IGNOU BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

BHIC 109


BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Q. I. Critically examine the Mughal theory of kingship.

Ans. Babur and Humayun, the early Mughal rulers, did not get enough time to create a definite concept of kingship. supported only by a small band of loyal followers, as some of their closest nobles betrayed them in their hour of need.

After ascending the throne. Humayoun, who had an innovative mind introduced a few rituals and ceremonies to make his court note glamorous this obviously came to when he lost the throne and was forced into exile.

His tragic, untimely death soon after his restoration, prevented him from resuming this tradition. Therefore, it was Akbar who consolidated the Mughal Empire and stabilised the institution of kingship.

Abul Fadl (1602) provided the philosophical basis for Mughal kingship by exalting the position and emphasising emanates from Him.

Thus Abul Fadl calls royalty the divine light’. According to him, this light creates paternal love for his subjects in the heart of the king and increases his trust in God.

Abul Fadl divides kings into two categories true and selfish. Both types of kings possess the same ruling institutions treasury, army, servants, and subjects-but they distinguish themselves by their attitudes. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

A true king uses these institutions for the welfare of his subjects. According to Abul Fadl, all actions of the true king are divine, and therefore are to be accepted by the people without question.

The court ceremonies and administrative traditions in India developed from the Ghaznavids, who had taken them from the Samanids.

The Samanid rulers not only adopted the pattern of the Abbasid rulers but revived some of the older Sassanid traditions as well.

The Mughal rulers of India inherited these court ceremonies and administrative traditions through the Sultans of Delhi and added some Changizi traditions to them.

The contemporary Persian influence came through the number of nobles who had migrated from Iran to India.

The participation of Rajput princes in the Mughal government led to the adoption of Indian dress and some other customs and practices,

These court ceremonies which included prostration (sijda), kissing of ground (zaminbus), and kissing of feet (pabus) elevated the status of the king.

Akbar also liberated kingship from the clutches of ulema when he issued Mahzr, a decree signed by all leading ulema authorizing the king to interpret religion.

This made the Mughal king all powerful and deprived the ulema of their authority as the custodians of religious affairs. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

The king was no longer bound to follow sharia. Instead, the ulema now came under his control and he could make them issue fatwas according to his wishes.

Even Aurangzeb, who was a religious man, asked them to issue such fatwas which allowed him to fulfil his schemes and plans.

Thus, tilema became subservient to the king. Moreover. Akbar declared himelf the king of all his subjects irrespective of religion, caste, and creed.

The result was the development of a composite culture which integrated all his subjects socially and culturally.

The Mughal rulers made efforts to keep in contact with their subjects for which the institution of Hall of Public Audience was established, where the king was accessible to the public.

The hadition of jharoka darshan or appearance on the balcony to give audience to common people brought him closer to his subjects. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

It made the Mughal kingship appear benevolent. Such was the powerful impact of the divine kingship that even when the Mughal dynasty declined and the emperor lost most of his power the loyalty and devotion of the people towards the king did not wane.

During the brief period when a group of nobles played the role of kingmakers. they did not dare to exclude the dynasty and usurp kingship.

The Marhattas and the East india company in spite of their authority ruled in the name of the Mughal king.

His popularity was evident when, in 1857, the rebel soldiers stormed the Red Fort to help him fight against the Company’s rule. The charisma of divine kingship came to an end as a result of the Mughal defeat in 1857.

BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment
BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 2. Analyse the categories of land rights in the Medieval Deccan. Elaborate on the working of the wutan system in the Deccan.

Ans. The various categories of land rights in medieval Deccan are Mirasi right. In right, state land, and wasteland or lands of extinct families. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Mirasi Rights: This category refers to transferable property holders of which are termed as mirasders under a respective tenure who has the right to exact rent in terms of money or services from those living on their part of owned land.

It was held on the basis of village coparcener which is also known as the Ancient Thai system. Buying and selling of these lands chiefly required the sanction of village officials so of neighbours.

Inam Right: These lands either were totally exempt from or subjected to a low tax. It was known as a privileged category of land right where the holders were chiefly termed as inamders.

State Land: This category of land is held by the government or rulers which are managed by the local bureaucratese. However, selling and buying of the same requires approval from the central government.

Waste lands: These can be sold either by the village headmen or assembly or state. However, the purchaser did not require any sort of tax to pay. They were sold either as inam or Mira’s lands, applying heavy pay on the later.

While a watan was a hereditary rent-free grant to a village resident in lieu of services that the resident was expected to perform for the village on an ongoing basis, an inam was granted in recognition of past service to the state, usually but not always in relation to the military. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

A watan grant continued for as long as its holder had the confidence of the village community, whilst an inam grant, which might also take the form of a share of village land revenues, was held in perpetuity

After independence, in 1958, the then state of Bombay passed a law to abolish the watan system and transfer the land to the government.

The law had a provision to grant land titles to all watan landholders if they completed some paperwork and paid a one-time tax.

However, the process did not complete, and the government began using the watan lands for public projects instead.

“These are our own lands, and yet we don’t have them.” says T. Vincent Manoharan, chairperson of the National Federation of Dalit Land Rights Movement.

In the case of Achakdani village, 50 acres of land were granted to 50 families from the two communities. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

In the 1970s, the land was transferred to the Maharashtra forest department for carrying out afforestation under the Central governments Drought Prone Areas Programme.

The community members allege that the government had promised to transfer the land in their names after the afforestation drive was completed.

But that did not happen, and the government evaded the issue. The watan holders, meanwhile, strengthened their demand.

They accessed historical records from the Maharashtra state archives and wrote Jetters to the district collector.

In 2018, the tehsildar informed them in writing that since their land was under the jurisdiction of the state forest department, it is protected by the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980.

Section 2 of the Act prohibits the diversion of forestland for non-forest parposes without the prior approvat of the Centre.

The two communities have refused to accept this position and continue to campaign against the government and demand land. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

They are part of a larger movement started by the descendants of the Mahar and Rantoshi watan_holders who wish to reclaim their lands and become self-sufficient farmers.

BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment
BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment


Q. 3. Critically examine the political formation on the eve of Babur’s invasion in the subcontinent.

Ans. A struggle for political supremacy among several warring powers in India was going on. Babur who had an ambition to rule India fully realized this condition and decided to try his luck. Situation is described here in brief.

Delhi: Ibrahim Lodi, the ruler of Delhi, lacked power and political diplomacy. He had created many enemies.

He was not on friendly terms with several Afghan and Turk nobles. Rana Sanga of Mewar was his sworn enemy. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Punjab: Daulat Khan Lodi, the governor of Punjab distrusted Sultan Ibrahim Lodi. To settle scores with him, he invited Babur from Kabul to invade India.

Sind: The province of Sind had become independent of the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. There was a good deal of confusion and lawlessness in the state.

Kashmir: Towards the end of the fifteenth century, there began a stage of anarchy in Kashmir.

Mewar: Sangram Singh, popularly known as Rana Sanga, was the ruler of Mewar. He aspired to capture the throne of Delhi and Agra.

He is said to have invited Babur to invade India. He was perhaps under the delusion that Babur like his ancestor Timur would invade, loot and go back to Kabul.

Chief reasons that led Babur to invade India: These may be listed as under:

1. Chaotic political condition of India.

2. Temptation to acquire enormous wealth of India.

3. Legal claim on account of Timur’s invasion on India – Babur a descendant of Timur.

4. Insufficient income from Kabul -Babur’s earlier possessions.

5. Fear of Babur regarding Uzbek’s attack on his empire of Kabul.

6. Babur’s ambition of capturing territories BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

7. Invitation from some Indian nobles and rulers to attack India.

After conquering Punjab, Babur proceeded towards Delhi and met the army of Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat – now a town in Haryana, 85 Kilometers north-west of Delhi.

Babur, in his ‘Memoirs’ mentions that with a small army of 12000 picked horsemen he defeated Ibrahim’s army of about one lakh soldiers.

Whatever be the statistical details, all historians agree that Ibrahim’s army was far greater in numerical strength.

For about a week, both the armies faced each other and engaged in skirmishes before the real battle started on the morning of April 21, 1526 and by noon it was over.

Ibrahim Lodi’s army was destroyed and he died in the battlefield along with his 15000 soldiers. (Estimates vary).

Pleased at his victory Babur wrote, “By the grace and mercy of Almighty God, this difficult affair was made easy to me and that mighty army in the space of half a day was laid to dust

BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment
BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 4. Discuss the emergence and development of the Nayaka kingdoms.

Ans. The Nayak dynasties emerged in South India after the downfall of the Vijayanagar Empire in 1565, when the Nayak military governors declared independence: they then ruled from the oth to 18th century Nayak rule was noted for its administrative reforms, its artistic and cultural achievements, and the creation of a unique style of temple architecture.

Nayak architectural style was characterized by elaborate hundred-and thousand-pillared mandapas (outdoor temple halls), the high gopurams (towers) with painted stucco statues on the surface, and long corridors. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Nayak civic architecture combines Dravidian and Islamic styles, as exemplified by the palace erected by King Thirumalai Nayak of the Madurai Nayak dynasty in 1636 CE.

The Nayak Dynasty emerged in South India after the collapse of the Vijayanagar Empire.

The Nayaks, former military governors of the Vijayanagar emperors, declared their independence in 1565 and established their own kingdoms, ruling from the 16th through 18th centuries.

Nayak rule was noted for its administrative reforms, its artistic and cultural achievements, and the creation of a unique style of temple architecture.

They also renovated temples that had been sacked by the Delhi Sultans. Thanjavur painting, a famous South Indian school of classical painting, also emerged under the Nayaks.

There are many distinguishing features of Nayak temple architecture as pioneered by the Nayaks of Madurai and Tanjore.

Among the main characteristics are the long corridors; the carved hundred-pillared and thousand pillared mandapas (outdoor temple halls or porches); and the high, multi-storied gopurams (towers adorning the entrance of a temple), richly decorated with brightly-painted stone and stucco statues of animals, Gods, and demons.

Nayak civic architecture combines Dravidian and Islamic styles, as exemplified by the palace erected by King Thirumalai Nayak of the Madurai Nayak dynasty in 1636 CE.

The palace features an octagonal throne room topped by a dome that rises 70 feet, held up by massive circular columns linked by Islamic pointed arches.

The structure was constructed using foliated brickwork and the surface details finished in stucco mixed from shell lime and egg whites to provide a smooth and glossy texture.

Q. 5. Write a note on the Mughal mansab system.

Ans. The Mansabdari System was introduced by Mughal emperor Akbar as new administrative machinery and revenue system. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

The term mansab literally means position, status or rank, but in context of the structure of the Mughal administration it indicated the rank of mansabdar-that is holder of mansab-in the official hierarchy.

The Mansabdari System was introduced by Mughal emperor Akbar as new administrative machinery and revenue system.

The term mansab literally means position, status or rank, but in context of the structure of the Mughal administration it indicated the rank of mansabdar-that is holder of mansab-in the official hierarchy.

The Mansabdari system was a grading system used by the Mughal rulers to fix the rank and salary of a Mansabdar.

They were nobles who occupied various positions in the administration of the Mughal Empire. They were appointed and dismissed by the Mughal Emperor.

Mansabdari System had the following characteristics:

• Akbar introduced the Mansabdari system in his administration

• Under this system, every officer was assigned a rank (Mansab).

• Lowest rank was 10 and the highest was 5000 for the nobles.

• Princes of royal blood received even higher rank.

• The ranks were divided into two – Zat and Sawar.

• Zat means personal and it fixed the personal status of a person,

• Sawar rank indicated the number of cavalrymen of a person who was required to maintain

• Every sawar had to maintain at least two horses. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

• All appointments, promotions and dismissals were directly made by the emperor.


Q. 6. Indic literary tradition as source of medieval history

Ans. The Indie manuscripts cover a variety of languages and traditions of India and Southeast Asia. There are approximately two hundred texts in Sanskrit, Pali and other languages.

Both Hindu and Buddhist religious texts are represented as well as some secular texts. Almost half of the collection is composed of palm leaf manuscripts (olas).

Manuscripts are handwritten records of the past and are in the form of books. Palm leaves were used as writing materials in the Indian subcontinent and in Southeast Asia dating back to the 5th century BCE.

Some of the most common genres were bibles, religious commentaries, philosophy, law and government texts. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 7. Bairam Khan’s regency

Ans. Bairam Khan was an extraordinary military general who served for Mughal emperors Humayun and his son Akbar rad had great contributions in expanding their kingdom.

Bairam led Akbar to his victory against Hemu in the second battle of Panipat. As an able regent, he guided Akbar during hostile situations.

Bairam was loyal to the Mughal Empire until Akbar came close to his nurse Mahan Anga’s that developed differences between the two.

When Humayun got the news about Islam Shahs death, he became enthusiastic to invade India.

At this point of time, Bairam Khan came to his aid. Punjab was conquered, the Afghans were defeated and Delhi was captured without any opposition.

Bairam’s contribution was immense as the Mughal Empire again rose to glory. Humayun died when Akbar was only fourteen years old and Bairam took the responsibility to guide Akbar. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Under his care, Akbar consolidated the shaken Mughal kingdom, into a vast empire.

The Afghan army under Hemu Vikramaditya captured Agra and Delhi but Akbar’s army led by Bairam defeated Hemu in the second battle of Panipat (1556) and recaptured the lost territories.

Akbar’s nurse Mahan Anga had other ideas. She, along with his son Adham Khan hoped to rule herself.

She forced Akbar to remove Bairam who in any way had grown old. Akbar was influenced and he arranged an excursion for Bairam to go on Hajj to Mecca.

Bairam left for Mecca but on his way was met by an army sent by Adham Khan, which as per say was sent to escort him from the Mughal territories.

Bairam felt humiliated and led an attack against the forces. Bairam was imprisoned and brought to the court of Akbar.

Instead of disrespect, Akbar offered respect and honor and funded his proper excursion to Mecca. However destiny had other plans for Bairam,

when he reached the port city of Cambay he was stabbed to death by a Afghan. whose father had been killed five years ago in a battle let by Bairam. Bairam died on January 31, 1561.

Q. 8. Food crops and cash crops during the medieval period

Ans. The medieval Indian peasants produced a variety of food crops, cash crops, vegetables and spices. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

They were familiar with various advanced techniques of crop cultivation of their times viz., double cropping, three crops harvesting, crop rotation, use of mantres and range of devices for irrigation etc.

(i) Food crops: The principal food crops produced were rice, wheat, barley, millet (jowar,”bajra) and a variety of pulses such as gram, arhar, moong, moth, urd, khisari etc.

(ii) Cash crops: Sugarcane, cotton, indigo (used to extract blue dye), opium, silk etc, were some of the prominent cash crops of medieval India.

Making of wine from sugarcane became widespread by the fourteenth century. During the Mughal period, sugarcane was the most widely grown cash crop with Bengal producing the finest quality.

During the Mughal period, Bayana (near Agra) and Sarkhej (near Ahmedabad) produced the best quality Indigo Sericulture (rearing of silk worms on mulbery plant),

which was practised on a modest scale till the Sultanate period, became widespread during the Mughal period, Bengal emerged as the main region of silk production.

The Mughal provinces of Bihar and Malwa produced the finest quality of opium. Tobacco cultivation was introduced in India by the Portuguese during the sixteenth century and it became widespread in the subsequent period.

Surat and Bihar emerged as major tobacco producing centres. Similarly, from the seventeenth century, cultivation of coffee began on a large scale.

Q. 9. Mughal Mints

Ans. The Mughals had multiple imperial capitals established over the course of their rule. These were the mints of Agra, Delhi, Lahore, and Fatehpur Sikri.

Power often shifted back and forth between these capitals. Sometimes this was necessitated by political and military demands, but shifts also occurred for ideological reasons (for example, BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Akbar’s establishment of Fatehpur Sikri), or even simply because the cost of establishing a new capital was marginal.

Situations where there were two simultaneous capitals happened multiple times in Mughal history.

Certain cities also served as short-term, provincial capitals, as was the case with Aurangzeb’s shift to Aurangabad in the Deccan.

The imperial camp, used for military expeditions and royal tours, also served as a kind of mobile, “de-facto” administrative capital.

From the time of Akbar, Mughal camps were huge in scale, accompanied by numerous personages associated with the royal court, as well as soldiers and labourers.

All administration and governance was carried out within them. The Mughal Emperors spent a significant portion of their ruling period within these camps.

Q. 10. Mahzar

Ans. It was in the beautiful city of Fatehpur Sikri that Akbar’s dream of a universal religion grew into a definite shape. BHIC 109 Free Solved Assignment

In the Ibadat Khana, initially there were disgusting arguments, some of which included a question over character of Hazarat Muhammad.

These discussions, rather than clearing Akbar’s doubts only increased the insatiable religious quest of the emperor.

These heated arguments, Akbar found that were only to defend the creeds of their own doctrines.

In the emperor’s eyes, there was a truth in all the faiths but none of the creed had the master key of the Supreme Being.

In 1579. Mahtar Nama was declared by which the emperor declared that if there were conflictions in the views of the debaters, he was entitled to choose any of the interpretations.

In 1581 the discussions at the Ibadat Khana were discontinued

With the Mahzar Nama, Akbar pounced upon the dominance of the intolerant orthodox and allowed free development of a genuine religious spirit Mahzar Nama was actually an idea or the father of Abul Fazal and Faizi,

set that the authority of the King was higher than that of a Mujtahid (doctor of the faith) and if there is a variance, the emperor’s decision should be binding on the Muslims of India.

With this edict, Akbar’s judgement was set above every legal and religious authority, so it was the promulgation of the doctrine of imperial infallibility,





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