ORGANISING AND MANAGING INFORMATION
BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Q 1. Explain enumerative and faceted systems of classification. Discuss with examples their historical development, main classes, notation and extent of use.
ANS: Enumerative Systems A classification is a top-down map of knowledge that lists every subject and its subgroups.
Each subdivision is identified by a notational mark. This notation, or a cluster of digits, is assigned to a document with that topic as its specific subject and is known as a class number.
These systems are also referred to as’mark and park’ systems. Enumerative classifications are pre-defined, frozen lists of past, present, and near-future themes.
These only provide readymade pigeon holes for documents rather than finally individualising them according to their subjects and their various documentary aspects.
Most of the time these prove square holes for round pegs.
These are now considered rather old fashioned classification systems
Faceted Systems BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
An enumerative system produces systematic but linear lists of subjects. Knowledge is multidimensional and growing dynamically.
An enumerative classification can represent only one aspect of the specific subject at a time. Many aspects have to be left out.
For example, in the earlier editions of the DDC a simple subject like “Anatomy of Dogs” could either be classified as “Zoology of Dogs” or “Anatomy of Animals”. Both aspects could not be taken together.
Thus such systems fail to classify co-extensively the present day knowledge, not to speak of the subjects to emerge later.
By the beginning of the 20th century these enumerative models were not very effective, yet no other model was available, though the UDC (1895+) had made some improvements in the DDC to denote some more auxiliary aspects of a document. S.R.
Ranganathan (1892-1972) after a long study and experimentation in late 1920s developed a different method to classify multidimensional knowledge thrown by the 20th century industrial society. These are now known as faceted systems.
A facet is any of the many sides of a cut diamond. Ranganathan used this term in classification to designate different aspects of a specific subject.
Instead of making a long list of subjects in some systematic order he divided a subject horizontally into various categories and then vertically into different subdivisions known as facets and isolates respectively.
For example, the subject of library science could be divided into ‘Kind of Library’ Facet, ‘Kind of Document Facet, ‘Kind of Operation’ Facet, and ‘Kind of Service’ Facet.
The kind of service facet could be detailed as circulation services, reference services, current awareness services, reprographic services, and so on.
Space and time facets are kept as common facets applicable to all classes of subjects. Later Ranganathan developed a theory of “Five and only Five Fundamental categories.”
These categories are Personality, Matter, Energy, Space and Time.
His postulate is that any subject comprises of some or all of these categories.
A subject is always made of any of these categories. Nothing is beyond them. These facets are converted into digits and then combined in some postulated order to produce unique class numbers to suit specific subject of the document.
Thus a class number can be tailored to exactly fit the document instead of assigning a class number to a book from the long list of readymade class numbers as in an enumerative classification.
From a small list of facets numerous class numbers can be produced by their combinations and permutations. It started a new revolution in library classification.
This faceted system was later refined and developed into a very dynamic and effective model based on postulates and principles for which Ranganathan developed a theory in his famous book Prolegomena to Library Classification, (Madras Library Association, 1937).
Its advanced version is called Analytico-synthetic classification.
Such classifications have proved useful for the growing universe of knowledge, for information retrieval, and later have proved basis of designing all indexing languages.
These are equally efficient at the traditional role of shelf arrangement.
Indeed these have become popular methods of modern knowledge organisation.
All the new library classification systems are faceted, while old systems like the Dewey Decimal Classification, or the Bibliography Classification (BC) and UDC are getting faceted through revision.
Q2. What is MARC? Explain the structural design of a MARC record giving an example.
ANS: With the increased use of computers, information communication technology, and network communications, cataloguing practises have changed dramatically.
Cataloguing standards have been streamlined to accommodate evolving cataloguing practises, and they have been widely accepted and utilised.
Entries in a machine-readable catalogue are represented in a format that allows them to be input and stored on magnetic tape or magnetic disc for computer manipulation.
Standard formats include MARC, UNIMARC, and Common Communication Format (CCF). There are different communication formats than there are physical formats.
The catalogue entries can be accessed ‘off-line’ or ‘on-line.’ . ‘UII-line means inai ine computer can be useu omy au certain times.
At the available computer time search must be made for a collection or batch of enquires.
On-line systems, however, are linked directly to the computers which can be used immediately or at any time for processing enquiries and searching. MARC database and MARC compliant database are not same.
A MARC database contains a sequential file of hierarchically arranged records following ANSIZ39.2/ ISO2709 specifications and MARC defined content designation for every field in every record; BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
whereas, a MARC compliant database may be a relational, or a different model, holding records comprising elements equivalent to MARC fields by definition.
A database in compliance with MARC can transform its records into MARC communication format and exchange records with any MARC database or with another MARC compliant database; otherwise it cannot.
No online library can function without capability of interchanging records.
It is nearly hard for a library to maintain a MARC-incompatible catalogue at this time.
Because the population of records in MARC databases is significantly bigger than the population of records in all other databases.
Many libraries do not feel obligated to follow a standard record structure when functioning as stand-alone electronic catalogues, ignoring the possibility of exchanging bibliographic data in the future. BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
For the time being, any non-standard computerised catalogue system can satisfactorily serve current and local demands.
However, the good and committed libraries are expected to move toward standardisation sooner or later.
Q 3. Define an indexing language. State its different types. Discuss how different types of relations are represented in a thesaurus.
ANS: Indexed languages are a class of formal languages discovered by Alfred Aho; they are described by indexed grammars and can be recognized by nested stack automata.
Indexed languages are a proper subset of context-sensitive languages.
They qualify as an abstract family of languages (furthermore a full AFL) and hence satisfy many closure properties.
Types of Indexing Language:
There are several types of Indexing Language.
Some are given below; Assigned Term of Indexing Language: In an assigned term of indexing language, indexer select terms or terminology on the basis of subjective interpretation of the document and follow some international standards.
The indexer first determines the subject matter of the document at hand and then the assigned descriptor from a controlled vocabulary.
Derived Term of IL: When an indexer prepares an index by using the author is known as a derived term of indexing language.
All the descriptions are taken from the documents itself. Sometimes it is called natural language or free text indexing. As far examples; author index, citation index.
Free Indexing Language: There is another type of Indexing language and it is called free indexing language, where indexer follows his own designed methods when indexing.
Characteristics of Indexing Language: Indexing language is designed for a special purpose. Besides being a vehicle of communication of ideas it has to perform some special characteristics.
Following are some characteristics of IL: Vocabulary Control: Coming to the semantic aspect of indexing we are to consider the size of vocabulary and devices for vocabulary control vocabulary of indexing language must be precise and exact.
A complete one to one relationship between the concepts and terms should be established.
Synonyms, homonyms, homographs, etc. are controlled in indexing language. Out of synonyms, only one term is accepted in indexing language and this is used in the subject description and file organization.
In a classification scheme, synonyms are guided to the notation, allotted in the scheme for the concept.
Co-ordination of Concepts: Specifying a concept with a particular term, out of available synonyms, does not solve all the problems in indexing.
Most of the documents of the present-day cover compound subject of the document can be represented not by a single term but by co-ordination or combination of a number of items.
A subject class generated by co-ordination of two or more terms, representing different concepts will differ from the classes represented by the individual terms or by the terms in some other combination.
Sequencing of Terms: The co-ordination or combination of terms raises the problem of the sequencing of terms.BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
This sequencing or ordering of terms is very important in indexing. The four terms a, b, c, d may be arranged in 4 or 4.3.2 or 24 possible ways.
To solve this problem indexing language has made the provision of relational symbols known as role operations, role indicators, categories, etc. in different systems.
Dr. S. R. Ranganathan introduced different punctuation marks among the Fundamental Categories (PMEST).BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Similarly, differential punctuation marks are being used in CTI to show the correct relationship of the terms.
Syntax of IL: The importance of the sequencing of terms is accepted in all indexing languages. But the rules prescribed by them for the ordering of terms differ.
The three categories concrete, process, and place as suggested by Kaiser are not sufficient enough to represent the composite subject of modern times.
Dr. S. R. Ranganathan went deep into the problem and came out with his idea of five Fundamental Categories like Personality, Matter, Energy, Space, and Time or in Short (PMEST).BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
This citation order of (PMEST) represents decreasing concreteness of the concepts in a document. E.J. Coates,
the author of subject catalogs has prescribed and applied for another citation order according to this device is Things-Part-Materials-Property-Action.
Thus a document on ‘Roofs of wood’ will be represented as Roofs: Wood following ‘Thing’ Material sequence. A new approach to the subject formulation of documentation has been provided by J. E. L. Farradane.
He below nine types of relationships like association, comparison, concurrence, dimensional, distinctness, equivalence, etc. have been recognized in this device.
The syntax of PRECIS, initiated by Derek Austin, is governed by the role operators. The role operators have equipment of (0-5).
Rotation of Component Terms: Rules of the syntax of indexing language help us to formulate subject representation of a document.
But in a linear representation like this, index statements can provide only single access in the searchable index file.
To overcome this limitation, indexing languages have introduced a mechanism of rotation of components terms.BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The rotation is carried out in such a way that each of the component terms is placed at the privileged position on the search line as the lead term.
The rotation of component terms is a special feature of indexing language.
Syndetic Devices: Indexing language is an artificial one because of this artificiality the user needs guidance on how to use it.
This guidance to users is provided in indexing language with the help of various types of syndetic devices.
These include guides, cross-references, glosses, the invention of headings, introduction to indexes, etc.
Relational Symbols: In a natural language correct relationship between two or more terms can easily be established with the help of preposition, conjunction, etc.
Thus, photographs of albums and albums of photographs convey different meanings.
This differentiation is possible with the help of preposition, conjunction, etc. This facility is absent in an indexing language, which is an artificial one.
Q 4 Explain the concept of interoperability. How is it achieved? Discuss the protocols for interoperability
ANS; Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.
While the term was initially defined for information technology or systems engineering services to allow for information exchange, a broader definition takes into account social, political, and organizational factors that impact system-to-system performance.
Hence, interoperability involves the task of building coherent services for users when the individual components are technically different and managed by different organizations.
Types of interoperability include syntactic interoperability, where two systems can communicate with each other, and cross-domain interoperability, where multiple organizations work together and exchange information.
In any collaborative effort, cross-domain interoperability is important because a lack of communication can cause misunderstandings and greatly reduce efficiency.
This would especially be a problem in organizations that are meant to respond to emergencies as quickly as possible, such as law enforcement, fire fighting, EMS, and other public health and safety departments.BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The Internet is a source of many online resources containing documents in different formats like, text, graphics audio and video.
Individual resources hosting these documents may follow different metadata standards. These documents are to be searched using a search engine.
Hence, a cross platform mechanism has been established in the form of protocols to perform searching different resources in one stroke.
The whole such system is a distributed system and completely untamed. Developing search agents for such a system is a big challenge.
The use of protocols allows users to search several data sources with single effort irrespective of the metadata standard used. Z39.50 (ZEE Thirty Nine point Five Zero), OAI-PMH (Open Archive Initiative and Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) and SRW/U (Search/Retrieve via the Web or URL) are developed for this purpose.
Interoperability techniques are still being improved and becoming further sophisticated in order to provide more power and features in the hands of searchers.
There are two protocols which are widely used over the Internet for cross domain search:
Z39.50 and ZING
OAI-PMH BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Z39.50 AND ZING: The core of interoperable searching is use of protocols. The use of Z39.50 is well accepted and oldest in library services.
The protocol was developed to search Online Public Access Catalogues (OPACs) of different libraries.
In due course of time, the protocol evolved with several applications like searching deep web (databases over Internet), publishers’ catalogue, digital repositories and so on. The protocol performs real-time information retrieval from the source.
A Z39.50 server (for example, Zebra server from Index Data www.indexdata.dk) is queried by a Z39.50 client (for example, Yaz client from Index Data www.indexdata.dk).
The client searches various Z39.50 servers individually and presents the results of all the servers collectively (refer Fig.14) The server hosting the data must be available
The protocol exploits features of the Z39.50 and web technology. The need of searching multiple domains using WWW created the scope of expansion of Z39.50.
The SRU is simple method of searching the Web using GET method and HTTP.
The request is carried in name and value pair through URL.
The SRW carries a request in the form of a packet known as SOAP (Simple Object Application Protocol). In both the cases result is thrown back in an XML format.
The difference between SRW and SRU is that SRW returns XML stream encapsulated in SOAP envelop.
The databases are queried with a standard Common Query Language (CRL), a language for database searching.
The protocol is supported by several of the search agents specific to libraries. The most important is Library of Congress.BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Q 1 Discuss the need for ISBD. Describe the structure of an ISBD record.
ANS: The International Conference on Cataloguing Principles (ICCP) (commonly known as “Paris Principles),
which was held in Paris in October 1961 under the auspices of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA).
Its goal was to serve as a basis for international standardization in cataloguing has certainly been achieved: most of the cataloguing codes that were developed worldwide since that time have followed the Principles strictly or at least to a high degree (IFLA-2016).
It also emphasizes the need for standardization in bibliographic description.
To solve the problem, the International Meeting on Cataloguing Expert (ICME); sponsored by IFLA; held in Copenhagen in 1969 formed a committee to study the problems of standardization in the bibliographic description.
The committee established a basis for internationally uniform descriptive cataloguing practices and set up a working group to develop an International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD).BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The committee submitted its report at a meeting in Liverpool in 1971, which is known as the International Standard Bibliographic Description (Monograph) (ISBD (M)}.
The first edition of ISBD appeared in 1971, and in subsequent years further specialist groups were formed.
The ISBD programme has been IFLA’s major contribution to bibliographic standardization and was a central part of the programme for Universal Bibliographic Control.
Structure of ISBD:BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
ISBD is a standard from IFLA designed to make bibliographic descriptions more consistent across a wide range of applications.
It serves two distinct functions: to define the selection and order of data elements to be recorded and to prescribe punctuation to be used inside a bibliographic description. ISBD is divided into 8 “areas” of description:
. Title and statement of responsibility area
. Edition area
. Material or type of resource-specific area
. Publication, production, distribution, etc., area
. Physical description area
. Series area
. Note area
Resource identifier and terms of availability area Objectives of ISBD:
To prepare a consolidated, updated ISBD from the specialized ISBDs in order to meet the needs of cataloguers and other users of bibliographic information.
To provide consistent stipulations for description of all types of resources, to the extent that uniformity is possible, and specific stipulations for specific types of resources as required to describe those resources. BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Q 2. Explain the problems of cataloguing non book material. Show by an example how is a video catalogued according to AACR2R.
ANS: Many times, with non-book materials, the details that are easy to find in cataloging books are harder to pinpoint.
There is no statement of responsibility, and no publisher is listed.
This could be because the information used to catalog was pre-publication copy, or because the information was not readily found on the videocassette or packaging.
As mentioned above, non-book cataloging records are often longer than those for books.
For this reason, the cataloger reviewing an existing record must pay careful attention to detail, and compare the information in the record against the item in hand.
Again, here is a computer catalog display, this time of a videocassette:
Title : Eyewitness. Cat.
Published : 1994
Description : l videocassette : sd., col. ; 3/4 in.
LC Call No : VBM 4147
Notes : Copyright: Lionheart Television International,Inc. & Dorling Kindersley Vision, Ltd. DCR 1994; REG 9Feb95; PAul-877-795.
Date is year of production.
Subjects: Children’s — Television series.
Educational — Television series.
Notice that the information in this cataloging record is fairly brief. Many times, with non-book materials, the details that are easy to find in cataloging books are harder to pinpoint.
There is no statement of responsibility, and no publisher is listed.
This could be because the information used to catalog was pre-publication copy, or because the information was not readily found on the videocassette or packaging.
This record was copied from the Library of Congress database and some libraries may wish for a more complete record for their patrons use.
video catalogued according to AACR2R :The information that describes each bibliographic item is called a catalog record.BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
These records describe details about each published item such as title, author, publisher, place and date of publication, physical description and publisher.
There is a set of accepted rules for descriptive cataloging which governs the cataloging process.
The most up-to-date version is called Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Second Edition, 2002 Revision.
Q 3. What is keyword indexing? Explain its various versions.
ANS: Keyword in Context (KWIC) Indexing system is based on the principle that the title of the document represents its contents.BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
It is believed that the title of the document is one line abstract of the document.
The significant words in the title indicate the subject of the document a KWIC index makes an entry under each significant word in the title, along with the remaining part of the title to keep the context intact.
The entries are derived using terms one by one as the lead term along with the entire context for each entry.
Each entry in KWIC index consists of three parts
i) Keyword: Significant words of the title which serve as approach/access teems.
ii) Context: The rest of the terms of the title provided along with the keywords specifies the context fo the document.BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
iii) Identification or Location Code: A code (usually the social number of the entry) which provides address of the document where its full bibliographical details will be available.
In order to indicate the end of the title a “/” symbol is used.
The identification code is put on the extreme right to indicate the location of the document.
(b) Indexing Process KWIC indexing system consists of three steps
Step I: Keyword selection
Step II: Entry generation
Step III: Filing
Step I: First of all significant words or keywords are selected from the title. It is done by omitting articles, prepositions, conjunctions and others non-significant words or terms.
The selection is done by the editor who marks the keywords.
When a computer is used for preparing an index, the selection is done by having ‘stop list of non-significant terms stored in it.
A stop list consists of articles, prepositions and certain other common words which would be stopped from becoming the keywords.BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Another method of providing the correct terms f entries is by human intervention at the input stage, wherein the editor indicates the key terms which are then picked up by the computer.
Step II: After the selection of keywords, the computer moves the title laterally in such a way that a significant word (keyword) for a particular entry always appears either on the extreme lefthand side or in the center.
The same thing can be performed manually following the structure of KWIC to generate entries.
Step III: After all the index entries for a document are generated, each entry is filed at its appropriate place in the alphabetical sequence.
Q 4. What is an online catalogue? Discuss its characteristics and advantages.
ANS: For many companies this has fully replaced printed merchandise catalogs due to the convenience and fairly secure way of purchasing for a growing majority of consumers worldwide.
E-commerce, also referred to as online marketing or online shopping, has grown the business-to-consumer (B2C) industry over the last decade- and has also enhanced B2B sales and collaborations across the board.BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Online catalogs are created and presented in forms that can be combined with a shopping cart interface that facilitates an easy way for the sales transaction to be completed.
These can also be in a PDF format for download and printed by customers for offline shopping.
Partial online catalogs can be sent directly to current and prospective customers in an email marketing newsletter.
Pierre Le loarer’ defined OPAC as” a database describing documents via bibliographic entries composed of fields some of which may be queried (essentially the author, title and subject fields for querying by the public)
Characteristics of OPAC:BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
An online catalogue generally includes the characteristics listed below:
A. It is a bibliographic control system that allows access by a number of access points to the bibliographic data stored in a machine-readable form;
B. Instructional help is provided;
C. It displays search results in a readily understandable form;
D. An interactive information retrieval system;
E. Boolean operators for search refinement are provided;
F. It is an interactive catalogue with the potential to overcome the major limitations of earlier forms of catalogues;
G. The use is no longer boring to the searcher, rather, it is more interesting;
H. The updating of the catalogue can be done in a short span of time;
I. The contents of OPAC are not restricted to the holdings of the particular library rather it can include the holdings of a number of libraries; and
j. OPAC may also provide information on the following:
The holdings of contents of periodicals;
.A variety of databases, including full text files;
.Integration of acquisition and circulation;
.Instructions to use the OPAC; and BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
.Information about the library and community events
A digital catalogue has been formatted for several digital platforms. This includes smartphones, iPads, tablets and anything else on the web – such as blogs.
It’s usually available as downloadable content.
It’s Typically Fresher Content
Attention spans are decreasing and people want a constant stream of content delivered to them instantly. This means content has to compete to be the freshest and on-trend.
Digital catalogues are usually more current in terms of culture, while they can also be edited when references become irrelevant, even after it’s published.
Digital Catalogues Are Highly Accessible
Gone are the days of lugging around a heavy catalogue and worrying about spilling anything down its glossy cover.
Your customers can now access your catalogue on any device that they want and read it wherever they are – as long as they have internet access.
Q 5. What is postulational approach? Discuss the canons for arrays giving examples.
ANS: Postulational approach means going about the work of classification making by a pre mediated theory in the form of Laws, Canons, Principles and Postulates.
When Ranganathan designed his Colon Classification between (1924, 1928-1933), ironically he did it without any formulated theory.
Indeed he had learnt some canons of classification in the classification classes of his most revered teacher W.C.B Sayers.BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
After the publication of his CC in 1933 Ranganathan started thinking about the theory behind it that lay in his unconscious mind while designing the CC.
That theory was so comprehensive and objective that it became theory of classification in general.
He formulated objective even mechanical methods to design a classification system.
Apart from the Five (Normative) Laws, he formulated 55 Canons, 22 Principles, 13 Postulates and 10 Devices for synthesis of class numbers and for evaluation of classification systems.
For this he divided the whole work into three planes of work, namely, Idea, Verbal plane and Notational plane. He neatly divided the work to be carried out in each plane.
Ranganthan thus liberated classification design from the elusive flair and intuition, and raised it to the status of a science.
CANONS FOR ARRAYS BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
An array is a long line of entities of equal rank arranged in some systematic order.
For example, all the children of a father make an array. In the same vein, all the continents of earth make an array.
States of India make an the array, and further all the district towns of a state make another array.
Ranganathan has prescribed the following Canons for their formation:
Canon of Exhaustiveness
Canon of Exclusiveness
Canon of Helpful Sequence
Canon of Consistent Sequence
Q 6. What is ontology? Discuss its different types
ANS: Ontology is the branch of philosophy that studies concepts such as existence, being, becoming, and reality.
It includes the questions of how entities are grouped into basic categories and which of these entities exist on the most fundamental level.
Ontology is sometimes referred to as the science of being and belongs to the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics.
Generic Ontologies : BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Generic ontologies cover large spectrum of knowledge domains. They defines concepts at very broad level.
Generic ontology represents broad concepts and their relationships. These ontologies are easy to reuse.
Generic ontologies represent class of libraries which can be used with different problem domains and environment.
These ontologies are like an umbrella ontology which can be further used for more specific purpose in conjunction with more specific ontology.
These ontologies provide a mechanism for interoperability among different related ontologies.
Core Ontologies : BLI 223 Solved Free Assignment 2022
With regard to ontological content there are two schools of thoughts. One claims that content depends highly on the context and hence any ontology prepared can work and only work with the same content or concept.
However, the other school suggests that there are ontologies that follow minimal standard vocabulary.
The vocabulary used is from philosophy or cognitive science. Hence, the used vocabulary is domain independent or in other words it is only
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