HISTORY OF INDIA IV
BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q. 1. How will you define iquta? What changes were introduced in the iquta system by Muhammad Tughlaq and Firuz Tughlaq?
Ans. Iquta was an assignment of reventies of a defined area of land in return of services rendered.
The system of assessment in iquta as it prevailed in the provinces might be called a mixture of farming and several other systems compounding systems.
Because in this system the chaudharis and muqaddams used to contact a sum with the muqti (governor) and then realised more from the peasants, and the peasants agreed to pay a certain amount of the revenues.
In the early phase of Turkish rule in Bengal, iqutas were granted to the individual. Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq continued the system and Tughlaq
Iquta was synonymous with jagir or tuyul in the Mughal period. Probably the system of assignment in return of service was also known in Bengal before the coming of the Muslims.
When the sultanate was established in Delhi and in Bengal, the easy way of bringing new dominions under proper control was to carve them out into iqtas.
Iquta was frequently used in the histories of Delhi and Bengal during the early sultanate period. Land subject to the iqmāæ was originally owned by non-Muslims and thus was subject to a special property tax, the kharaj. BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
While the land remained legally the property of its owner, the iqmāæ was a grant of appropriation to a Muslim officer entitling him to collect the kharāj from the owner.
Out of this the officer was expected to pay the smaller æushr, or tithe, on income, but was allowed to keep the balance as his salary.
However, it proved difficult for the government to extract any payments from the officers, and the Buyids, an Iranian dynasty (reigned 932-1062), made the iqmāæ a grant of usufruct by which the muqma (recipient officer) collected taxes from the land-calculated to approximate his usual pay.
As the officer usually lived in a city remote from his iqmāæ, he had little interest in the land or its cultivators.
The grant was merely a wage, and as soon as the land or its people were depleted, it was exchanged for a more productive area.
By the time that the Seljuq regime (1038-1194) ended, the iqmāæ had been introduced into the provinces and the number and size of igmat had proliferated drastically, accounting for as much as half the land of the state, while the term of ownership also had grown, occasionally leading to hereditary succession.
With this new permanence mugma;s began to show an interest in the land and its maintenance, buying up neighbouring territory and binding the peasants to the soil by refusing to let them leave without having paid their taxes.
Iqtadar (or Agtadar) was the holder of the assignment. He performed the duties of controlling the areas, establishing peace, collecting revenues etc.
Under Iqta System, the land of the empire was divided into several large and small tracts called Iqta and assigned these Iqtas to his soldiers, officers and nobles.
In the beginning, an Iqta was based upon salary. Later, under Firoz Shah Tughlaq it became hereditary. Literally, Igta means land or land revenue assigned to an individual on certain conditions. BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The holders of these latas were the trustful agents of the Sultan. There were two kinds of Iqtas viz. Large Iqtas and Small Iqtas.
The holders of large Iqta were the provincial governors, who had some administrative responsibilities also.
On the other hand, the holders of the small Iqtas were the small troops holders who had no administrative responsibilities.
The small Iqta holders held and appropriated all the income obtained from the cultivators but as guid pro quid, they were bound to present themselves with horses and arms whenever called upon by the Central Government.
These small Iqta holders were called Khuts and Muqaddams. Amir Khusarau, for the first time, referred to Khuts as Zamindars.
Under Muhammad Tughlaq Sultanate as already indicated was spread in large areas with a core and outlying provinces.
The large extent of the sultanate necessitated the evolution of administrative apparatus separately for the centre and the provinces.
Therefore, it is useful to study the administrative institutions of the Delhi Sultanate at the centre and provincial areas separately. Those at the centre were the areas of direct administration.BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 2. Critically examine the working of the local administration under the Vijayanagara empire.
Ans. Vijayanagara empire which lasted for more than two hundred years in the Deccan had a well-organised administrative system.
It was on account of this system that there was an all round prosperity in the state. Under the leadership of its several rulers, the state made a remarkable progress in the economic, cultural, political and social fields.
Many foreigner visitors like Nicolo (onti-Italian), Abdul Razaq (Pekan) and Dominigos Pius (Portuguese), etc. have praised the prosperity of the state.
Kingship Krishnadeva Raya, the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Vijayanagara explains the position of Kingship in his book Amuktamalyda” that a King should gather round him people skilled in state craft and seek their advice and help in administration.
He further writes. “A crowned king should always rule with an eye towards Dharma”. The ruler was a benevolent despot. BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
He was the head of the state and was regarded as the God’s representative on earth. The king was the supreme authority in civil, military and judicial matters.
The king, however, was assisted and guided by a council of ministers. He was an enlightened and benevolent ruler.
The king was assisted by ministers who were nominated by the king. The ministers were appointed from the three classes i.e. The Brahmans, the Kshatriyas and the Vaishayas.
The office of the minister was sometimes hereditary. The three important key posts of the state were the Prime Minister, the Chief Treasurer and the Prefect of the Police.
Sometimes two rulers ruled at the same time-a strange practice and perhaps the only one in history: Hari Hari and his brother Bukka Rai ruled at the same time. Likewise, Vijay Rai and Dev Rai ruled at the same time.
For purpose of administration, the empire was divided into 6 provinces. A province was called Prant, or Rajya.
Each province was under a viceroy or Nayak who was either a member of the royal family or influential noble of the state. BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Every viceroy enjoyed Nil, military and judiciary powers within the province. He was required to submit a regularly account of the income and expenditure to the central government.
The rulers of Vijayanagar a adopted the principle of the decentralisation of political power. The empire was, divided into provinces prants, districts, “Nadus’, ‘Melagrams’ and ‘grams’. The administration of the villages was autonomous.
The province was divided into smaller units. The village was the smallest unit. It was self-sufficient.
The village assembly (Panchayat) was responsible for the administration of the village. Village accountant and the village watchman were the hereditary officers.
These officers were paid either by grants of land or from a portion of the agricultural produce.
Land revenue was the chief source of income. Land was divided into four categories for purposes of assessment, wet land, dry land, orchards and woods.
Usually the share was one sixth of the produce. Land revenue could be paid in cash or kind. The rates varied according to the type of the crops, soil, method of irrigation, etc.
Apart from land revenue, other taxes were: irrigation tas, grazing tax and import-export duties on merchandise goods.BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The king was the highest authority or the supreme court of justice. His word was final. Petitions were presented to the king or the Prime Minister by all those who had a grievance and these were disposed of according to the the principles of Hindu Law.
Punishments were very severe. Torture was used to find out the truth from the alleged culprit.
Death sentence, mutilation of the limbs of the body and confiscation of property were the deterrent punishments for the criminals. In the villages, panchayats dispensed justice for ordinary crimes
The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, artillery and camels. The rulers of the Vijayanagar a empire neglected naval power.
The rulers recruited Turkish archers in the army. The military organisation was rather weak and its primary weakness was artillery.
According to Domingos Paes, a foreign traveller, Krishna Deva Raya’s army included 703.000 infantry. 32600 cavalry and 551 elephants, besides an unaccounted host of camp followers. BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Chariots had gone out of use. The efficiency of the huge army was not proportionate to the number of force.
The court of the rulers of Vijayanagara was known for its grandeur and splendour. It was attended by nobles, priests, scholars, musicians and astrologers.
No written orders were issued by the rulers. The royal words were carefully noted down by secretaries, whose record was the sole evidence of the commands issued.
Q. 3. What are inshas? Write briefly on the portance of insha literature.
Ans. The Arabic word “Insha” means “Construction”, or “Creation”. It has been used in this sense in classical Arabic Literature such as the Quran.
Over time it acquired the meaning of composition, especially denoting the Prose composition of letters, documents, and state papers.
Subsequently, it was used as a synonym of “Munshaat”, which are documents composed in accordance with specific norms of diction and style that distinguish these prose compositions from ordinary prose. BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Gradually the term “Insha” came to represent a distinct branch of learning that enabled one to discern the merits and defects of the prose composition of letters and documents as a distinct type of writing from regular treatises and books.
“Insha” writing is mainly concerned with the expression of one’s innermost feelings, rather than the use of prose in scientific treatises.
Insha writing developed into an art form and involved detailed rules and regulations that a well lettered person was supposed to learn, and artful and well written epistolography, was considered a form of Adab.
The devices employed in Insha include verbal puns, and tricks, riddles, and a mannered, elegant style of writing.
A model of stately Insha prose in Arabic was provided by Al Qadi al fadil, (d. 1199), and later by Al-Qalqashandi (d. 1418).
In classical Persian literature, the most representative type of “Insha is identified as “Rasail”, meaning “letters”.BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Generally “Rasail literature can be categorized into two types of literature: (i) Tauqi’at and (ii) muhawarat.
Tauqi’at consists of the orders and directives of rulers and officials, and Muhawarat consists of letters and correspondence.
If the addressee is superior in status then the form of letters are called Murafa’a, and in case the addressee is inferior in status, then the type of letters Pre called ruq’a.
If both the addressee and the writer are of equal status, then the wipe or laters are called mancata.
Further categories exist due to the nature of the letters and the relationship and comparative status of the addressee and the writer, foninstance if the writer is the rulerofa kingdom.
then the Insha issuing from him could be categorized into farman, manshur or fathnania, depending on the nature of its contents.
Medieval India has a very rich tradition of Insha writing. Many intellectuals such as Amir khusrau, Khwaja-iJahan Mohammad Gawan and Abul Fazl set a model of Insha writing, which was followed by generations of Insha writers.
In admiration of superb Insha writing, many collections of Insha writing were collected. Munshaat — Namakin is one of the largest collections of Insha writings, which is dated from the early Mughal period.BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 4. Discuss the chief features of Balban’s theory of kingship.
Ans. The stern, harsh and violent policy adopted by Balban to suppress the internal revolts and meeting with the challenges posed by foreign invaders of Mongols is known as the policy of blood and iron.
The theory of kingship propounded by Balban led to the adoption of the policy of blood and iron.
Balban was convinced that the only way to face the internal and external dangers was to increase the power and prestige of the Sultan (King).
Sword’ was the chief weapon of Balban to achieve his objectives. He used this weapon with a great vengeance against his rivals, rebels, robbers, thieves and the invaders.
By following this policy, he wanted to create terror in the minds of the people that whosoever dared to challenge the authority of the Sultan, he would not be spared.
On account of this policy he was able to remain at the helm of affairs for about 40 years i.e. 20 years as the Naib Prime Minister of Nasir-ud-din Mohmud and then after as the Sultan of Delhi.BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
He executed his policy of blood and iron very successfully and raised the prestige and power of the Sultan in the eyes of the nobles and his subjects.
Main principles of Balban’s theory of Kingship:
Divine right of Kings: Balban said that the king was the representative of God on the earth and Kingship was a divine institution.
He declared this to make the nobles believe that he got the crown or the Kingship not through their mercy but by the mercy of God.
Royal descent: Balban realized that people at that time believed that it was only the prerogative of the ancient royal families to rule and exercise power,
he therefore declared that he was the descendant of the legendary Turkish warrior Afrasiyab and that circumstances only had made him a slave.
King as a despot: He said to his son Bughra Khan that “Kingship is the embodiment of despotism”. He believed that it is the King’s super-human awe and status which can ensure people’s obedience.
Word of difference between descendants of noble lineage and commoners: Historian Zia-ud-Din Barni has gone to the extent of remarking that whenever Balban saw a man of low birth, BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
his eyes started burning with rage and anger and his hands reached his sword to murder him.
This view seems to be on the extreme side, However this much is believable that because of this outlook of Balban, he dismissed all officials not born of noble families, from all important posts.
Recognition of tripartite relationship: Balban emphasized the relationship between God and the Sultan, Sultan and the people and the god and the people.
He considered himself the representative of God on the earth to look after the welfare of the people created by God.
Accordingly he emphasized that treasury should be used for the benefit of his subjects. Likewise the king should ha impartial indispensing justice.
Q. 5. Write a note on the development of paintings under the Delhi Sultans.
Ans. Despite Islamic injunctions against anthropomorphic figures in art, the Delhi Sultanate patronized a vast cannon of painting and artistic work.
The Delhi Sultanate developed an Indo-Persian style of painting that drew heavily from schools in Iran and Jain paintings. BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Features of Delhi Sultanate paintings that are based on Indian traditions include groups of people standing in rows and identical poses, narrow bands of decoration running across the width of the painting, and bright and unusual colors.
The paintings of the Delhi Sultanate represent a period of inventiveness that set the stage for the development of the Mughal and Rajput schools of art, which thrived from the 16th to the 19th centuries.
The early rulers of the Delhi Sultanate are often viewed as iconoclastic pillagers, best known for their indiscriminate destruction of Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain temples.
They enacted prohibitions of anthropomorphic representations in art, which had been common at the time.
Scholars previously believed that the Delhi Sultanate did not patronize painting because of this Islamic injunction against the portrayal of living beings in art; however, literary evidence and the discovery of illustrated manuscripts from the period suggests otherwise.
Indeed, royal painting workshops appear to have flourished under more liberal rulers.
The painting style of the Delhi Sultanate borrowed heavily from the flourishing traditions of Islamic painting abroad, resulting in the development of an Indo-Persian style.
This style was based essentially on the schools of Iran but influenced by the individual tastes of Indian rulers and local styles, including Jain styles of painting.
It is now believed that numerous painters and architects were invited from foreign countries, and illustrated manuscripts, handily transported, must have been easily available.
Features of Delhi Sultanate paintings that are based on Indian traditions include groups of people standing in rows and identical poses, narrow bands of decoration running across the width of the painting, and bright and unusual colours that replace the muted hues found in earlier Timurid paintings.BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 6. Literature in the regional languages of North India.
Ans. India is a huge land with a continuous history spanning several millennia. There is a staggering degree of variety and diversity in the languages and dialects s ken by Indians.
This diversity is a result of the influx of languages and ideas from all over the continent, mostly through migration from Central.
Eastern and Western Asia. There are differences and variations in the languages and dialects as a result of several factors-ethnicity, history, geography and others.
There is a broad social integration among all the speakers of a certain language. In the beginning languages and dialects developed in the different regions of the country in relative isolation.BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
In India, languages are often a mark of identity of a person and define regional boundaries.
Cultural mixing among various races and communities led to the mixing of languages and dialects to a great extent, although they still maintain regional identity.
The earliest traces of punjab is found in fragments writings of the the century Nath yogis gorakshanath and Charpatnah.
Punjabi literary tradition is said to begin with Fariduddin Ganjshakar, in the 12th century. The development of modern Punjabi with the Gurmukhi script emerged in the 15th century.
The Adi Granth is an early example of Punjabi poetry, steeped in religion and mysticism, Panjabi Suti poetry developed under Shah Hussain, Sultan Bahu, Ali Haider and Bulleh Shah.
The Qissa of Heer-Ranjha by Waris Shah, Sohni-Mahiwal by Fazal Shah, Sassi Pannun by Hashim Shah and Qissa Puran Bhagat by Qadaryay found favour.
Beautiful poems written by both known and unknown poets have come down to us. These continue to be sung by local singers for two or three hundred years.
Bhai Vir Singh is considered to be the father of modern Punjabi literature. Mohan Singh and Amrita Pritam brought a progressive note into poetry.
The earliest poetry in Sindhi dates to the 14th century. Sindhi is today the principal language of Sind province in Pakistan, the large Indian Sindhi community and the Sindhi diaspora across the world.BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Arabic and Persian were introduced in India with the coming of the Turks and the Mongols.
Urdu as a language Golkonda, Bijapur and Berar, where it was called Dakshina or Daccani (southern). As time passed, it became popular in Delhi.
Q. 7. Tu rkan-i Chihilgani
Ans. Iltutmish (1210-1236 AD) was the third ruler of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi of Turkic origin. He constituted a corp of 40 loyal slaves Amirs Known as Turkan-i-Chihalgani.
A select body of Turkish nobility originally slaves of Iltumish which came into existence during the period of litumish to be destroyed by Balban later.
The Corps of Forty also known as Dal Chalisa or Turkan-i-Chahalgami was the council of 40 Turkic and nonTurkic slave emirs who administered the Delhi Sultanate as per the wishes of the sultan.
It was the first regular ministerial body in the history of Indian subcontinent.
Althlongh all power was vested in the sultan, as the head of state, head of government, commander of the sultanate’s armies and the final decision-maker in the judicial system, he needed help ruling his kingdom effectively.
It was initially formed by Qutb al-Din Aibak and later modified by Titumish. After Itutmish’s death, the balance of power shifted and the sultan became a puppet of these emirs.
They would enthrone and depose Ilutmish’s children and grandchildren, often murdering them when they proved troublesome. BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
It would take a brutal man like Sultan Balban, one of Iltutmish’s slaves and former member of the Corps, to break the power of the emirs and restore the power and stature of the sultan.
Q. 8. Agrarian relations during the 13-14th centuries.
Ans. The agrarian structure and the peasantry in the Indian village have always received attention of scholars.
During the medieval period many changes took place in Indian society, but these did not affect the basic design of the Indian village.
However, in the 19th century the basic values by which economic life was governed were disturbed completely.
The Marxist tradition of class analysis has analyzed peasantry in terms of power relationship between the suppressed and exploited producers of pre-capitalist Society.
In India Writings on peasants in medieval period center around two major issues: the agrarian structure, recognizing the peasant’s roles and the emerging agrarian classes.
There is very little information on the peasantry in the Sultanate period Since many of the chronicles of this period only highlight the political achievements of kings,
there is very little reference to peasants except the mention of the agrarian revolts that were suppressed by the rulers. BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The 10th century saw consolidation of the power of small local chieftains with a proliferation of subordinate feudatories’ tenures and rights.
In the 12th century, the land grants that were autonomous principalities are clearly marked as territorial jurisdiction, the iqta, whereby the surplus income and produce of the peasants were collected and distributed among members of the ruling class.
The Khots and Muqaddams occupied the highest position in the 12th century. Above them were the Rais, Ranas, and Rawats.
The 14th century saw the transformation of the old aristocracy into a new superior rural class, represented by the Chaudhuri, later replaced by the Zamindar.
During the Mughal period, the peasantry was economically highly stratified, with considerable difference in the size of holdings, the resources available for cultivation, and the produce obtained.
There is a close association between the free peasant economy of khud-kasht and the tenant cultivator economy of pahi-kasht. BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The decay in the system started when it had outlived its utility. Neither the state took any initiative to improve the conditions of the peasants nor were the peasants left with sufficient surplus income or produce to improve agriculture on their own.
As a result the breakdown of the system became the historical inevitability.
Q. 9. Factors for the rise of bhakti movement
Ans. Factors that led to the rise of Bhakti movement: Hindu society was full of many social anomalies like rigidity of caste system, irrelevant rituals and religious practices, blind faiths and social dogmas.
Common men in general had developed an averse attitude towards these social evils and were in need of a liberal form of religion where they could identify themselves with simple religious practices.
Complexity of religion: The high philosophy of the Vedas and Upanishads were very complicated for the common people.
They wanted a simple way of worship, simple religious practices and simple social customs. Alternative was Bhakti margit-a simple way of devotion to get salvation from worldly life.
Role of Religious Reformers: The chief exponents of the movement were: Shankara, Ramanuja, Kabir, Nanak, Shri Chaitanya, Mirabai, Ramananda, Namdev, Nimbarka, Madhava, Eknath, Surdas. BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Tulsidas, Tukaram, Vallabhacharya and Chandidas. They were the propounders of Bhakti movement and gave a call to the people to worship in the simplest possible way of devotion and love.
Challenge from Rival Religion: the impact of the Muslim rule and Islam put dread in the heart of Hindu masses.
The Hindus had suffered a lot under some of the fanatic rulers. They wanted some solace to heal their despairing hearts.
Influence of Sufism: The Sufi saints of the Muslim community also inspired the movement. Some similar chords in the two evoked resonance.
Q. 10. Patterns and forms of mausoidumate Limited
Ans. A mausoleum is a building that contains the grave of a famous person or the graves of a rich family.
Mausoleums are above-ground structures, traditionalýmadeldgrannhisthat are created for people who don’t want to be buried below ground.
They provide families and future generations a place to be laid to rest together-in caskets or in niches. The definition of a mausoleum is a very large tomb or room for burial.
An example of a Mausoleum is a vault where an entire family is buried. A large stately tomb or a building housing such a tomb or several tombs.BHIC 107 Free Solved Assignment
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