IGNOU BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

BHIE 142

HISTORY OF MODERN EAST ASIA: JAPAN

BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Assignment – I

Q 1 Write a note on the Tokugawa rule in Japan.

ANS: Following the Sengoku period (“Warring States period”), the central government had been largely re-established by Oda Nobunaga during the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu.[3] Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike in previous shogunates, was supposedly based on the strict class hierarchy originally established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

The daimyo (lords) were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers, artisans, and traders ranking below.

In some parts of the country, particularly smaller regions, daimyo and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyo might be trained as samurai, and samurai might act as local rulers. Otherwise, the largely inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time.

Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value.

As a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time.

This often led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much larger rebellions.

None, however, proved compelling enough to seriously challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

A 2017 study found that peasant rebellions and collective desertion (“flight”) lowered tax rates and inhibited state growth in the Tokugawa shogunate.

In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyo, along with the titular Emperor, succeeded in overthrowing the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration.

The Tokugawa shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the “restoration” (ET , Osei fukko) of imperial rule.

Not with standing its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan’s history, lasting well over 260 years.

Shogunate and Domains BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

The bakulian taisei was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning “military government—that is, the shogunate.

The han were the domains headed by daimyo. Vassals held inherited lands and provided military service and homage to their lords.

The bakuhan taisei split feudal power between the shogunate in Edo and provincial domains throughout Japan. Provinces had a degree of sovereignty and were allowed an independent administration of the han in exchange for loyalty to the shögun, who was responsible for foreign relations and national security.

The shogun and lords were all daimyos: feudal lords witl own bureaucracies, policies, and territories.

The shogun also administered the most powerful lian, the hereditary fief of the House of Tokugawa. Each level of government administered its own system of taxation.

The emperor, nominally a religious leader, held no real power, this was vested in the shögun.

The shogunate had the power to discard, annex, and transform domains. The sankin-kotai system of alternative residence required each daimyo to reside in alternate years between the han and the court in Edo.BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

During their absences from Edo, it was also required that they leave family as hostages until their return.

The huge expenditure sankin-kõtai imposed on each han helped centralize aristocratic alliances and ensured loyalty to the shögun as each representative doubled as a potential hostage.

Shogun and Foreign

Trade Foreign affairs and trade were monopolized by the shogunate, yielding a huge profit. Foreign trade was also permitted to the Satsuma and the Tsushima domains. Rice was the main trading product of Japan during this time.

Isolationism was the foreign policy of Japan and trade was strictly controlled. Merchants were outsiders to the social hierarchy of Japan and were thought to be greedy.

The visits of the Nanban ships from Portugal were at first the main vector of trade exchanges, followed by the addition of Dutch, English and sometimes Spanish ships From 1603 onward, Japan started to participate actively in foreign trade.

In 1615, an embassy and trade mission under Hasekura Tsunenaga was sent across the Pacific to Nueva España (New Spain) on the Japanese-built galleon San Juan Bautista.

Until 1635, the Shogun issued numerous permits for the so-called “red seal ships” destined for the Asian trade. After 1635 and the introduction of Seclusion laws, inbound ships were only allowed China, Korea, and the Netherlands.BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Shogun and Christianity

Followers of Christianity first began appearing in Japan during the 16th century. Oda Nobunaga embraced Christianity and the Western technology that was imported with it, such as the musket.

He also saw it as a tool he could use to suppress Buddhist forces.[12] Though Christianity was allowed to grow until the 1610s,

Tokugawa Ieyasu soon began to see it as a growing threat to the stability of the shogunate. As Ogosho (“Cloistered Shõgun“),[13] le influenced the implementation of laws that banned the practice of Christianity.

His successors followed suit, compounding upon Ieyasu’s laws. The ban of Christianity is often linked with the creation of the Seclusion law’s, or Sakoku, in the 1630s.[14]

Rõjū and Wakadoshiyori BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Sakuradamon Gate of Edo Castle where Ii Naosuke was assassinated in 1860 / Wikimedia Commons

The roju were the senior members of the shogunate. They supervised the õmetsuke, machi-bugyö, ongokubugyo (ja: 5 15) and other officials, oversaw relations with the Imperial Court in Kyoto, kuge (members of the nobility), daimyo, Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, and attended to matters like divisions of fiefs.

Normally, four or five men held the office, and one was on duty for a month at a time on a rotating basis.

They conferred on especially important matters. In the administrative reforms of 1867 (Keio Many appointees came from the offices close yõnin (ja:UAN), Kyoto Shoshidai, and Osaka jādai.

BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment
BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2 What were the political and economic reforms that contributed towards the modernization of Japan?

ANS: This was because by the time the industrial revolution was taking root, Japan was under the Edo period of isolation and was therefore not allowed to take part in the revolution.

It is surprising therefore, to note that despite Japan having been left behind while the other countries were modernising it Has managed to catch up and even surpassed most of them within a short period. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Although historians have varied theories for the rapid modernisation, they agree on some common things.

(Gootzeit 8) One thing that without doubt contributed to the rapid modernisation of Japan was its geographical location.

Japan is strategically located at the edge of countries like China, which have an already developed culture. The induction of an already developed culture into Japan made the country’s modernisation phenomenal.

In reality, Japanese people love importing things more than producing them. This was why Japan unlike other countries gladly welcomed Western Culture.

These imported things, which include science and religion in a great way account for the rapid spread of modernisation in Japan.

(U.S Library of Congress) Another thing that directly contributed to the rapid modernisation of Japan was the high importance placed on education.

In the beginning of the 16th century, Catholic missionaries who came to Japan placed much emphasis on the intellectual ability of the citizens.BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

The Sorai Ogyu and the Ching Dynasty before them had also tried introducing education through the advancement of Confucianism.

On top of the Catholic fathers’ emphasis on education and the introduction of Confucianism, the study of Buddhism and the Manyo-shu by the Nakamoto Tominanga and the Keiclu dynasties respectively helped a great deal in advancing education.

When the school system was introduced in Japan in 1872, it gained quick acceptance from the people.

One year after the system was introduced attendance immediately rose to 28%. By the turn of the century, attendance had risen to 81.5% and 99.0% by the end of World War 1.

Since the middle of the 20th century, school attendance has remained at a modest figure of 99.9%. This rapid spread of the education system helped Japan in modernising at a quick rate than other Asian countries.

(Naofusa) Another thing that made Japan to rush her modernisation was the fear of colonisation by Western nations, and the urgent need to make improvements on unequal treaties with neighboring nations. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

At the beginning of the 20th century, Japan had solved the urgent problems and began colonising other countries in imitation of Western nations.

This was done to feed her population that was growing at a fast rate. In return, this policy gave neighboring countries a hard time and prevented them from colonising Japan.

By the end of the World War II, a directive had been issued that required a clear separation between the church and state.

This was something that many countries had not yet been able to achieve. (Hall 19) Another thing that comes out as the reason for Japan’s rapid modernisation was the reforms brought about by the Meiji era.

After the Meiji took over from the Tokugawa, they adopted a different mode of operation. Since the beginning of their rule, the Meiji leaders adopted the model of a market economy.

In order to achieve this, they emulated the British and North American models of liberal enterprise capitalism. This model was quickly adopted by private sector.

Immediately after this, introduced other economic reforms that included trading in yen, banking, marketable and levy laws, introducing a stock exchange, and building a strong communication network.BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

By the year 1890, the government had succeeded in building an institutional structure that was fit to work in a capitalist economy.

Afterwards, the government surrendered the modernization process to the newly created institutions. The institutions, which were highly efficient, helped in speeding up the modernisation process.

During the first 20 years of the Meiji rule, the manufacturing market grew at a fast rate to match the Westem technology and other large privately owned investments.

By the time the World War I had ended, Japan was among the industrialized nations. This rapid spread of modernization can only be attributed to the economic reforms introduced by the Meiji rulers. (Christensen)

Conclusion

Japan is considered as a country that took the shortest time to Modernise. While other Asian countries took almost 150 years to modernise, it took Japan only 40 years to become modern.

Although there are different reasons given for tlie rapid modernisation, some things come out clearly as the main reasons. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

One of this was the willingness of the Japanese people to borrow from other established cultures.

Another reason for the rapid modernisation was the importance that the Catholic fathers and other dynasties accorded education.

This gave rise to an established education level and led to a high enrollment rate. Lastly, the Meiji era introduced economic reforms that led to rapid modernisation.

BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment
BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment – II

Q 3 Write a note on the Meiji political order.

ANS: The Meiji Constitution and Meiji system of government in general is simultaneously an excellent example of elite attempts to control power structures and governance within society upon lines which are conducive to their interests, and the way in which popular opposition, political reality, and structural mutation can cause changes to produce very different outcomes.

Formed initially as the minimal concessions necessary to the establishment of constitutional government with minor popular participation – – barely of 1% of the population composed of a small group of property tax-paying male citizens – – in but one organ of government,

the Diet (lower parliamentary louse), the Meiji government ultimately evolved into the Taisho democracy.

There, universal male suffrage and party control of government gave Japan a decade of liberalism, peace, and civilian rule. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

How did such a transformation happen, what was the structure of the Meiji government, low did it work in governing Japan, and what led to its demise? Before the Meiji political structure, itself is examined,

we should first look at the environment and conflicts which preceded it, starting with the Meiji Restoration, and the succeeding interregnum before the creation of the Meiji Constitution.

The Meiji Restoration was not a revolution from below, but rather from above, as a relatively small group of new leaders,limited both socially to privileged classes (such as the samurai) and geographically to the Satsuma and Choshu domains of the previous Tokugawa Shogunate, overthrew the old order and with awe-inspiring speed brought about a rapid change in the structure of Japanese society.

They oversaw an end to the old feudal order which had divided Japan up into the 280 domains of the Daimyo rulers, replacing them with a national political organization of 72 prefectures and returning the domain’s lands to the emperor, ie. the state.

The genius was, as elsewhere in the new Meiji society, that they ensured that the previous factions were not excessively lurt by this transformation, in this case by distributing appropriate pensions from the state.BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Therefore, the problem of discontented old cities which has caused so much trouble throughout history was avoided.

The samurai, left isolated and powerless, could be appropriately crushed in the Satsuma rebellion. Accompanying this came ministries which had modern functions,

if labeled on ancient Chinese terms of the Heian period, such as finance, foreign affairs, public works, and home affairs, created from from 1871 onwards.

A modem cabinet arrived in 1885, with a prime minister leading it, which was then codified in 1889 by the Meiji constitution.

Civil servant examinations established in 1887 helped to produce efficient bureaucrats to staff these bodies.

Politically, it had been a revolution which transformed the fe Tokugawa Shogunate into a modern state, and although it did not yet count deliberative popular bodies among its institutions (the abortive Kagislio of 1868 and a second one later, both having lasted a year, not succeeding),BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

it had laid precedents towards their formation, followed throughout the decades that followed by the formation of advisory councils.

Throughout all of this period Japan did not have a constitution. Despite the Charter Oath of 1868 at the founding of Meiji calling for the framing of a constitution and laws, a permanent constitution would not arrive until 1889.

There were both internal and external reasons for the development of a Japanese constitution.

Externally, Japan needed a constitution to be able to be accepted as being a “modern” state and hence not discriminated against by the Western powers.

Western powers had constitutions and were strong, and this strength was assigned to their constitutions which unified them and directed profitably the national energies.

If Japan wished to be strong she too this needed a constitution. Internally, there was pressure for a constitution which was applied to the Meiji governing elite of the oligarchs through institutions like a newly founded popular press (such as the first newspaper, Yokohama Mainichi Shimbun, published in 1871) and organizations such as the loosely constituted “movement for freedom and people’s rights.”

Under the banner of patriotism they called for representative assemblies which would make the nation strong through popular representation.BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Even before such movements were founded, already cries for an assembly to represent the people and to have control over the budget had been proclaimed by Itagaki Taisuke in 1873 : “The people whose duty it is to pay taxes to the government have the right of sharing in their government’s affairs and of approving or condemning.

Since this is a universally acknowledged principle, it is not necessary to waste words in discussing it….”

Q 4 Discuss Japan’s emergence as an economic power,

ANS: By the late 1980s, Japan has emerged on the word scene as a great power, not perhaps in military and political terms but certainly in economic sense.

As the homology of the Soviet empire fell apart and the prima donna imprint of the American know-how and productivity began losing its luster,

the economy of Japan became indisputably the second largest in the world with a capita income that, by 1987, has overtaken over the U.S.A. and any country of the OECD.

Despite the international oil shocks of 1973 and 1979-80 and some other political and financial flickering convulsions, Japan continues to enjoy a very high economic growth rate to the present day: BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

the five largest banks in the world belong to Japan; the Tokyo Stock Exchange had grown into one of the major world’s financial markets;

the three largest security houses in the world are Japanese; iron, steel and automobile productions surpassing that of the U.S.A. is something unheard of in the postwar era; and no nation is ever owed so much from abroad.

Although Japan today is not a military and political power in the circle of great nations, it certainly becomes a major player in the current world’s strategic equation, especially with regard to the Pacific arena.

Japan since 1945 is an historical overview of the various processes by which postwar Japan was transformed into an economic power that impinges upon almost all of us.

This is the work of an historian from the University of Ulster, who directs his focus toward the political, economic, and financial developments in Japan, although not to the exclusion of the other social and cultural dimensions of the enormous change which lias taken place since the Japan’s surrender of August 15, 1945.BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Structurally all the six chapters of this small volume can be grouped into three basic parts. The author uses the first part, (chapters 1-2), to retrace the present spectacular economic rise of Japan to its vital past some centuries ago.

In other words, Japan’s today economic success and power is merely a natural extension of a long, continuous trend of Japan’s history from its feudal times to present days.

Thus an analysis of Japan’s history would reveal the vital lines of continuity running across three principal historical fissures:

(a) the victory of the Tokugawa family in 1600 ending a prolonged period of civil war and setting up an unprecedented era of peace and openness to the outside world;

(b) the Meiji Restoration in 1868 bringing down the shogunate proved to be the beginning of a thorough reform of Japanese life and the establishment of a solid foundation for the successful modernization of Japan;

(c) the “guided revolution” brought about by the American occupation of 1945-52, which resulted in the dissolution of the zaibatsu (industrial monopolistic conglomerates), and the land and labor reforms. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

In the second part, (chapters 3-5), the reader will find a detailed and lively discussion of Japan’s quest for political stability and economic growth during the postwar recovery stage of 1952-60.

Professor Dennis Smith reserves the third and last part of the book, (chapters 6-7), to explain the sensational highspeed economic growth of the 1960-1973 period and the series of subtle, and not so subtle, changes in japanese society that propel Japan into economic prominence after 1980.

As Japan’s position in the international elite circle of progressive, industrialized, rich nations grew, so did criticism from others.

Yet, there are dark clouds in the economic sky of Japan. “Japan bashing” has become a popular activity in the U.S.A. – a prime example of various possible forms of international
tension between friendly partnersBHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

The most impressive aspects of this small volume are the concise and up-to-date treatments of postwar Japan to stimulate critical thought about the conceptual historical apparatus underlying the interpretation of Japan’s postwar recovery and its emergence as an economic super-power.

The book contains much worthy information. The author’s main point is that Japan’s spectacular economic recovery and powerful economic growth and development are not a phenomenon of “economic miracle”.

Japan’s overall success as an economic super-power can be only attributed to some definite factors.

First, it is the unique character of the American Occupation, 1945-52, which didn’t threaten the Japanese national unity with divided zones such as it did occur in Germany and Korea.

Under this occupation, a radical land reform, a remodeled education system, and a new constitution not only ended previously chronic conflicts in rural Japan but also created a new class of small-scale landowners and a quality-improved, better educated labor force in the aftermath of the August 1945 surrender. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Second, the 1950 Korean war provides Japan the first serious postwar stimulus to its industrial activity which remained at a virtual standstill by the summer of 1945.

Third, the open international business and financial climate that existed for several decades following World War II is certainly a tremendous benefit to Japan’s postwar industrialization and trade.

This liberal international environment in an age of worldwide trade expansion did help greatly Japan to import the latest technology from abroad without having to pay for the full costs of research and development.BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Q 5 Why did the political parties fail in Japan?

ANS: Politics of Japan are conducted in a framework of a dominant party bicameral parliamentary constitutional monarchy, in which the Emperor is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government and the head of the Cabinet,

which directs the executive branch. Legislative power is vested in the National Diet, which consists of the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors.

The House of Representatives has eighteen standing committees ranging in size from 20 to 50 members and The House of Councillors has sixteen ranging from 10 to 45 members.

[3] Judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court and lower courts, and sovereignty is vested in by the 1947 Constitution, which was written during the Occupation of Japan primarily by American officials and had replaced the previous Meiji Constitution.

Japan is considered a constitutional monarchy with a system of civil law.

Politics in Japan in the post-war period has largely been dominated by the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), which has been in power almost continuously since its foundation in 1955, a phenomenon known as the 1955 System. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Almost all prime ministers since the end of the countıy’s occupation have been members of the LDP. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Political parties had begun to revive almost immediately after the occupation began. Leftwing organizations, such as the Japan Socialist Party and the Japanese Communist Party, quickly reestablished themselves, as did various conservative parties.

The old Rikken Seiyūkai and Rikken Minseito came back as, the Liberal Party (Nihon Jiyūto) and the Japan Progressive Party (Nihon Shimpoto) respectively.

The first postwar elections were held in 1948 (women were given the franchise for the first time in 1947), and the Liberal Party’s vice president, Yoshida Shigeru (1878–1967), became prime minister. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

For the 1947 elections, anti-Yoshida forces left the Liberal Party and joined forces with the Progressive Party to establish the new Democratic Party (Minshuto).

This divisiveness in conservative ranks gave a plurality to the Japan Socialist Party, which was allowed to form a cabinet, which lasted less than a year.

Thereafter, the socialist party steadily declined in its electoral successes. After a short period of Democratic Party administration, Yoshida returned in late 1948 and continued to serve as prime minister until 1954. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment – III

Q 6 Japanese Constitution

ANS: The Constitution of Japan is the constitution of Japan and the supreme law in the state. Written primarily by American civilian officials working under the Allied Occupation of Japan,

the constitution replaced the Meiji Constitution of 1890 when it came into effect on 3 May 1947.

The constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights.

In contrast to the Meiji Constitution, which invested the Emperor of Japan with supreme political power, under the new charter the Emperor was reduced to “the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people” and exercises only a ceremonial role acting under the sovereignty of the people. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

[4] The constitution, also known as the “Post-war Constitution” or the “Peace Constitution” , [5] was drafted under the supervision of Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, during the Allied occupation of Japan after World War II.

[6] Japanese scholars reviewed and modified it before adoption.[7] It changed Japan’s previous system of authoritarian semi-constitutional monarchy and stratocracy with a parliamentary monarchy.

The Constitution is best known for Article 9, by which Japan renounces its right to wage war and maintain military forces.[8] The Japanese constitution is the oldest unamended constitution in the world.BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

It has not had any amendments to its text in more than 70 years. It is a short constitution with only 5,000 words, compared to the average constitution with 21,000 words. [31191

Q 7 Samurai

ANS: The samurai (also bushi) were a class of warriors that arose in the 10th century in Japan and which performed military service until the 19th century.

Elite and highly-trained soldiers adept at using both the bow and sword, the samurai were an essential component of Japanese armies in the medieval period.

Samurai and samurai culture may have been excessively romanticised since the 18th century as the epitome of chivalıy and honour but there are many examples of them displaying great courage and loyalty to their masters, in particular, even committing ritual suicide in the event of the defeat or death of their lord. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Warfare in medieval Japan was, though, as bloody and as uncompromising as it was in any other region and money was often the prime motive for any samurai to participate in battle.

From the 17th century, and no longer needed in a military capacity, samurai often became important moral teachers and advisors within tlie community.

Development & Status The government system of conscription in Japan was ended in 792, and so in the following Heian Period (794-1185), private armies were formed in order to protect the landed interests (shown) of nobles who spent most of their time away at the imperial court.

This was the beginning of the samurai, a name meaning ‘attendant’ while the verb samurai means to serve and so the term was originally one of class rather than the military profession it later came to signify. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

There were other classes of warriors, too, but the samurai class was the only one with a connotation of serving the imperial court.

Q 8 Anglo-French Rivalıy in Japan

ANS: On Aug. 27, 1914, the Japanese navy set up a blockade of Tsingtao, a German-un port on the coast of China, after declaring war on the German state just four days earlier.

The Japanese navy then waited for the British navy to arrive at Tsingtao, and the two combined forces attacked and then captured the Gerinan-held port.

The Japanese went on to seize most of Germany’s overseas colonies in the Pacific and began setting up its own empire, which of course put the country on a collision course with the United States and the United Kingdom. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

The German-Japanese rivalry is an odd one to think about, given that the two states were allies in World War II, but it was so short-lived that the term “rivalry” is probably the wrong term to use to describe their fight in World War I. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Even today, Germany and Japan are sometimes thought of as rivals in the global economy because both countries specialize in high quality goods, and they oscillate between having the third or fourth largest economy in the world (nominal GDP) behind the United States and China, but rumors of a commercial beef between Germany and Japan today are non-existent.BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Peoples Rights Movement in Japan ANS: The Freedom and People’s Rights Movement, Liberty and Civil Right Movement, or Free Civil Right Movement was a Japanese political and social movement for democracy in the 1880s.

It pursued the formation of an elected legislature, revision of the Unequal Treaties with the United States and European countries, the institution of civil rights, and the reduction of centralized taxation.[3]

Deliberative assemblies shall be widely established and all matters decided by open discussion.

All classes, high and low’, shall be united in vigorously carrying out the administration of affairs of state. The common people, no less than the civil and military officials, shall all be allowed to pursue their own calling so that there may be no discontent.

Evil customs of the past shall be broken off and everything based upon the just laws of Nature. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundation of imperial rule.[4]

The Movement prompted the Meiji government to establish a constitution in 1889 and a diet in 1890; on the other hand, it failed to loosen the control of the central government and its demand for true democracy remained unfulfilled, with ultimate power continuing to reside in the Meiji (Choshū-Satsuma) oligarchy because, among other limitations,

under the Meiji Constitution, the first election law enfranchised only men who paid a substantial amount in property taxes, as a result of the Land Tax Reform in 1873.

Q 9 Rise of Militarism in Japan

ANS: The period after the decline of Feudalism saw the creation of modern state with economic development and industry and military domination at home and rapid conquests and expansion with national disaster in Japan.

The destruction of Japanese cities, the surrender of armed forces and foreign occupation and Japan’s war with China marked the end of the restoration period and beginning of new age of Japan Militarism. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Modernization combined with a sense of national pride, the growth of population, the industrial development contributed to the rise of militarism in Japan.

It was in late 1920s and early 1930s that brought this change and took alarming proportions by 1937. This was the creation of right wing political parties and the army.

The army that dominated the Japanese politics was keen on war conquest; its officers had little knowledge of international politics advocated expansion of the empire by the force which culminated into a national disaster post World War II.

Japanese militarism was anti democratic and authoritarian in nature. Military warlords who believed that Japan’s interests could be safeguarded only under a totalitarian regime dominated it. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

The power came under the war minister and the Navy minister who dominated the Japanese politics.

The totalitarian feature of Japanese militarism also highlighted that it was not a peaceful movement but dominated by ultra nationalism. Ultra started operating in Japan to reduce the influence of liberal organizations.

An ultra nationalist society was started in 1910 followed by the Greater Japan Nationalist Society in 1919. They believed that a glorious future lies in the hands of army. The Japanese militarism was anti communist and pro capitalist.

Russia was the natural enemy of Japan as their interests clashed over Manchuria and other parts of Asia. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

The rise of Bolsheviks further deteriorated the relations between them. Japan was also concerned with the colonial expansion based on capitalist lines that was resented by Russia.

This was one feature that made Japan to sign Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. The Japanese totalitarianism retained a Japanese pattern shaped by the absence of individualism.

The personality cult was absent and emperor was still regarded as a symbol of unity and common rallying point for the whole nation.

The attempts of the militarists to capture power in Japan reached a turning point when the Minseito party won the elections in 1936.

Four days after the election results, some junior regimental officers revolted in Tokyo to over throw the government.

Though this coup ended in failure the power of the militarists increased and moderates conceded to the demand that war minister and the navy minister had to be military officers on active service that marked major triumph of militarists.

The Hirota cabinet accepted the seven-point programme called National Political Renovation. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

By it the government was committed to expand armament, the stock piling of the materials of war giving full support to the Japanese army in Manchuria and control of education. This meant that the government was under the control of the military.

With the signing of anti-Comintern pact ended the diplomatic isolation of Japan and increased the influence of right wing in the country. Japan was clearly in the path of military control.

The National Mobilization Act of 1938 ended the parliamentary government in Japan. This enabled bureaucracy to take power from the legislature.

The military now controlled the industry and other wings of the government. Japan saw single-party domination by 1941. Imperial Rule Assistance Association party controlled by the army led Japan into the war. BHIE 142 Free Solved Assignment

BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

BHIE 143 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

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