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BHIC 133

History Of India From 1206-1707

BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

Assignment – 1

1 Critically examine Mughal policy towards the Rajput states.

Ans: Mughal policy towards the Rajput states

Following are the different Mughal policies towards the Rajput states by different Mughal rulers:

  1. Babur

Babur arrived in India at Rana Sanga’s invitation. His desire to stay back in India after the 1st battle of Panipat brought him in conflict with Rana Sanga of Mewar whom he defeated in the battle of Khanwa in 1527.

Babur then defeated Medini Rai of Chaderi in a battle in 1528. The Rajput resistance could not be minimized because of their defeats, but if not Babur,

the Rajputs would have established their hegemony over north India.

  1. Humayun:

When Bahadur Shah,the ruler of Gujarat invaded Mewar, Rani Karnavati ruling on behalf of her minor son Rana Vikramaditya requested Humayun for help, a call to which Humayun responded.

During Humayun’s reign, many Rajput chiefs became practically independent as Humayun had to contend with Sher Shah

  1. Akbar:

Akbar realized the need for a complete revision of policy and attitude. He understood that there could be no Indian empire without Rajput participation and no social or political synthesis without their involvement.BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

Akbar also married his son Salim to Rajput princesses. Akbar followed a liberal religious policy, in 1562 he stopped forceful conversions of prisoners of war, in 1563 he abolished pilgrim tax and in 1564 he abolished Jajiya.

Akbar used Rajputs in the Gujarat insurrection, battle of Haldighati and the rebellion of
Mirza Mohammed Hakim.

The Rajputs rendered valuable services to the empire by acting as its sword arm and also professed personal loyalty to the emperor as he was now their blood relation.

His Rajput policy also ensured control over Rajputana which opened up vital trade routes with Gujarat and also with Cenral Asia.

  1. Jehangir:

Was born to a Hindu Rajput lady. He was also a friend of Rajputs. He married Rajput princesses and continued Akbar’s policy in good faith as is evident from the favorable terms dished out to Rana Amar Singh in the Mughal – Mewar treaty of 1614, brought about by the efforts of Prince Khurram (Shah Jahan).

According to the treaty, Prince Karna, the son of Rana Amar Singh was given the mansab of 5000 Jat and 5000 Sawar.

  1. Shah Jahan:

In his time, there was a partial reversal of his father’s and grandfather’s policy as is evidenced by his turning a blind eye to the destruction of some temples by Aurangzeb.

Even then, there was no radical change in the Rajput policy.

  1. Aurangzeb:

Aurangzeb came to power with the help of orthodox Sunni clerics. He reversed Akbar’s policy towards the Rajputs.

In the early years though, he used much of the Rajput diplomatic and military strength of Maharaja Jaswant Singh Rathod of Marwar and also of Maharaja Jai Singh of Amber who brought Shivaji to his knees. BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

But Aurangzeb got Jaswant Singh Rathod involved in fighting against the tribals in the north-west frontier where he fell fighting at Jamrud in 1678.

The Rajputs of Marwar under Durgadas, Ranchor Singh and Raghunath Rai Bhatti took up arms against the Mughals in the name of Ajit Singh of Marwar and then Mewar also for some time supported the cause of Marwar.

BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment
BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

2 Discuss the main elements of the Sultanate architecture.

Ans:Main elements of the Sultanate architecture:
The most important source for the study of architecture is the surviving remains of buildings themselves.

Though these enable us to grasp architectural techniques and styles peculiar to our period, it offers little help in understanding other related aspects of architecture such as the role of the architects and the drawings and estimates and accounts of the buildings.

The Indo-Islamic architecture manifested the aesthetic heritage of the new sultans that includes both religious and secular structures.

While indigenous architecture is Trabeate i.e. the space is spanned by mean of beams laid horizontally; the Islamic form is Arcuate, whereby arches are used to bridge a space.

The dome is the prominent feature of the mosque in contrast to the Sikhar of Hindu temples. BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

New Structural Forms:

  1. Arch and dome method which dispensed with the need for large number of pillars to support the roof and enabled the construction of large halls with a clear view.
  2. Use of superior mortar to hold the stones.
  3. Use of slab and beam method.
  4. Decorative exuberance, such as use of geometrical shapes, calligraphy, inspirational art etc.
  5. Synthesise of indigenous motif such as ball motif, lotus etc.

A glimpse of Sultanate Architecture:

  1. Qutub Minar: It is a towering 73 meter high tower founded by Qutub-ud-Din Aibak and completed by Iltutmish in the memory of the Sufi Saint Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki. The last two storeys were completed Firoz Shah Tughlaq.

The Qutub Minar complex comprises of the Quwwat-us-Islam Mosque, a 7 metre high iron pillar, the tomb of Iltutmish, Ala’i-Darwaza and the Ala’l Minar.

2 Qutub-ud-Din Aibak built the city of Dilli, Iltutmish built the city of Sultangurhi and Balban built the city of Kailagurhi.

3 Alai Minar: It contains a dome, which for the first time was built on correct scientific lines and also has arches of very pleasing proportions.

Alauddin Khilji built new fort and imperial township of SIRI. In siri, he built the Mahal Hazar Satun, the palace of thousand pillars, Hauz-i-illahi, a water tank and the Jamait Khana mosque at the Dargah of nizamuddin Auliya.

Alai Darwaza: It was constructed with a dome shaped gate made of red sandstone and decorated with stunning Turkic features made of white marble inlay and inscriptions engraved in the ancient Naskh Script and screens made with Lattice stones depicting unique Turkic craftsmanship.

Tomb of Balban: It is first example of true arch and is located at the archaeological park in Mehrauli. BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

Alauddin Khilji’s tomb and madarsa: It is located in the Qutub Complex, which is located near the Mehrauli Archaeological Park.

It was built by Ala-ud-din Khilji, as a college for the education on Islamic scriptures and theology that consists of rooms and halls built around a quadrangular court.

Tughlaqabad: The Palace cum Fortress Complex of Tughlaqabad was constructed by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. Mohammed-bin-Tughlaq built the Tomb of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq on a high platform which marks a new trend in architecture for imposing skyline.

He also built Jahanpanah, one of the cities of Delhi. Firoz Shah built Hauz Khas, a pleasure resort, and also built Firoz Shah Kotla fort.

Lodhi Garden: It is the finest example of the synthesis of dome, arch, slam and beam. Other examples of architecture are Masjid Moth, Bara Khan and Chota Khan.

Hence, the architecrural excellence of the Sultanate period witnesses the evolution and development of Indo-Islamic Architecture by synthesising geometrical shapes, calligraphy, inscriptional art etc.

Assignment – ii

3 The conflict between the Afaqis and the Deccanis ultimately sealed the fate of the Bahamani kingdom.Comment

Ans: Conflict between the Afaqis and the Deccanis ultimately sealed the fate of the Bahamani kingdom: BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

The political developments of the Bahamani kingdom can be divided into two phases.

In the first phase(1347-1422), the centre of activities was Gulbarga while in the second phase (1422-1538) the capital shifted to Bidar which was more centrally located and fertile.

During this phase, we find conflicts between the Afaqis and the Dakhnis touching its peak.

First Phase, 1347-1422:

In the period between 1347-1422, major conquests were effected. Kotgir in Andhra Pradesh, Qandahar in Maharashtra, Kalyani in Karnataka, Bhongir in Telingana, Sagar, Khembhavi, Malkher and Seram in Gulbarga(Karnataka), , Manram, Akkalkot and Mahendri in Maharashtra and Mandu in Malwa (Madhya Pradesh) were subjugated.

The Bahmani rule covered Mandu in the north to Raichur in the south and from Bhongir in the east to Dabhol and Goa in the west

Second Phase, 1422-1538:

The period between 1422-1538 was marked by the shift of capital from Gulbarga to Bidar. It was centrally and strategically located. BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

The three linguistic areas (Marathi, Kannad and Telugu) converged on this point. The struggle for supremacy between the Vijaynagar and the Bahmanis continued in this period as well.

Warangal was annexed to the Bahmani kingdom in this period. The independent kingdoms of Malwa and Gujarat also had to bear the brunt of the Bahmani power.

While Malwa proved to be weak, the Sultanate of Gujarat, in spite of two major.campaigns, did not give way to the Bahmanis.

An important consequence of the latter confrontation was the formation of alliance between the Sultanate of Khandesh and Bahmanis to counter the threat from Gujarat.

4 Define iqta. What changes were introduced in the iqta system by Muhammad Tughlaq and Firuz Tughlaq.

Ans:Iqta

In the early years of the foundation of the Sultanate, neither the revenue income of these assignments was known nor the size of the contingent of the assignee was fixed.

However, certain modifications and mild attempts at introducing central control to some extent were made by Balban (1266-86) when he appointed a khwaja (accountant) with each muqti: this may imply that the Sultanate now was trying to find out the actual income of the iqta and muqti’s expenditure.

Changes were introduced in the iqta system by Muhammad Tughlaq:

The attempt at central intervention reached its climax during the time of Muhammad Tughlaq (1325-51). BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

In several cases, a wali and an amir was appointed to the same territory. The wali was to collect revenue and, after deducting his pay, to send the rest to the treasury.

The amir or commander had nothing to do with revenue realization and received his own salary and the salary of his troops in cash, presumably from the local treasury.

During Muhammad Tughlaq’s reign the troops of the iqta holders were paid in cash by the state’s treasury. This possibility infuriated the commanders and created political problems for Muhammad Tughlaq.

Changes were introduced in the iqta system by Firuz Tughlaq:

Firuz Tughlaq, therefore, decided to make concessions. He enhanced the cash salaries of the nobles and got new estimates of revenue (mahsul) prepared which was designated jama.

There was no attempt to restore central control by the successors of Firuz. Under the Lodis (1451-1426), the administrative charges and revenue assignments were combined together and these were no more called iqta but were simply called sarkars and parganas.

A system of sub-assignments came in vogue particularly under Sikandar Lodi (14891517).

The main assignees used to sub-assign portions of their assignment to their subordinates who in turn made sub-assignments to their soldiers.

5 Give a brief account of the agrarian relations in Mughal India.

Ans:Agrarian relations in Mughal India: BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

Following points give a brief account of Agrarian relations in Mughal India:

(i) During the time of Akbar the relations between the Central Government on one and and on the other side with jagirdars, zamindars and the peasants at large were quite good.

In the Mughal period the peasants produce eatable and not eatable crops. Ain-i-Akbari gives a list of 16 crops of rabi, 25 crops of kharif and the rate of tax fixed on them has also been given.

(ii) The peasants were allowed to choose between zabti and batai under certain conditions. Such a choice was given (generally) when the crops had been ruined due to natural climatical or adverse conditions.

(iii) Under batai, the peasants were given choice of paying renue in cash or in kind, though the state preferred cash.

(iv) In case of crops such as cotton, indigo, oilseeds, sugarcane, etc., the state demand was veriably in cash, hence, the crops were called-cash crops.

(v) Akbar adopted many systems of revenue collection at different times. The main system he applied were zabti system, batai system, nasq system, the dehsala system and karori System.

(vi) Akbar was deeply interested in the improvement and extension of cultivation. He asked the ‘Amill to act like a father to the peasants. BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

He was to advance money by way of loans (taccavi) to peasants for seeds, implements, animals, etc.I in times of need, and to recover them in easy installments.

He was to try and induce the peasants to plough as much land as possible and to sow superior quality crops.

BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment
BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment – III

6 Provincial kingdoms of Malwa and Jaunpur.

Ans: Provincial kingdoms of Malwa:

Malwa was annexed to the Delhi Sultanate first by Ala-ud-din Khalji. It remained a part of it till the reign of later Tughluqs.

Dilawar Khan who was appointed governor of Malwa by Firuz Tughluq in 1390 A.D. made himself an independent ruler in 1401 A.D. though he did not assume the title of Sultan.

He died in 1405 A.D. His son and successor Alp Khan assumed the title of Husang Shah.

Provincial kingdoms of Jaunpur:

The city of Jaunpur is situated on the river Gaumti and is thirty-four miles away from Banaras towards the north-west. It was founded by Firuz Shah Tughluq.

Malik Sarvar, the founder of the independent kingdom of Jaunpur was a slave of Sultan Muhammad, son of Firuz Tughluq. BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

He had a humble origin but rose to the position of vazir by his own merit.

7 The Caliphate and the Delhi Sultanate.

Answer: The Caliphate and the Delhi Sultanate:

The institution of the Caliphate came into existence after the death of Prophet Muhammad when Abu Bakr became the new head (Khalifa) of the Muslim community (Umma or Ummat).

Originally, there existed some elements of elective principle in the matter of succession, a practice not much different from the previous tribal traditions.

In the Islamic world, the Caliph was regarded as the guardian of religion and the upholder of political order. He was the leader of the entire community.

The significant point to remember is that, theoretically, no Muslim could have set up an ‘independent’ state, big or small, without procuring the permission from the Caliph, else its legitimacy could become suspect amongst the Muslims.

And, yet, all this was nothing more than a formality which could be dispensed with impunity. BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

8 Bill of exchange (hundis).

Ans:Bill of exchange (hundis):

During this period hundis or bills of exchange became an important form of money transaction. Hundi was a paper document promising payment of money after a period of time at a certain place.

To begin with, the practice started because of the problems involved in carrying large amounts of cash for commercial transactions.

The merchants interested in carrying cash to a particular place would deposit it with a sarraf who would issue a hundi to the merchant.

The merchant was to present it to the agent of the sarraf at his destination and encash it. This started as a safe and convenient method of transferring money.

In due course, hund itself became an instrument of transaction. It could be presented against a transaction. It could also be freely bought or sold in the market after endorsement.

9 How did the Portuguese trade finance in India?

Ans: Portuguese trade finance in India: BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

The Portuguese first ventured into the Indian subcontinent in May 1498, when Vasco da Gama reached the coast of Calicut and tried to establish trade links with the Indians.

Though there were initial misunderstandings with the Zamorin of Calicut, later on, it turned out to be a treasure trove for Vasco da Gama.

Trading in spices and other exotic condiments the Portuguese could finance further expeditions for trade as well as prospects of colonisation.

The first Portuguese Viceroy in India was Francisco de Almeida. He initially set up his headquarters in Cochin, but later on in 1510, moved it to Goa.

10 Evolution of Mughal school of painting under Akbar.

Ans: Evolution of Mughal school of painting under Akbar:

Drawing the likeness of anything is called tasvir.

His majesty, from his earliest youth, has shown a great predilection for this art, and gives it every encouragement, as he looks upon it as a means, both of study and amusement.

Hence, the art flourishes and has obtained great reputation. The works of all painters are weekly laid before by the daroghas and the clerks; he then confers rewards according to the excellence of workmanship or increases the monthly salaries.

Much progress was made in the commodities required for painters, and the correct prices of such articles were carefully ascertained. BHIC 133 Free Solved Assignment

The mixture of colours has especially been improved. The pictures thus received a hitherto unknown finish.

Most excellent painters are now to be found, and masterpieces, worthy of a Bihzad, may be placed at the side of the wonderful works of the European painters who have attained worldwide fame.

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