INFORMATION SOURCES AND SERVICES
BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment Jan 2022
1) Discuss in detail non-documentary sources of information with suitable examples.
ANS: Sources of information or evidence are often categorized as primary, secondary, or tertiary material.
These classifications are based on the originality of the material and the proximity of the source or origin.
This informs the reader as to whether the author is reporting information that is first hand or is conveying the experiences and opinions of others which is considered second hand.
Determining if a source is primary, secondary or tertiary can be tricky.
The information sources that offer useful information that documentary sources are unable to provide are referred to as non-documentary sources.
These are an integral part of subjects like science and technology.
The information sources that are life and provide instant information and are considered very important in the communication process are known as non-documentary sources.
An important advantage of this information source is that it is effortless to handle. This type of source also has limitations.
It proves costly in case of the high distance between people, and there is a need for sophisticated techniques like telephonic devices, computers, the internet, etc. These are further divided into BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Formal sources :
The formal sources are types of non-documentary sources that include
. Government Department
. Research Organizations
. Informal sources
. The informal sources are types of non-documentary sources that include
. Conversation with colleagues
. Professional meetings
Informal information sources are live sources that are easily and conveniently available at the right time.
The information sources that are life and provide instant information and are considered very important in the communication process are known as non-documentary sources.
An important advantage of this information source is that it is effortless to handle. This type of source also has limitations.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
information sources are often classified as physical (print, analog) versus online (electronic, digital,) text versus audio-video and book versus journal.
Here are some common information source types with descriptions of how current their information usually is, what kind of information is contained in them, and where to find them.
Journal Articles :
Currency: Current within a few months to a few years of publication. Look at the list of references used.
What is the most recent date you can find? That should tell you when they stopped researching and started writing.
But bear in mind that experimental/observational data they gathered may be a year or two older than that.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Type of Information: Most recent research within the subject of the journal.
Scholarly journal articles are important in all academic subject areas, but especially in the sciences, where most researchers do not write books.
Where to Find: Print journals are delivered to subscribers and libraries. Some journals are Open Access and make all their content online for free.
Some journals allow authors to keep a copy of their articles online in a repository and you can usually find these through Google Scholar.
Libraries subscribe to article databases. Those subscriptions make millions of articles available to users at those institutions.
Magazine Articles : BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Currency: News magazine articles should be current within a few days to a few months of publication.
But many magazine articles are based on scholarly articles, so their information is not as new.
Type of Information: Current events and editorials (news magazines). Non-scholarly articles about topics of interest within the subject of the magazine.
Where to Find: Print magazines are delivered to homes and libraries. Some magazines have an online presence, but access to older articles may require a subscription.
Some library databases have full-text articles from magazines.
Newspaper Articles :
Currency: Current within a few minutes to a day of publication. Corrections made after the fact can change content later.
Type of Information: Current events and editorials. Where to Find: Print newspapers are delivered to homes and libraries.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Many newspapers have an online presence but access to older articles may require a subscription. Libraries can subscribe to newspaper databases.
Monographs (a.k.a. Scholarly Books) BLI 222 Free Solved Assignment
Currency: Information may be two or three years old. Just like with journals, look for the most recent date in the bibliography, and that should tell you around when the author(s) were researching and writing.
Bear in mind that experimental/observational data the author(s) gathered may be a year or two older than that.
Type of Information: Scholarly research on a topic. Not as recent as a journal article, but may address a whole subject rather than just a piece of it. Monographs are very important in the humanities.
Where to Find: Monographs are primarily available through academic libraries. Some are in print, some are e-books.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
These e-books are not available to consumers, but are generally meant to be read via a web browser or downloaded as a PDF.
Nonfiction Books :
Currency: Varies widely. Books on hot topics may be published within a few weeks but, as a result, they may contain errors.
Other books take two or more years to get to print, and the research may be even older.
Type of Information: Non-scholarly information and opinion. Where to Find: Nonfiction books are found in bookstores and mainly public libraries.
e-book versions may be available for consumers via Kindle, Nook, iPad, etc.
Nonfiction books on academically relevant topics that are of reasonably high quality are also collected by academic libraries.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Some of them may be available through academic libraries in formats that are read in web browsers or downloaded as PDF.
Reference Resources :
Currency: Print reference resources often have annual updates, so the information in them should be only about a year old. Online reference resources may be updated continuously.
Many statistical resources have older data because it takes a long time to organize it all.
Historical resources summarize and synthesize established knowledge, rather than keeping up with the newest findings.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The important thing is that reference resources usually tell you how old their information is.
Type of Information: Summary and synthesis of what is known about a topic.
Materials to be referred to; for example, facts and figures, dates, names, measurements, statistics, quotations, instructions, equations, formulae, definitions, explanations, charts, graphs, diagrams, maps
Where to Find: Traditionally, reference resources are available as books or series of books. They can be purchased by consumers but are often far too expensive.
They can be found in the reference sections of public and academic libraries. Not all print reference sources are books; for example, there are also maps.
More and more reference resources are available in online format, and as they go online, they become less and less linear, taking advantage of the ability to link and include multimedia Online reference resources are available through specialized library databases, and there are also many of them on the web.
Some are free and some require an individual subscription.
Textbooks : BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Currency: Varies widely. Some textbook editors publish a new edition every year, and their information should be current within a year or two of the edition’s publication date.
Other textbooks in less time-sensitive disciplines may contain information that is more historical in nature.
Type of Information: Information on a topic arranged in such a way that a beginner can acquire knowledge about that topic systematically.
Textbooks are meant to be used as part of taking a course, but are usually written so that they are complete and understandable on their own.
Textbooks may have supplemental materials like questions to guide your reading or self-quizzes as well as accompanying multimedia material. Some e-textbooks come with fully integrated multimedia.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Where to Find: In libraries that have a physical location and physical collection, some textbooks may be in the stacks or held on reserve for short-term loan.
Most textbook publishers do not make textbooks available as e-books for libraries.
Instead, textbooks, whether print or e-book, must be purchased by the individual student. Some textbooks may also be rented for the duration of the course.
Gray Literature : BLI 222 Free Solved Assignment
Gray literature is a huge category that encompasses a wide variety of documents that have not been published in the traditional sense. Gray literature includes:
. Unpublished conference papers
. Unpublished theses and dissertations
. Working papers
. Notes and logs kept by researchers
. Academic courseware, professors’ teaching notes, students’ lecture notes
. Company annual reports
. Project and study reports
. Institutional reports
. Technical reports
. Reports put out by government agencies
. Data and statistics
. Unpublished letters and manuscripts
. Patents, technical standards
. Newsletters, product catalogs, and certain other types of ephemera with a strong informational value
. Preprints of articles BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
And much more! Certain kinds of gray literature can be found in databases. Others are best found by searching the web.
Sometimes it is difficult to ascertain the author or organization responsible for the information, which can make gray literature may be difficult to cite.
Q 2) Discuss the Categorisation of information sources as given by Subramanyam.
ANS: While categorising, Grogan, Boon and Smith, and Giljarevskij considered mostly macro documents (books, journals, etc.).
Subramanyam has also included micro documents (journal articles, preprints, etc.). His categorisation, more exhaustive than others is presented below:
Primary Sources :
• Laboratory Note Books
• Letters to the editor or short communications in primary journals
• Medical Records
• Preliminary Communications in”letters” journals
• Personal Correspondence
• Preprints and Reprints of Conference Papers
• Videotapes of experiments and surgical operations
• Conference Proceedings
• Graphs, charts, and tables usually machine-generated during experiments.
• Technical Reports
• Theses and Dissertations BLI 222 Free Solved Assignment
• Journal Articles, Preprints, Reprints
• Transcripts and audio or videotapes of lectures and discussions
• House Organs
In Subramanyam’s categorisation the coverage is wide and it includes quite a few micro documents such as medical records, videotapes and audiotapes. However, journals and a few other items seem to be missing.
Instead of listing journals as such, he has listed the contents of the journal such as journal articles, preliminary communications in ‘letters’ journals, letters to the editor in primary journals, as well as preprints, reprints, newsletters and house organs which sufficiently take care of journals. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Anthologies (including festschriften), research monographs, official publications, information leaflets, personal files, data files, etc. are absent.
As this categorisation is based on scientific and technical literature only, newspapers, information cards, etc. are excluded
Secondary Sources :
• Current Awareness Services
• Encyclopaedias BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
- The coverage of items is extensive. It may be observed here that instead of abstracting periodicals, the author has listed abstracts’.
An abstracting periodical is nothing but a collection of abstracts arranged systematically. Express information service is, of course, missing as it is more or less unknown outside Russia.
In addition, lists of research in progress, manuals, formularies, treatises, translations, etc. are also missing. Library catalogues have been listed under the secondary sources.
“Guides to reference sources’ have not been listed separately possibly with the consideration that these guides form part of ‘guides to literature’.
There is slight difference between the ‘guides to literature’ and ‘guides to reference sources’.
In ‘guides to literature one may find the listing of primary sources along with secondary sources.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
On the other hand ‘guides to reference sources are unlikely to cover primary sources. Tertiary Sources
• Bibliography of Bibliographies. Directory of Directories. Guides to Literature
Q 3) Explain the importance of institutions as sources of information. Describe different types of institutions.
ANS: The various ministries of the government are authentic sources of primary data and information. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The executive, legislature, judiciary, states, union territories and districts of the Indian government have a structured mechanism for carrying out its many activities and disseminating much-needed information through its various institutions and organizations.
There are many international agencies that are involved in developmental programmes and have presence across the globe, especially in the developing countries.
The United Nations (UN) with its several programmes, research and training institutes, other UN entities such as the United Nations University and many subsidiary bodies and commissions.
There are several research and development (R&D) organisations in the country under the aegis of many government departments such as the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Department of Biotechnology (DBT),
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
There are also many private R&D organisations.
Many of the laboratories of these umbrella organisations are not only well known but have been recognised as important sources of information in specific areas.
In the case of CSIR, many of the laboratories’ libraries and information centres function as national information centres.
Schools, universities, colleges and other specialised academic institutions not only impart knowledge but also play an important role in moulding the lives of youngsters for their future careers and also being a part of a good citizenry.
Academic institutions, particularly the higher education institutions such as universities are sources of various kinds of information.
A learned society is an organisation that exists to promote an academic discipline or group of disciplines. Most learned societies are non-profit organisations.
Their activities typically include holding regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results and publishing or sponsoring academic journals in their discipline.
Some also act as professional bodies, regulating the activities of their members in the public interest or the collective interest of the membership of the society.
Many times, the formation of a society is an important step in the emergence of a new discipline or sub-discipline.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Publishing houses are in the information business by way of publishing a variety of documentary sources, predominantly books and of course others such as maps, atlases and other documents.
Publishing by itself is a process of production and dissemination of literature or information.
Traditionally, publishing referred to printed materials.
However, with the advent of ICT applications, especially the Internet, publishing is being redefined. Press also play an important role in archiving information.
Such archived information is of great value to the information seekers including students, researchers, investigators, film makers, authors, etc.
Broadcasting stations include the radio and television stations that broadcast programmes for entertainment and news.
In the present times, the television, in particular, has become an integral of part of one’s life as a source of entertainment and general awareness.
From modest beginnings, radio and television stations in India have proliferated so much that India is one of the countries that have the highest number of news channels.
Today, many broadcasting stations, including several private ones, air programmes, many of which have enormous information value.
A museum is a building or institution which houses a collection of artifacts.
Museums collect and care for objects of scientific, artistic, or historical importance and make them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities, towns and even the countryside.
Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
Archives, like museums are storehouses of documents that have great historical value.
An archive is a collection of historical records.
Archives consist of records which have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical or evidentiary value.
Archival records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines for which many identical copies exist.
Archives are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organisation, although archival collections can often be found within library buildings as well.
4) While analysing marketing opportunities, discuss the various factors that affect external environment of an organisation?
ANS: The external marketing environment consists of social, demographic, economic, technological, political and legal, and competitive variables.
Marketers generally cannot control the elements of the external environment.
Instead, they must understand how the external environment is changing and the impact of that change on the target market.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Then marketing managers can create a marketing mix to effectively meet the needs of target customers.
Technological Dimensions: Technology is the key to business of every organisation. Technologies offer better-featured products, needs less space but more capital and skills.
The most noticeable developments are in the fields of information communication and networking technologies.BLI 222 Free Solved Assignment
They are used for processing, storage, retrieval and transmission of large volume of information across geographical zones within no time.
New technologies offer new and improved services in a variety of ways, such as:
• Creation of new or improved services.
• More involvement of users/customers in operational tasks by offering self service system.
• Bridging the gap between small and large libraries as IT provides an opportunity to use the resources, services, products from remote locations through resource sharing and networking.
Accessible data bank, which would be helpful in recognising the users’ information needs in a better way. Need recognition helps in strengthening relations with the users.
• Personalised direct mail communication and machine interaction is also possible.
Globalisation has resulted in ease of access to information around the world, round the clock. Many national and international information networks exist for free flow of information.
The globalisation of information has created the quality consciousness among users and has also increased the expectations of the user groups to a great extent.
Technology is dramatically influencing service strategies such as: Modern communication infrastructures make possible service delivery at global level; .
The increasing reliance on IT in offering services not only globalises but also provides opportunities to know the services offered globally, and the changing nature of services due to advancement in technologies, which are radically altering the methods by which library and information centres can globalise their services.
Economic Dimensions: New economic thinking has resulted in numerous changes.
Public sector enterprises involved in health, insurance, banking, telecommunications, public transport, universities and libraries are under threat and the governments of most of the countries now prefer as a matter of social as well as economic policies allows privatisation.
Present day library and information centres are unable to maintain their acquisition and services at previous level with the finances made available by the state agencies, which has been cut down or have remained static for the last many years.
Thus, the main challenges before libraries and information centres managers are to:
• utilise resources properly and efficiently;
• mobilise resources to meet financial needs, and make services and products qualitative and competitive through accountability.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
This has put libraries to market their services and products and charge for value added services, to enter into joint ventures and alliances and to bring operational efficiency and effectiveness, etc
Socio-political Dimensions: The process of democratisation at the grass root level in the form of local bodies at village, block and district level, policies of up-liftment of weaker sections of the society, concept of social justice, total literacy campaign, etc.
are leading to the change in people’s attitude, habits, value and belief.
At the same time, disinvestment policies of the governments affect ownership share of the enterprise and their libraries are to take the initiatives in tune with the organisation they serve.
Such initiatives are needed with regards to goal-setting, developing vision, building cooperation, responding and reacting to the new situations in the new environment.
Many of the library and information centres have taken serious initiatives and have attempted to serve in such an environment.
Many are yet to formulate their response to the changing environment.
They need to think through their vision, goals and objectives, organisational culture, organisational and functional strategies, etc.
Q 1) Explain why there is a lack of unanimity in the categorisation of text books.
ANS: Going through the categorisation by various authors it becomes evident that Ranganathan has categorised documents firstly by the volume of the thought content – macro or micro and secondly by the recording media – paper and non-paper.
Moreover, Ranganathan’s categorisation forms part of his Classified Catalogue Code.
It may be construed that the categorisation is in the context of cataloguing.
Grogan, Bonn and Smith, Giljarevskij, and Subramanyam have categorised documents on the basis of the forms the content of a document takes while passing from the primary to secondary to tertiary stages.BLI 222 Free Solved Assignment
It has been noticed that in the categorisation by aforesaid authors, there is no unanimity in the categorisation of certain sources like textbooks, monographs, manuals, yearbooks, bibliographies, and directories.
It makes it amply clear that criteria for categorisation are not yet fixed firmly, and naming of the sources in certain cases has not been precise.
We shall discuss these items one by one and try to see why they have been placed under different categories.
It has been placed under primary category by Giljarevskij, secondary category by Grogan and Subramanyam, and tertiary category by Bonn and Smith.
If we strictly follow the characteristics of a primary source then a textbook cannot be placed under primary source which is supposed to contain something original.
If the content of a textbook is analysed, then it will be seen that generally a textbook contains facts which were reported before in primary sources and are already known.
As it is based on primary sources, it has to be a secondary source. Of course, there are certain textbooks that contain original ideas too, e.g.
Prolegomena to Library Classification by Ranganathan. Such cases may be treated as exceptions rather than rule.
It may be argued that many references in textbooks pertain to secondary sources like textbooks, dictionaries, encyclopaedias, etc. Hence, textbooks should be placed under tertiary sources. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
For example, in the book Theory of Classification, by Krishan Kumar, Indian Standard Glossary of Classification Terms has been referred to, which is a secondary source. References to textbooks are also quite common.
Take for example, Newton’s laws of motion. They were originally recorded in Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, popularly known as Principia published in 1687.
When textbooks on physics were written after the publication of Principia the authors referred to Principia.
Now authors do not refer to Principia as it is not easily accessible, moreover it is in Latin.
They simply refer to authentic textbooks published recently for writing the law of motion’.
In innumerable cases matters were drawn initially from the original source for writing a textbook. Often, they are drawn from authentic textbooks rather than the original source.
The fact is that the matter contained in the textbooks owe its origin to primary sources with rare exceptions. Hence, it will be wise to place textbooks under secondary sources.
Q 2) What criteria will you adopt to evaluate a dictionary?
ANS: Arrangement – In general, the arrangement of entries in dictionaries is alphabetical, either letter-by-letter or word-by-word. In COD, the arrangement is letter-by-letter. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Word treatment – Here, we take into account, spelling, pronunciation, syllabification, part-ofspeech, inflexion, definition, quotation, synonym and antonym, subject, usage label, phrases, derivatives, etymology, gender, etc.
Spelling – In English language, American and British spellings are prevalent. Dictionaries published in UK and Commonwealth countries use British spelling, and those produced from USA use American spelling.
It is to be noted that British dictionaries include words with American spellings and vice versa.
In many languages of the world a number of spellings have been simplified.
Some dictionaries use only simplified spelling, others use both conservative as well as simplified spelling. Those dictionaries which include both are preferable.
Pronunciation – The pronunciation of certain words in the same language varies from region to region and from country to country.
For example, the word ‘schedule is pronounced in UK as shedyool, and in US as skejool.
The standard dictionaries indicate pronunciation with diacritical marks or phonetic alphabet.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Syllabification – For ensuring correct pronunciation a word is broken into syllables by space/s, hyphen/s or centered periods and stress is indicated by the accent mark or some other marks.
Part of speech – It is indicated by an abbreviation, for example, the alphabets a. n. and v. are used to indicate adjective, noun and verb respectively.
Inflexion – A word usually undergoes change while forming a plural, present participle, past tense or past participle. Irregular inflexions are normally indicated.
For example, the plural of ‘genus’ will be indicated as “pl. genera’ as the inflexion is irregular.
Definition – The definition given in a dictionary should be accurate and easily understandable. Keeping in view the level of users, lexicographers try to define a word.
If a dictionary is for children, the word will be defined with easy words which the children can understand.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Quotations – Quotations are used in a dictionary to make the meaning of a word clear.
Synonyms and antonyms – To express the meaning of a word, many dictionaries use one or more synonyms along with or without the definition.
In some dictionaries the synonyms and antonyms are given at the end of the main entry.
In Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus [Oxford: O.U.P., 2001] synonyms are given at the end of the word entry. BLI 222 Free Solved Assignment
In Random House both synonyms and antonyms are given at the end of the word entry
3) Describe the importance of virtual reference service in present society.
ANS: According to Machine Assisted Reference Section (MARS) of the Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) of the American Library Association, Virtual Reference Service is reference service initiated electronically, often in real-time, when users employ computers or other Internet technology to communicate with reference staff, without being present physically.
Communication channel used frequently in virtual reference are chat, videoconferencing, Voice over IP, co-browsing, e-mail or instant messaging.
Virtual reference service is also referred as digital reference, e-reference, online reference and remote access reference.
While telephonic reference service has long been accepted and practiced in the libraries to respond to remote users’ requests, virtual reference service has been relatively a recent phenomenon. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The increasing availability of the Internet and electronic resources have been the major factors which lead to the implementation of virtual reference service that can be accessed electronically by remote users.
Present day libraries are making available variety of electronic sources like online catalogues, indexes, abstracts, digitised collections, e-journals and full-text databases, through their websites.
The availability of the electronic sources via remote access requires that users should be assisted by the library to use these sources effectively.
There has been a steady decline in the in-house use of library as more number of users are using personal computers with the Internet access from home, workplace or cyber café.
This has prompted librarians to explore alternative approaches for interacting with their users. They have started offering virtual reference service.
The virtual reference service, in general sense, can be defined as delivery of reference service via the Internet to library users who are outside the physical confines of the library.
Current primary modes of delivery for virtual reference service are e-mail, electronic forums and real chat communication.
E-mail reference has been the most heavily used type of virtual reference service.
Here, user sends the library an e-mail reference query, supplying whatever information s/he feels is necessary.
4) Explain how information generators and information compilers act as sources of information.
ANS: Information is generated by researchers, inventors, innovators, discoverers, thinkers, authors, planners, policymakers, decision makers, and judges, to name a few.
All of these people are well-versed in the information they have generated, making them valuable sources of information. Let’s have a look at how they gather data.
A researcher conducts surveys, observes, thinks, hypothesises, prepares and conducts experiments, documents the findings, and draws conclusions.
Occasionally, he conducts surveys, tabulates the data, and analyses the tabulated data. All these give rise to new information.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
After a great deal of hard work, sometimes lasting for a number of years, an inventor develops a new machine, equipment, tool or the like.
S/he discloses her/his invention through a patent, which contains details of the invention.
The inventor continuously strives to enhance the productivity and efficiency of the machine.
The success in her/his attempts, needless to say, gives rise to new information.
An astronomer while scanning the night sky with her/his telescope may encounter a comet not seen before.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The moment s/he informs the media about her/his finding, information generates and the world comes to know about it. A doctor while investigating a new epidemic may chance upon a new virus.
Doubtless it will generate new information. The thinking of philosophers over the ages has given birth to a large number of philosophical systems all over the world.
Philosophers developed their views after a great deal of thinking and made that known to people helping in the generation of new information.
The output of an author’s mind can be seen in a variety of forms like books, articles, paintings, drawings, sculptures, etc.
In many cases an author gleans information from various sources, weaves them together, adds something from her/his own thinking, experimentation or experience and brings out a book or an article.
The new information content of the book may vary widely.
For example, Ranganathan’s Prolegomena to Library Classification harboured a huge amount of new information when it appeared for the first time.
A reputed industrialist planning a new enterprise or a new product, a multinational giant planning to start a joint venture in a developing country, an internationally renowned athlete planning to build a modern stadium, etc.
all these generate information the moment a particular plan is disclosed.
Quite often these type of information figure in mass media – locally, nationally and even internationally. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
5) What are the negative influences of the information generated by mass media?
ANS: The most important aspect of reporting is that the material is gathered from reliable and trustworthy sources, and nothing should be misunderstood.
However, this principle is frequently neglected.
Because the nature of mass media is persuasive, it may go beyond the ethical boundaries within which it is intended to operate and become biassed, manipulative, and propagandist.
It is not commonplace for a political party or a government agency to skew reports in their favour, indicating political dominance.
Biased reporting might occur in order to achieve a favourable outcome.
A journalist or a reporter may bring her/his personal preference on an issue to support a political party.
A particular event or celebrity may receive undue importance and set youths to incorrect practices.
It may present ostentatious lifestyle, which may inculcate wrong ideals amongst youngsters.
Unnecessary sensationalism of an event of daily life may magnify its importance creating fear and panic among the public.
Wrong interpretation of news may even blow up things out of proportion and create unrest or even violence at any time and place and pose a law and order problem.
At times, a particular event or news item may receive too much attention because of the lack of important news to report. This would again present unnecessary and avoidable tension amongst the public.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
As long as the mass media give what people need or want, they remain a potent force in society.
But the moment they, with acquired power and control, give what they think people want, they become manipulative and start working towards influencing minds of people, leading to indoctrination.
This applies to every programme they present, Therefore, if mass media are to become credible instruments of social change,
they have to function with restraints and responsibility in accordance with established regulations, codes, conventions and practices.
6) List the basic information literacy skills necessary for undergraduate and graduate students.
ANS: “Understand that materials in academic libraries are classified by subject (no fiction or biography sections, as in typical high school libraries), and be able to interpret a call number.
• Be able to identify the parts of a bibliographic record.
• Be able to use reference tools such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, almanacs, and statistical sources to achieve a manageable research focus.
• Be able to distill a complicated research question into searchable concepts/ keywords/synonyms. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
• Understand the concept and usefulness of a controlled vocabulary (all online catalogs and many databases & indexes employ controlled vocabularies).
• Understand the difference between subject searching and word searching.
• Understand commands of the online catalog (Boolean, truncation, adjacency, etc).
• Be able to formulate a research strategy, and understand the process through which questions are refined, and redefined in the course of research.
• Understand that both popular and scholarly material exists on most any topic; be able to distinguish between these 2 types of material, and determine when it’s appropriate to use each type and why.
• Be able to distinguish between primary and secondary resources; be able to determine when it’s appropriate to use these 2 types of resource and why.
• Understand the nature of periodical literature, and why and when it’s useful.
• Understand what periodical literature abstracts and indexes do, and why they are useful.
Understand that these resources vary in scope (what subjects are included, how many titles are indexed, etc.), arrangement (classified, subject, etc.), and content (full-text, abstracts, citation only). BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2022
BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment jan 2022