LIBRARY, INFORMATION AND SOCIETY
BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1 State the characteristics of a profession. Discuss the contradicting views of authors justifying LIS as a profession and not as a profession.
ANS: CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROFESSION In a profession, autonomy and self-regulation still hold true or are even desirable in the modem corporate and bureaucratic world.
A profession’s right to exist, along with the power and privileges its members enjoy, rests upon the professions upholding of public values through the development, transmission and application of a body of knowledge.
The creation of this body of knowledge and its concentration in the hands of a few creates a knowledge gap between the professional and client.
That gap gives the profession power. Such power is reinforced by differential access to other resources -technological, physical and organizational.
For example, it is not just medical knowledge but access to medical technology that gives the medical profession its capacity to heal. It is the institutional links to courts that make barristers so effective.
LIS is not a Profession : BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
For a long time, it was debatable whether librarianship should be considered a vocation. One viewpoint is that it is not a profession; rather, it is thought to exist somewhere between a profession and a vocation.
Medical and legal professions are centuries old and have thus been regarded as professions since the dawn of time, but this is not the case with librarianship.
Social scientists have voiced a variety of views on librarianship as a vocation. There are individuals who disagree with library services’ professionalism.
For the following reasons, Lancour (1962) does not consider librarianship to be a profession.
1) It doesn’t have the community sanction.
2) Librarians’ services are not indispensable in the same way as that of doctors. Most of the library employees, both professionals and non-professionals, hide behind the shelves when looked upon for service.
They are not able to serve the society confidently to earn their reputation.
3) They exercise no real authority with the clients. Sills (1968) observed that “the profession of the librarianship has not been included in the long list of the professions, even in the International Encyclopedia of Social Science”
LIS is a Profession :
A librarian is a person who preserves humanity’s cultural and intellectual history and operates as a communication agent from the point of information generation to the point of usage. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
In the chain of information flow, his services are essential.
Many social and information scientists, including Melvil Dewey, Butler, Greenwood, Schaffer, and others, agreed with this viewpoint and attempted to demonstrate that librarianship is a profession since it possesses many of the characteristics of one.
Robert D Leigh wrote that librarians have accepted professional status as a goal on the following factors:
1) “They are identified with knowledge, which is prime service of occupational prestige in our society
2)They are service-oriented rather than self-interested at least in certain senses.
3)Library and information professionals belong to a professional associations (state and national)
4)They are trained in professional schools, associated with universities.
5) They have code of ethics.” Thus, librarianship can be considered as a profession, as it possesses the following basic characteristics of a profession:
• A body of knowledge imparted in LIS schools;
• Intensive training and continued practice to gain mastery over the skills for knowledge organisation and retrieval; BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
• Oriented towards service to the society;
• Associations to bind the professionals;
• Standard terminology and practices; and
• Code of ethics.
Education for librarianship at middle and higher levels is imparted at post-graduate level for two years. Teaching different theoretical aspects and intensive training of skills support the view that it is a profession.
S.R.Ranganathan contributed to the development of library profession in India by developing standard terminology, theoretical principles, LIS education – from certificate to research level, and introducing specialisation and standardised practices.
Library profession in India owes a lot to his contributions. To quote Ranganathan “Librarianship is a noble profession.
A librarian derives his joy by seeing the dawn of joy in the face of the readers who were helped in their search for the right information at the right time.”
Q 2. Describe the activities and services of DELNET.
ANS: DELNET has been established with the prime objective of promoting resource sharing among the libraries through the development of a network of libraries.
It aims to collect, store, and disseminate information besides offering computerised services to users, to coordinate efforts for suitable collection development and also to reduce unnecessary duplication wherever possible. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
Objectives DELNET is fully functional with following objectives:
• “To promote sharing of resources among the libraries by developing a network of libraries, by collecting, storing and disseminating information and by offering computerised services to the users.
• To undertake scientific research in the area of Information Science and Technology, create new systems in the field, apply the results of research and publish them.
• To offer technical guidance to the member-libraries on collecting, storing, sharing and disseminating information.
• To coordinate efforts for suitable collection development and reduce unnecessary duplication wherever possible.
• To establish /facilitate the establishment of referral and /or research centres, and maintain a central online union catalogue of books, serials and nonDbook materials of all the participating libraries.
• To facilitate and promote delivery of documents manually or mechanically
a) Inter Library Loan Online Member libraries can request online for a document using interlibrary loan facility of DELNET through DELNET server and the document is couriered to the requesting library.
The member library needs to pay an annual subscription for this service.
b) Reference Service DELNET has a referral centre that provides reference service to participating libraries.BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
Training Programmes :
DELNET organises monthly training program with NIC on topics like Web page design, Internet search strategies and other resources, etc.
It also conducts courses on Machine Readable Cataloguing and bibliographic standards like MARC21. Conferences, Lectures and Workshops: National Convention on Library and Information Networking (NACLIN) in an annual conference by DELNET which is organised at different parts of country.
Besides DELNET regularly organises workshops lectures in different parts of country and abroad. Newsletter DELNET publishes newsletter called ‘DELNET Newsletter’ in communicate the activity of DELNET to professionals.
Research DELNET has actively played an important role in imparting knowledge of international standards applying them in libraries particularly Marc 21.
Recently it has been advocating the open source softwares and teaching their use by conducting training programmes in KOHA and D- Space.
Q 3 Describe the role of UGC in the development of libraries and information services.
ANS: University Grants Commission (UGC) is a national body for the coordination, determination, and maintenance of the standards of University Education in India.
It initiated a programme called the UGC-Infonet E-Journals Consortium to provide online access to electronic journals and databases in all disciplines to the universities in India.
The programme aimed at increasing accessibility of electronic resources to the universities. INFLIBNET is the coordinating and monitoring agency in the UGC – Infonet Project.
INFLIBNET is also responsible for providing training to university library professionals in the use of this network for providing variety of services to the users.
The project aimed to provide e-resources and state-of the-art technology for providing access to these resources. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
The part responsible for providing connectivity for the e-resources has been closed with effect from 31st March 2012.
Training manpower is one of the most critical resources for successful implementation of hightech programmes like UGC-Infonet.
INFLIBNET/ ERNET is giving training to network managers and library professionals for managing the WAN connectivity, network security, Mail Server, Web Server configuration and e-journal access management at their premises.
More than 108 network managers from around 99 universities have been trained at ERNET India, New Delhi.
Around 63 Library professionals from more than 63 universities have been trained at ERNET India, New Delhi. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
Above 63 Library professionals from 63 universities have been trained for e-resources management at INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad. : lNFLIBNET is a national body which is promoting library automation of Indian University Libraries.
lNFLIBNET is providing leased line for university libraries to access Internet for communication among scholars, students and researchers.
With this network backbone it is connecting the libraries and information centres in universities, deemed to be universities, colleges, UGC information centres, institutions of national importance and R&D institutions, etc. Same line is used by Indian universities to access online e-joumals subscribed by UGC under UGCINFONET scheme.
lNFLIBNET has become the hub for UGC-lNFONET program.
The salient features oft he UGC-lnfonet are:
• Scaleable Architecture to grow from Universities to affiliated Colleges;
• Nation-wide Terrestrial Backbone using Fiber Optic links;
• Integrated Satellite WAN supporting broadband and SCPC VSAT technology;
• Comprehensive Network Management Systems for overall monitoring of the network, down to each and every device;
• Linkage with other Academic and Research Networks all over the world;
• Data security and virus protection using firewalls and Intrusion Detection Systems;
• Dedicated Data Center for Web hosting, e-Joumals and Mail Boxes;
• Mirror sites spread all over the country for content hosting;
• Broadband Multimedia and Video Channels for Distance Learning.
Q 4 Discuss the role of UNESCO in promoting library and information activities in India
ANS: Role ofU NESCO in promoting library and information activities in India: The basic concept of the public library system has been envisaged by UNESCO – that is, libraries should be considered a legitimate matter of concern to national governments.
With this idea weapon in hand, UNESCO is spreading its activities worldwide.
The UNESCO’s School Library Manifesto adopted in 1999, aims to define and advance the role of school libraries and resource centres in enabling students to acquire the learning tools and learning content that allow them to develop their full capacities; to continue to learn throughout their lives; and to make informed decisions.
The following are essential to the development of literacy, information literacy, teaching, learning and culture and are core school library services:
• supporting and enhancing educational goals as outlined in the school’s mission and curriculum; 84 Library and Information Profession and Related Agencies
• developing and sustaining in children the habit and enjoyment ofreading and learning,
• offering opportunities for experiences in creating and using information for knowledge, understanding, imagination and enjoyment; supporting all students in learning and practising skills for evaluating and using information, regardless of form, format or medium, including sensitivity to the modes of communication within the community;
• providing access to local, regional, national and global resources and opportunities that expose learners to diverse ideas, experiences and opinions;
• organising activities that encourage cultural and social awareness and sensitivity;
• working with students, teachers, administrators and parents to achieve the mission of the school; proclaiming the concept that intellechrnl freedom and access to information are essential to effective and responsible citizenship and participation in a democracy;
• promoting reading and the resources and services of the school library to the whole school community and beyond. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
Q 1 Discuss in brief the role of RRRLF in modernisation of libraries.
ANS: RRRLF stands for “Raja Ram Mohan Roy Library Foundation”. It played a very crucial role in the modernization of government libraries in the North eastern states.
The following points justify this statement: It placed forward a complete proposal to the Ministry of culture.
Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF) was established in May, 1972 by the Department of Culture, Government of India to spread library services all over the country in cooperation with state governments, union territory administrations and organisation working in the field. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
It is a central autonomous organisation established and financed by the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
It is the nodal agency of the Government of India to support public library services and systems and promote public library movement in the country.
The supreme policy-making body of RRRLF is called the Foundation. It consists of members nominated by the Government of India from amongst eminent educationists, librarians, administrators and senior officials.
The Foundation has 22 members. The Minister of the Department of Culture, Government of India or his nominee is the Chairman of RRRLF.
The foundation works in close association and active cooperation with different state governments and union territory administrations through a machinery called State Library Planning Committee (SLPC/SLC) set up in each state at the instance of the foundation.
A state government/UT. is required to contribute a certain amount fixed by the foundation to participate in its programmes, The headquarters of RRRLF are located at Kolkata with four zonal offices located at Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi and Chennai.
Objectives RRRLF functions as a promotional agency, an advisory and consultancy organisation and a funding body for public library developement in India.
Some of its significant objectives are to:
• “promote library movement in the country; BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
• enunciate a national library policy and to help build up a national library system;
• provide financial and technical assistance to libraries;
• provide financial assistance to organisations, regional or national engaged in the promotion of library development.
2.What is resource sharing? Discuss its need.
ANS: Resource sharing is an area optimization in which HDL Coder™ identifies multiple functionally equivalent resources and replaces them with a single resource.
The data is time multiplexed over the shared resource to perform the same operations.
“A term used to describe organized attempt by libraries and Information Centres to share materials and services cooperatively so as to provide one another with resources that might otherwise not be available to an individual institution.
It represents an attempt to expand the availability of specialized, expensive, or just plain not-owned resources beyond the bounds of a single institution.
” Maximise the resource base of libraries The primary objective of resource sharing is to maximise the resource base, i.e., collection, staff, infrastructure, as well as services of the participating libraries.
A library when functioning as part of a resource sharing programme would have at its disposal resources of other libraries besides it s own to serve its users.
In other words, the resources ofa ny library would be the resources of every other library.
• Provide democratic and wide access to information We are living in the information age where infonnation is a commodity needed by one and all.
We are highly dependent on information. It is required for learning, teaching, research, entertainment and decision making at different levels.
In view of this scenario, one should not be deprived of information. Libraries have different document collections to satisfy the information needs of their users.
They are strong in some areas and poor in others. Thus, they lack resources to excel in all areas. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
If libraries share with each other, they can overcome this limitation of poor document collection. And make available comprehensive information to their users.
• Core collection Resource sharing results in a rational acquisition of documents. A library should only acquire those documents that are core to the area of its organisation.
It can satisfy minor or auxiliary needs of its users from other libraries with which it shares its resources. Similarly it can satisfy the minor needs ofo ther libraries.
• Save resources Libraries share their resources to save and use them optimally. Cooperative acquisition enables them to save on money spent on documents.
Cooperative cataloguing and classification enables them to save on staff salaries, efforts, and time spent on technical processmg BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
Q 3. Explain the role of libraries in facilitating and supporting learning.
ANS: Libraries are synonymous with education and offer countless learning opportunities that can fuel economic, social and cultural development.
The inspiring story of William Karnkwamba from Malawi underlines the difference a library can make. Having borrowed a book about windmills from his local library, Mr. Karnkwamba learned how to build an energy-producing turbine for his village.
On the strength of this experience he went on to study at a leading US university. That one book not only changed his life; it also transformed the lives of those in his village community.
Such stories explain why many countries are eager to ensure that libraries continue to provide access to knowledge, learning and ideas.
In addition to lending books, libraries are also involved in copying materials for research or private study purposes. Students cannot afford to buy every book, or pay for every television broadcast or journal they need to access for their studies.
They therefore rely on the services of a library. The exceptions and limitations that are an integral part of many national copyright systems play a critically important role in enabling libraries to deliver such services. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
For example, they allow libraries to make copies on behalf of students and others for research or study purposes, of works that might not otherwise be directly accessible to them.
Libraries also make interlibrary loans possible, providing local access to materials that normally reside in a library hundreds, or even thousands, of miles away.
Just five years ago, applying the concept of interlibrary loans to digital works was problematic.
However, with the widespread availability of electronic platforms that effortlessly control access to content, such as iTunes and Kindle, and the expansion of electronic interlibrary loans by some research libraries – although there is still some way to go in discussion with publishers – this is no longer the insurmountable problem it may have appeared to be a few years ago. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
Q 4 Discuss the issues and problems in designing a code of ethics for librarians.
ANS: According to R.L. Mittal ethics of librarianship denotes the conduct and behaviour of those who adopt the profession.
A library professional owes certain obligations to the library’s public and its books; and to the profession in general.
The Five Laws of Library Science are the basic principles for librarians in India to render their duties with morals. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
R.L. Mittal has suggested the ethical principles to be followed by LIS professionals as under Duty to the Readers Duty to the Books Duty to the Profession Duties to the Staff Duty to Himself.
The ‘Seven Lamps of Conduct’ that are ‘musts’ for library professionals are:
1) Impersonal book selection
2) Service before self
4) Sympathetic behaviour
7) Scholarship The contemporary information environment is influenced by information communication technologies.
Now we have electronic collections, network based and intenret based access to global information and provision of net based services round the clock (24×7).
Apart from the difficulties in designing an acceptable ethical code for professionals, there are also many other issues and problems which emerge with professional ethics.
Some of these are:
1) Image of the library and information profession in society;
2) More than one professional body; BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
3) Authority in implementation with provisions for disciplinary action in case of violation of the ethical principles enunciated by ethical codes;
4) Expanding dimensions of the profession;
5) Consequent undefined state of the profession;
6) Quality of professional work;
7) Immigration of specialists from other disciplines and professions.
Today’s insistence on quality assurance has been a major concern of those involved in every human activity.
Consumers’ societies have been asserting their right to have quality in whatever they buy and seek legal protection in consumer courts to ensure quality.
Library and information products and services also have to face this problem sooner or later as pricing for library and infonnation services is on the anvil.
Library and information activities are attracting persons with different educational and professional backgrounds and qualifications: Persons with different professional experience are migrating to the library and information fields with varied conviction, faith, world views, – and political influences.
All these are affecting professional conduct and behaviour.
In the final analysis, it is important to note that it is only personal conviction, involvement, commitment and faith in library and information service that would largely, determine professional behaviour and conduct BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
Q 5 Explain the functions and activities of an information broker.
ANS: An information broker (IB), also known as a data broker, is an individual or company that specializes in collecting personal data or data about companies, mostly from public records but sometimes sourced privately, and selling or licensing such information to third parties for a variety of uses.
Sources, usually Internet-based since the 1990s, may include census and electoral roll records, social networking sites, court reports and purchase histories.
There are varying regulations around the world limiting the collection of information on individuals; privacy laws vary, and the United States has little protection for the consumer.
The information broker is an individual or a firm, who, on-demand seeks to answer questions using all available sources and who is in business for profit.
Broking rests on the axial principle: information for payment. In case of libraries information is provided but costs are not charged to the user.
One must understand the important distinction between information which is freely available and information which is free. The services offered by brokers comprise:
• Briefing or instant education; BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
• Information repackaging;
• Market research / analysis;
• Personnel recruitment;
• Press cutting service; and
• Seminars / workshops
Information brokers specialise in providing fast and efficient services. These firms largely staffed by the people with library backgrounds provide literature searches, retrieve and supply documents.
These firms may not pose any threat to libraries.
In fact, they supplement them by filling needs and demands that publicly supported libraries cannot try to meet by providing special and expensive services to business, professionals and other users who can afford them The impact of non-traditional institutions such as information broker, etc. and new emerging concepts like information filters, human networks, knowledge mediators, technological gatekeeper on information flow among researchers and dissemination to user community has been explained in simple language.
Q 6. Discuss in brief the objectives and services of CALIBNET
ANS: Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) was established in 1986 with the financial help from NISSAT. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
The main objective of CALIBNET i to provide access of information to the library and information centers in eastern region The CALIBNET was envisaged as a metropolitan network in 1993, linking 38 libraries in Calcutta with financial support from NISSAT .
The prime objective was to institute systematic interlibrary co-operation and document delivery among the networked libraries for effective resource sharing.
The applications to be supported are electronic mail, file transfer, remote logging to databases and document access.
The participating libraries computerised their inhouse functions such as cataloging, serials control, acquisition and fund accounting, circulation and user services.
These have been interconnected through X.25 protocol. The Network Services Centre provides global information services for all the users of the participating libraries.
The services include current awareness, union catalogues, database, access to national and international networks. CALIBNET provides libraries and their members an efficient solution for their information needs. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
The project was supported by NISSAT in 1986 and managed by the CALIBNET Society established under the West Bengal Government’s Societies Registration Act 1961.
The centre is stationed at Jadavpur University Campus, Kolkata Objectives CALIBNET is established to pursue the problems of eastern region of country, mainly West Bengal.
The primary objective of the organisation is creating and facilitating access to available library and information resources in West Bengal. The main objective is supported by other objectives like given below:
• Facilitating remote online access to the holding data of Calcutta libraries and other specialised databases; and
• Providing electronic access to globally available information, imbibing its information centre approach.
Services Software Development By intense in-house research and development two software have been developed for supporting library activities.
i) Sanjukta: This in-house software has been developed for storage and retrieval which is used in Centralised Database of CALIBNET for providing online access from remote locations.
The software provides options and flexibility for record generation, organising and searching information. BLI 221 Free Solved Assignment
ii) Parapar: Parapar has been developed to support interchange of bibliographic data between different bibliographic standards like, USMARC, UNIMARC and CCF.
It converts other format data to ISOD2709 format which can be imported into the centralised Database of CALIBNET