HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENT
BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1. Elucidate environmental history of medieval era in India. How do you see man environment-relationship and interaction during this age?
ANS: Policy and Laws in Ancient India (500 BC-1638 AD) Environmental awareness can be said to have existed even in the prevedic Indian valley Civilization which flourished in northern India about 5,000 years ago.
This is evident from the archaeological evidence gathered from Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro which were the prominent cities of the civilization.
Their awareness about hygiene and sanitation as evident from their constructions of ventilated houses, orderly streets, numerous wells, bath rooms, public baths and covered underground drains.
Protection and cleaning up of environment was the essence of Vedic (1500-500 BC) culture. Charak Samhita (medical Science book of 900 BC – 600 BC) give many instructions for the use of water for maintaining its purity.
Under the Arthashastra (an ancient book on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy), various punishments were prescribed for cutting trees, damaging forests, and for killing animals and environmental ethics of nature conservation were not only applicable to common man but the rulers and kings were also bound by them.
Policy and Laws in Medieval India (1638-1800 AD) To Mughal rulers, forest meant no more than woodlands where they could hunt.
The history of medieval India is dominated by Muslim Rulers where no note worthy development of environmental jurisprudence took place except during the rule of Mughal Emperor Akbar. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
During Akbar’s rule except rulers others are prohibited from hunting or shikar.
But no major initiatives took place during medieval period to prevent environmental protection and conservation of natural resources as the rulers were only interested in war, religion propagation and empire building.
Barring “royal trees” which enjoyed patronage from being cut except upon a fee, there was no restriction on cutting of other trees, hunting animals, etc.
Forests during this period shrank steadily in size. Various literary texts caution us against environmental degradation and for ensuring effective sustainability.
The Mahabharata states that although it takes a few, to deteriorate the environment and cause pollution, it warns the society at large that it may cause various diseases.
Chanakya’s reference to vikriti (pollution), warns people regarding the side effects of impurity in air and polluted water. Similarly in the Quran, reference is made regarding the environment which says-“Do not make mischief on the earth”.
Christians baptize a newborn child in the water, which denotes ‘purification from original sins’. In Buddhism, Gautam Buddha was fond of trees and stated that trees provide shade and shelter. He preached in Vanaropa Sutra in Sanyukta Nikaya,
MAN AND ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIP IN MEDIEVAL INDIA:
Plague devastates Europe in the 1300s but leads to the beginnings of a public health system. Water pollution tends to be less of a problem for dispersed populations than it would later become. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Tree cutting in the forests of England, France, Germany leaves large tracts totally denuded by around 1550 in England and the 16oos in Europe, forcing a switch to coal.
Soil conservation was not widely practiced in the Mediterranian region, but cultures in China, India and Peru understood the long term impact of soil erosion and used terracing, crop rotation and natural fertilizer to prevent it. 1079 – English King William (the Conqueror) establishes the New Forest as a hunting preserve.
According to the official visitor’s site, “The ancient system … to protect and manage the woodlands and wilderness heaths is still in place today through the efforts of Verderers, Agisters and Commoners – literally the judges, stockmen and land users of the forest.
1150 – Sri Lankan King Nissanka Malla carved into a stone a decree stating that, “It is ordered, by beat of the drum, that no animals should be killed within a radius of seven gau from the city” of Anuradhapura, his capitol.
The decree combined consideration for animal welfare with concerns about public health and sanitation, and about the emotional effect on children of witnessing slaughter.
One not very satisfying idea about this is that Jews, with greater understanding of elementary hygiene, may have had a lower infection rate, which in turn might have seemed suspicious,
People had no explanation for the Black Death other than rumor, superstition and vague theories about miasmas and air pollution. (Ziegler, Markham).
Plague was brought to Europe from Constantinople by returning crusaders, and the flea-infested black rats who stowed away on their vessels,
it attacked most virulently after terrified cities blamed it on “witchcraft” and purged from their midst both the majority of people who had medicinal skill (mostly older women) and their “familiars,” mostly the cats who had provided rat control.
Q 2. Explain how Indian ecology, forests and forestry, and wildlife were adversely affected under East India Company Raj during early modern period of Indian history.
ANS: India is a unique sub-continent with vast variations in geographic area, topography and climate. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
It has a great diversity of ecosystems from the cold and high Himalayan ranges to the seacoasts, from the wet northeastern green rainforests to the dry northwestern arid deserts.
Different types of forests, wetlands, islands, estuaries, oceans, and plains endow the country combined with a rich blend of diversified natural settings.
Natural and biological resources in the country being abundant, the kind of exploitation they had to undergo through the ages has also been awful, leading to the large-scale degradation of the environment in multifarious ways.
Since time immemorial, the efforts of the people to conserve and utilize the natural resources in a sustainable manner have been quite exemplary.
Many customary and community norms were evolved by the society to protect the environment. With changing times and scenario, these undocumented traditional doctrines took a back seat, paving the way to codified laws in India.
Industrial development, increased population, urbanization, pollution, deforestation, mismanagement of water resources, etc., have resulted in a distraught state of India’s pristine environment.BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
It now becomes imminent for us to look into the evolution of environmental legislation in India during three epochs; environmental conservation during ancient and medieval periods; environmental regulation during British rule; and protection and improvement of environment in independent India.
The advent of British rule significantly changed the nature of environmental governance in India.
The early days of the British rule marked large-scale plundering of natural resources from India. The forest resources were the major casualties (17. However, the British regime resorted to a legalized exploitation in due course.
The exploitation of forest resources in a legitimate manner was included in the first forest law, the Indian Forest Act, 1865, passed by the Supreme Council in England. Subsequently, it was amended in 1878.
The provisions of this Act established a virtual state monopoly over the forest in a legal sense on one hand and attempted to establish, on the other, the customary use of forest by the villagers as not a right, but a privilege that could be withdrawn at will.
The principles of eminent domain’ and ‘public purpose’ were used to validate the acquisition of forestland by the government.BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
In 1884, a Forest Policy was formulated by the British Government with the objectives of promoting the general well being of the people and, preserving climate and physical conditions of the country.
The Indian Forest Act, 1927 was enacted to implement this Forest Policy.
The 1927 Act was passed with an objective to consolidate the existing laws relating to forests, the transit of forest produce, and the duty leviable on timber. This Act also established reserved forests, protected forests, and village forests.
Another aspect of the British Rule is that, it marked the establishment of industries in coastal and other parts of the country.
Through this process many enactments were made by them to deal with water, air, and land pollution. The then prevailing common law system viewed the environmental problems as public nuisance.
The Shore Nuisance (Bombay and Colaba) Act 1853, was one of the earliest laws made by the British Regime to counter water pollution caused by industries.
The Oriental Gas Company Act, 1857 contained provisions to regulate pollution caused by the Oriental Gas Company.
It recognized the compensation to the persons whose water was affected by the company’s discharges.
The North India Canal and Drainage Act, 1873 was another legislation which contained provisions prohibiting any interference with or alteration in the flow of water in any river or stream so as to endanger, damage, or render less useful any canal or drainage.
The Indian Easements Act, 1882, the Indian Fisheries Act, 1897, the Bombay Smoke Nuisance Act, 1912, and the Bengal Smoke Nuisance Act, 1905, was other enactments that dealt with different aspects of environment.
The Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860 in Chapter 14 (Sections 268 to 291) contains provisions relating to public nuisance, public health, safety, and convenience.
The Criminal Procedure Code (Sections 133 to 144) also deals with abatement of public nuisance. On wildlife conservation, the British regime undertook two significant steps.
They were the Elephants Preservation Act 1879 enacted by the Madras Government and the Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act 1912.
The purpose of British rule in India was not to protect the nature’s wealth and people’s interests in India. Hence, one cannot expect that they would make laws for the betterment of the country and environment. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
It is obvious that the content of their laws furthered their own intention of getting the best out of available resources for their benefit.
However, their initiatives in making laws on every aspect paved the way for establishment of a formalized legal regime in the country and provided a platform for environmental jurisprudence in India.
Q 3. Assess the role of water resources in river-valley civilizations during ancient India and how human activities impacted them?
ANS: Like Indus valley civilization in Vedic age too rivers were important and it thrived in western Gangetic basin. Aryans considered water as a symbol of spiritual purification. There are Vedic hymns addressed to Varuna, god of water.
Rig Veda describes geography of early Vedic period, providing valuable information with respect to five major sources of water e.g. rivers, lakes etc.
It mentions names of about 30 rivers. Indus (Sindhu) is most mentioned river with its tributaries (Shutudri, Vipasa, Purushini, Askini, Vitasa etc.).
Rig Veda makes mention of water-lifting devices such as asmachakra, probably a wheel made of stone used for drawing water from deep wells.
Ghatayantra or Udghatana was another type of water-lifting device in which a drum-shaped wheel attached to a number of ghatas (earthen pots) was used to lift water. Atharvaveda refers to hydromodification and how to make new channels from rivers.
By 5th century BCE we have references to mechanical devices worked by animals such as bullocks. Ashtadhyayi of Panini refers to Yugavaratra i.e. “yoke and rope by which bullocks were driven for raising water”. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Settlements located at confluence of rivers gave boost to economy. Magadha ruler Udayin shifted capital from Rajgriha to another strategic location Pataliputra which was located at confluence of three rivers viz.
Ganga, Son and Punpun while a fourth river Ghaghra joined Ganga near Pataliputra.
Ganga and Son surrounded the capital on north and west and Punpun on south and east. Thus, the capital came to be regarded as jaldurga (water fort).
Rivers also facilitated natural means of irrigation and fertile alluvial soil of the region contributed to agricultural surplus production.
Plateau soils of south Bihar were not as productive as bhangar and khaddar soils of the north rich in silt and sand.
It also resulted into growth of trade and commerce as the use of rivers for transportation was cheap and fast. Thus, rivers became important for commerce and communications.
Since there were not enough roads built, therefore, men and material were moved by boat.
This enabled Magadha rulers to establish commanding communications on all sides.
Further developments were seen in water management system by time of Mauryan empire. Arthashastra of Kautilya mentions techniques for measuring rainfall in different regions.
Crops were sown in these areas depending upon amount of rainfall they received. It also describes water divining, water-lifting devices and several irrigation techniques.
In south India Sangam literature throws light on irrigation technology in Tamilaham and location and construction of tanks, water-lifting devices, sluices and channels.
Early Chola rulers attempted to harness natural sources of water. Karikala Chola, first and most famous early Chola ruler, built Kallanai (the Grand Anicut) dam in order to control overflow of banks of Kaveri river which was major river of Chola kingdom.
The river water was utilized for irrigation purpose. The dam was built with stones. Afterwards, Kalabhras, Pallavas, Pandyas and Cheras and imperial Cholas (in Kaveri basin) too promoted construction of several reservoirs and tanks.
Mahendravarman Pallava I (600-630 CE)built several irrigation tanks e.g. Mahendra tatakam at Mahendravadi. Pallava engineers who were skilled in construction of tanks and dams were known as jala sutradas.
State also encouraged involvement of local people (individually or collectively) in hydraulic works. Thus, human interaction with nature gradually led to human intervention, impacting physical environment.
Q 4. Comment on citizens’ voices and environmental movements in postindependence India against anti-environment capitalist extraction and natural resource degradation.
ANS: An environmental movement can be defined as a social or political movement, for the conservation of the environment or for the improvement of the state of the environment.
The terms ‘green movement’ or ‘conservation movement’ are alternatively used to denote the same. The environmental movements favour the sustainable management of natural resources. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The movements often stress the protection of the environment via changes in public policy. Many movements are centred on ecology, health and human rights.
Environmental movements range from the highly organized and formally institutionalized ones to the radically informal activities.
The spatial scope of various environmental movements ranges from being local to almost global.
- Bishnoi Movement :
Place: Khejarli, Marwar region, Rajasthan state.
Leaders: Amrita Devi along with Bishnoi villagers in Khejarli and surrounding villages.
Aim: Save sacred trees from being cut down by the king’s soldiers for a new palace.
What was it all about: Amrita Devi, a female villager could not bear to witness the destruction of both her faith and the village’s sacred trees.
She hugged the trees and encouraged others to do the same. 363 Bishnoi villagers were killed in this movement.
The Bishnoi tree martyrs were influenced by the teachings of Guru Maharaj Jambaji, who founded the Bishnoi faith in 1485 and set forth principles forbidding harm to trees and animals.
The king who came to know about these events rushed to the village and apologized, ordering the soldiers to cease logging operations.
Soon afterwards, the maharajah designated the Bishnoi state as a protected area, forbidding harm to trees and animals. This legislation still exists today in the region.
- Chipko Movement
Year: 1973 BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Leaders: Sundarlal Bahuguna, Gaura Devi, Sudesha Devi, Bachni Devi, Chandi Prasad Bhatt, Govind Singh Rawat, Dhoom Singh Negi, Shamsher Singh Bisht and Ghanasyam Raturi.
Aim: The main objective was to protect the trees on the Himalayan slopes from the axes of contractors of the forest.
What was it all about: Mr. Bahuguna enlightened the villagers by conveying the importance of trees in the environment which checks the erosion of soil, cause rains and provides pure air.
The women of Advani village of Tehri-Garhwal tied the sacred thread around trunks of trees and they hugged the trees, hence it was called the ‘Chipko Movement’ or ‘hug the tree movement’.
The main demand of the people in these protests was that the benefits of the forests (especially the right to fodder) should go to local people.
The Chipko movement gathered momentum in 1978 when the women faced police firings and other tortures.
The then state Chief Minister, Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna set up a committee to look into the matter, which eventually ruled in favour of the villagers.
This became a turning point in the history of eco-development struggles in the region and around the world.
- Save Silent Valley Movement
Year: 1978 BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Leaders: The Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad (KSSP) an NGO, and the poet-activist Sughathakumari played an important role in the Silent Valley protests.
Aim: In order to protect the Silent Valley, the moist evergreen forest from being destroyed by a hydroelectric project.
What was it all about: The Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB) proposed a hydroelectric dam across the Kunthipuzha River that runs through Silent Valley.
In February 1973, the Planning Commission approved the project at a cost of about Rs 25 crores.
Many feared that the project would submerge 8,3 sq km of untouched moist evergreen forest. Several NGOs strongly opposed the project and urged the government to abandon it.
In January 1981, bowing to unrelenting public pressure, Indira Gandhi declared that Silent Valley will be protected. In June 1983 the Center re-examined the issue through a commission chaired by Prof. M.G.K. Menon.
In November 1983 the Silent Valley Hydroelectric Project was called off. In 1985, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi formally inaugurated the Silent Valley National Park.
- Jungle Bachao Andholan
Place: Singhbhum district of Bihar
Leaders: The tribals of Singhbhum. Aim: Against governments decision to replace the natural sal forest with Teak. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
What was it all about: The tribals of the Singhbhum district of Bihar started the protest when the government decided to replace the natural sal forests with the highly-priced teak.
This move was called by many “Greed Game Political Populism”. Later this movement spread to Jharkhand and Orissa.
- Appiko Movement
Place: Uttara Kannada and Shimoga districts of Karnataka State
Leaders: Appiko’s greatest strengths lie in it being neither driven by a personality nor having been formally institutionalised. However, it does have a facilitator in Pandurang Hegde. He helped launch the movement in 1983.
Aim: Against the felling and commercialization of natural forest and the ruin of ancient livelihood.
What was it all about: It can be said that the Appiko movement is the southern version of the Chipko movement. The Appiko Movement was locally known as “Appiko Chaluvali”.
The locals embraced the trees which were to be cut by contractors of the forest department. The Appiko movement used various techniques to raise awareness such as foot marches in the interior forest, slide shows, folk dances, street plays etc.
The second area of the movement’s work was to promote afforestation on denuded lands. The movement later focused on the rational use of the ecosphere by introducing alternative energy resource to reduce pressure on the forest.
The movement became a success. The current status of the project is – stopped.
- Narmada Bachao Andholan (NBA)
Year: 1985 BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Place: Narmada River, which flows through the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
Leaders: Medha Patker, Baba Amte, Adivasis, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists.
Aim: A social movement against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada River.
What was it all about: The movement first started as a protest for not providing proper rehabilitation and resettlement for the people who have been displaced by the construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam.
Later on, the movement turned its focus on the preservation of the environment and the eco-systems of the valley.
Activists also demanded the height of the dam to be reduced to 88 m from the proposed height of 130m. World Bank withdrew from the project.
The environmental issue was taken into court. In October 2000, the Supreme Court gave a judgment approving the construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam with a condition that the height of the dam could be raised to 90 m.
This height is much higher than the 88 m which anti-dam activists demanded, but it is definitely lower than the proposed height of 130 m. The project is now largely financed by the state governments and market borrowings.
The project is expected to be fully completed by 2025. Although not successful, as the dam could not be prevented, the NBA has created an antibig dam opinion in India and outside.
It questioned the paradigm of development. As a democratic movement, it followed the Gandhian way 100 per cent.
- Tehri Dam Conflict
Year: 1990’s BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Place: Bhagirathi River near Tehri in Uttarakhand.
Leaders: Sundarlal Bahuguna
Aim: The protest was against the displacement of town inhabitants and the environmental consequence of the weak ecosystem. Tehri dam attracted national attention in the 1980s and the 1990s.
The major objections include seismic sensitivity of the region, submergence of forest areas along with Tehri town etc.
Despite the support from other prominent leaders like Sunderlal Bahuguna, the movement has failed to gather enough popular support at the national as well as international levels.
Q 5. Throw light on Ecofeminism with special reference to Ecofeminism in Indian context.
ANS: Eco-feminism has developed and still developing in different stages. As Chen Ling puts it in „Ecological Criticism Based on Social Gender: The Basic Principles of Ecofeminism”, Eco-feminism is developed in three stages: “The first stage is the beginning of the 1960s.
It’s mainly demonstrated that the American women challenged large nuclear power stations, the Chipko movement in northern India and green belt movement in Kenya.
The movement at this stage is based on the general ecological awareness in working women’s daily life, and attempts to combine the expression of women’s interests with the pursuit of environment maintenance and protection.
The second stage is taken from 1970s to 1980s. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
This is a stage that the concepts and theories of ecofeminism have initially formed. The third stage is taken from the 1980s until the present. This is a stage that ecofeminist theory has established and developed.”
After observing eco-feminism’s meaning and emergence at a glance. We can indicate some basic and general characteristics of eco-feminism.
First of all, eco-feminism works on the belief that both nature and women are identical. Eco-feminists believe that women and nature shares some qualities in common like correlativity, nurturing and cooperation.
Further, it also shows inter connection between menstruation and moon cycles, childbirth and creation” etc.
The theory of eco-feminism utilizes the age-old inter connection between women and nature as a link to unite both the feminism and the ecological movements which stresses upon ending each and every kind of oppression or exploitation of women and nature.
Further, it should be also noted that, Eco-feminism is not only a women’s movement but is also a social movement.
Eco-feminists propagates that it is not only immoral to dominate, exploit and oppress women but it is also immoral to destroy and exploit natural resources for satisfying one’s geed for materialistic pleasures. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
From ages, the nature and natural objects like water, tress, the sun, the moon, stars, wind, forests etc. are being worshipped by the people of various cultures of the whole universe.
But in present situation, with the explosion of population and because of human beings” infinite greed for materialistic pleasure, in the name of so called “urbanization”, “modernization”, “industrialization” and “development, Mankind is destructing the whole eco system by unnecessarily interrupting it.
Eco-feminists are against the oppression and exploitation of women and natural resources. Eco-feminism puts stress on ending each and every kind of oppression and exploitation.
Characteristics of Eco-feminism from Indian Perspective When talking about India or any under developing nation, it is very important to know about eco-feminism to understand the masculine powers” invasion over both women and nature.
India, India is immensely blessed by nature and the worshipping of nature and natural elements has remained an integral part of every Indian’s life since ancient times.
Since primitive ages, Indian society has remained preserver and worshiper of various elements of nature like the sun, the moon, the earth various plants, rivers etc and has considered the nature and natural elements having supreme powers.
Indian culture and ancient Indian texts like Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Aranyakas,
The Mahabharata, The Ramayana, Bhagvad Gita etc presents plenty of references of nature worshipping.
Plenty of Hindu recites Sanskrit Shlokas daily to show their respect and gratitude towards rivers, mountains, tress, animals and the earth.
For example, the earth has been considered as a mother in Indian culture.
Apart from the earth, many of the elements of nature are given feminine identity and attributes in Hindu tradition. For example, rivers, the Mother Nature, the plant of Tulsi etc..
On the other hand, women are also being highly honored, being considered as goddess and respected in Indian culture. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Thus, both women and nature has been worshipped in India, yet they both are often being neglected and marginalized by the masculine powers and phallocentric society.
Especially in the present situation, with the explosion of population and because of human being” infinite greed for materialistic pleasure, in the name of so called “urbanization”, “modernization”, “industrialization” and “development, Mankind is destructing the whole ecosystem by unnecessarily interrupting it.
the male dominated society in Indian culture has marginalized nature as well as women for fulfillment of their needs since the ancient times.
Basically, ecofeminism in India is having its roots in “Chipko Movement” which took place in 1970s in the Garhwal region of Uttaranchal in Uttar Pradesh.
This movement is now referred as one of the early and effective specimen of ecological or eco-feminist movements in India.
Apart from this Chipko movement, many other environmental movements laid by environmental activists, theorists and writers like Medha Patkar, Mahasweta Devi, Arundhati Roy, C.K.Janu, Vandana Shiva, Meera Nanda, Bina Agrawal, Shobhita Jain, and Ramchandra Guha have also contributed to the field of eco-feminism in India.
If we talk about the recent times, an Indian environmentalist from Karnataka, Saalumarada Thimmakka, arrived in the lime light for her notable work of planting around 8ooo tress in her life span.
Because of her utmost dedication towards the Mother Nature, she became popular as “Vruksh Mata” (Hindi for mother of tress) Her this dedication towards the Mother Nature, she became popular as “Vruksh Mata” (Hindi for mother of tress)
Her this dedication towards nature is also being recognized by the government of India and she has also got Padma Shri (The fourth-highest civilian award in the Republic of India) in 2019.
Q 6. Edicts of Ashoka and animal conservation
ANS: Pillar Edict Nb.5 (S. Dhammika) clearly states that animals should not be fed to one another. Female goats, ewes, sows that are young or providing milk to young creatures are sheltered by this edict.
The king also put an embargo on sterilizing roosters and burning husks or forests sheltering animals. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
After all, protecting the natural habitat of native species is one of the main goals of animal rights movements nowadays! Ashoka’s Maurya Empire was the first Indian empire to bring unity to the nation.
With the Edicts of Ashoka, all of India saw changes in style of governance that provided protection to fauna.
This made Ashoka the first ruler in the history of the country to advocate for measures for the protection and conservation of wildlife.
Q 7. Chipko Movement
ANS: The Chipko movement or chipko andolan, was a forest conservation movement in India.
It began in 1973 in Mizoram, then a part of Uttar Pradesh (at the foothills of Himalayas) and went on to become a rallying point for many future environmental movements all over the world.
It created a precedent for starting nonviolent protest in India.
However, it was Sunderlal Bahuguna, a Gandhian activist, who gave the movement a proper direction and its success meant that the world immediately took notice of this to slow down the rapid deforestation, expose vested interests, increase social awareness and the need to save trees, increase ecological awareness, and demonstrate the viability of people power.
He used the slogan “Ecology is the permanent economy”. Above all, it stirred up the existing civil society in India, which began to address the issues of tribal and marginalized people.
And it’s true that the support for the movement came mainly from the womenfolk.
The Chipko Andolan or the Chipko movement is a movement that practiced methods of Satyagraha where both male and female activists from Uttarakhand played vital roles, including Gaura Devi, Suraksha Devi, Sudesha Devi, Bachni Devi and Chandi Prasad Bhatt, Virushka Devi and others. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Today, beyond the eco-socialism hue, it is seen increasingly as an ecofeminism movement (not to be confused with Feminist Movement).
Q 8. Lakes in Indian philosophy
ANS: Lakes in India have always been the reservoirs of water. The pure rain water was stored in the lakes, and the village ponds.
Apart from daily supply of water for household needs and cattle requirements, these water bodies served as agents of replenishing the water table.
Digging of ponds, lakes and wells was considered to be a noble act and many well off people were engaged in the maintenance of these water bodies.
Like other elements of nature, the lakes were also significant for their direct relationship with the heavenly powers.
One may recall the famous lake Rakshastal located to the west of Mansarovar.
It is at one of the islands of this ubiquitous lake that the famous king of Lanka, Ravana offered each of his ten heads, one after the other, to lord Shiva till he granted him the powers he wished for.
Unlike the Mansarovar lake which is round in shape, Rakshastal is of a crescent shape. The former is considered to be pious while the latter is treated as inauspicious owing to its association with the demonic king Ravana.
In the village Narkatari of Kurukshetra district of Haryana, there is a pond which is named as Bhishma Kund. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
It is said that during the epic battle of Mahabharata when Arjuna had defeated Bhishma, he asked for water from the great warrior.
Arjuna then with his sharp arrows drew water from the earth. Since, it was Bhishma who required water; the pond therefore, is named after him.
There is a small temple near the pond where pilgrims from all over the country come every year to pay their homage to the legendary Pitamah Bhishma. Temple tanks are artificial reservoirs generally built as part of the temple complex.
They are called pushkarini, kalyani, kund, sarovar, baoli/baori, vav, tirtha, talab, kovil kulam, etc. in different languages and regions of India. The water of these tanks abounds in medicinal properties.
It is curious to note that medical tourism which is considered to be a new phenomenon in the present-day world has been in vogue in India since times immemorial.
Q 9 Prehistory and environment
ANS: Prehistoric period, also known as Prehistory, refers to the period of human evolution that lay before advent of written records extending back to at least 2.6 million years.
Prehistory has been established as a branch of archaeology proper after landmark research done by scholars like: BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
a) Daniel Wilson (The Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, 1851),
b) Charles Darwin (On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, 1859), and
c) Sir John Lubbock (Prehistoric Times: As Illustrated by Ancient Remains and the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages, 1865).
The use of symbols, marks, and images appears very early among humans, but the earliest known writing systems appeared c. 5000 years ago and it took thousands of years for writing systems to be widely adopted.
In some human cultures, writing systems were not used until the nineteenth century and, in a few, are not even used until the present.
The end of prehistory therefore came at very different dates in different places, and the term is less often used in discussing societies where prehistory ended relatively recently.
Q 10 Green Imperialism
ANS: As defined by Nor Mohamed Yakcop, Malaysia’s deputy finance minister, at the World Economic Forum on east Asia; green imperialism is the hypocrisy of rich countries wherein they exploit the natural resources including human beings in developing Asian and African economies, later blame them for worsening climate change and other environmental crisis.
Eco-imperialism violates the developing countries’ people’s most basic human rights by denying them economic opportunities, the chance for a better livelihood.
The environmental movement has repeatedly used the alleged threat of global ecocatastrophe like, global warming, to override the wishes of people who most desperately need energy and progress. BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment
BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
BHIE 144 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022