and experiences.
In other words, it is a project of philosophical speculation about values. One may say that their concerns are moral and the purpose is to build an ideal type.
Hence, it is these theorists who have always conceived ‘utopia’ in the realm of political ideas through their powerful imagination.
Normative political theory leans heavily towards political philosophy, because it derives its knowledge of the good life from it and also uses it as a framework in its endeavour to create absolute norms. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Q 10 What do you understand by Organisational Humanism?
This school of thought is an extension of behavioral schools of neoclassical theory and hence has much in common with behavioral schools.
Some of the researchers like Chris Argyris, Douglas Mc Gregor and Abraham Maslow mentioned under behavioral schools, are the profounder of organisation humanism or the modem behavioral school.
The underlying philosophy of this school is that individuals need to use all of their capacities and creative skills at work as well as at home.
This ‘self-actualizing vie’ is the basis of this school.
According to this view, motives fall into categories, that can be arranged according to their importance, and employees seek to mature on the job and are capable of being so.
Employees are primarily self-motivated and self-controlled and react negatively to externally imposed controls.
If allowed to become self-actualized, employees will integrate the goals with those of the organisation. BPAC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Self-actualization refers to reaching one’s potential i.e., ultimate use of personal skills.
OTHER FREE ASSIGNMENT
BPAC 134 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021 -2022
BPAC 133 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT IN HINDI 2021 -2022
BPAC 133 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021 -2022