HISTORY OF INDIA-3
BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q. 1 Describe the historical sources that have been used reconstruct the history of the early medieval period.
Ans. A large number of reliable sources are available for the reconstruction of early medieval period in Indian history.
They provide a good deal of insight and knowledge about the condition of those times covering all the aspects of the society, economy and cultural.
HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS BY THE INDIGENOUS SCHOLARS:
The decline of the Gupta Empire pwed way for the emergence of the regional powers in North India as well as in South India. The growth of the regional power was accompanied by the compositor Royal Biographies by court poets.
For example Banabhatta’s Harshacharita is one of the well known works of this genre. Sandhyakaranandin’s Ramacharita is written in shlesha (with double meaning) and simultaneously tells the story of the Epic Hero Rama and the Pala king Ramapala.
Bilhana wrote the Vikramankadevavcharita, an eulogistic work about vikramaditya VI, the Chalukya kingkatkalyani.
Literary sources offers both direct as well as indirect informations about their time. An example of a text that gives direct, useful historical information is the anonymous Lekkapaddhati a work in Sanskrit and Prakrit composed in Gujrat in about the 13the century which contains models of various legal documents.
Another example is Krishi-Parashara, an early medieval text of Bengal dealing with agriculture. BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
Chand Bardai’s Prithvirajraso is an Epic woven around the exploits of the Chauhan king Prithviraj Chauhan.
Kalhana’s Rajatarangini is a historical chronicle of the Rulers of Kashmir from the earliest time upto the 12th century CE.
ACCOUNTS OF THE FORIEGN TRAVELLERS:
Apart from the indigenous texts, Chinese and Arab accounts are useful sources of information for early medieval India.
The Chinese travellers who made the arduous journey from China to India and back included monks and diplomats.
Mention must be made of monks Xuanzang(c.600-64CE) and Yijing (635-713CE) both of whom visited India.
The important Arab works include the 9th-10th century writings of travellers and geographers such as Sulaiman, Al-Masudi, Ibn Haukal.
Later Arab writers and few others give useful information on trade through their accounts.
Just like the previous centuries inscriptions continues to form a major source of historical information for the early medieval period as well. For example: The Aihole inscription of Pulakeshin 11, the Chalukyan kingcomposed by the court poet Ravi Kirti.
It contains many details about the history of the dynasty. It also contains an account of the early kings of the Chalukya line.BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
The Banskhera and the Madhuban inscription of the reign of the king Harshavardhana of the Pushyabhuti dynasty.
The Banskhera inscription has the kings signature. Kalimpur copper plate of Dharmapala-records a land grant made by the king for construction of temple.
All the regional powers that developed in the post Gupta period and made a mark on the political history of India during the early medieval period issued their own coins in gold, silver, copper.
We have evidence of construction of massive monuments in the form of temple architecture and new capital cites by the kings to commemorate their victory of other kings or dynasties or neighbouring regions.
For example:The Chola king Rajendra to commemorate victories over Mahendra V the ruler of Sri Lanka and against the Pandyas,the Chalukyas and the ruler of Kerala, builua new capital at Gangaikondacholapuram.
The Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal, Karnataka was constructed at the behest of queen Lokamahadevi to commemorate the conquest of Kanchipuram by her husband king Vikramaditya II.BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 2. Who were the Rashtrakuts? Write a brief note on the formation and expansion of the Rashtrakut empire.
Ans. The Rashtrakura Dynasty ruled parts of South India from the 8th to the fOth century CE Arits zenith, their kingdom included the modern state of Karnataka in its entirety along with parts of the current Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra and Gujarat.
Their importance can be gauged from the writings of many Islamic travellers and scholars, especially Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbih (10th century CE), who wrote that all the other kings of India at that time prayed to the Rashtrakutas as a higher power and prostrated themselves in reverence before them, such was their influence and impression.
Origin and Rise: The name “Rashtrakuta in Sanskrit means ‘Country (Rashtra) and Chieftain (Kuta). This explains their lineage from the tint of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka the Great (3rd century BCE) when they were primarily small clan heads in different parts of India.
In some of the edicts of Ashoka (in Mansera, Girnar, Dhavali) the word Rathika appears, who may have been the ancestors of the Rashtrakutas.
However, though many historians claim that the Rashtrakutas were the earlier Rathikas mentioned in those inscriptions, this theory is not backed up by enough archaeological evidence.BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
Medieval Sanskrit literature reveals fragments of their lineage, which is thought to be from the Mauryan times as small clan heads.
However, their rise began when Dantidurga (also knows as Dantivarman. r. until 756 CE), who was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas, defeated their King Kirtivarman II in 753 CE.
Dantidurga’s ascent started from the time when he helped the Chalukyas in their successful war against the incoming Arab army (between 731 and 739 CE).
Soon, it became apparent that he was not satisfied in being just a vassal state and started exerting his influence through military aggression.
He defeated the kings of Kosala and Kalinga, subdued the Gurjaras of Malwa, defeated other kings of Central India, and made friendship with the Pallava king Nandivarman II Pallavamalla of Kanchi by giving his daughter in marriage, before he made the final assault on the Chalukya king in 753 CE and thus established the Rashtrakuta Empire.
Expansion: Dantidurga died without a male heir and was succeeded by his uncle Krishna I (r. c. 756-773/774 CE).
Krishna I gave the final death nail to their erstwhile masters, ils Badami Chalukyas, when he routed them in 757 CE to end that dynasty’s rule.
He expanded his kingdom by invading the Ganga territory and defeating them, by subjugating the Konkan territories and sending his own son to the Eastern Chalukya kingdom of Vengi and accepting their submission without a fight.
Krishna I is also culturally very important in the history of India because he was the man behind the construction of the exquisite Kailasa Temple of Ellora.
Krishna I was succeeded by his eldest son Govinda II (r. c. 774-780 CE).
Govinda II’s military adventures include his journey to the Eastern Chalukya kingdom upon instruction of his father and also helping a certain Ganga king in securing the throne from his brother.BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
How he came to his end in life is not known but he was overthrown by his younger brother Dhruva Dharavarsha.
The ascension of Dhruva Dharavarsha( 789-793E) marks the golden period of the Rashtrakutas.
He started his military conquests, first of all, by punishing all the kings who were friendly to his elder brother, and then venturing into the imperial Kannauj and defeating its king Dhruva then defeated the Gutjaru-Pratihara Kingdom of Central India and the Pala Kingdom of Eastern India which was centred around present-day Bengal, and thus with him started the tripartite struggle between the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, the Rashtrakutas, and the Pala Dynasty to control the main heartland of India.
The battle for Kannauilocated in modern-day Uttar Pradesh state) is one of the most important events in the medieval history of India.
His other victories include subjugating the Vengi king who could only ensure peace by offering his own daughter in marriage to Dhruva Dharavarsha.
He had also successfully moved against the Pallavas of Kanchi (present-day Tamil Nadu) and the immediate neighbours, the Western Ganga Dynasty.
Govinda III (r. 793-814 CE) succeeded his father Dhruva, and though he came to power through a family feud, soon proved to be militarily the most powerful emperor of this dynasty.
Though Dhruva had successfully moved into North India in his time, he had not gained many lands. BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
Govinda Ill rectified that by expanding his kingdom from Kannauj to the Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari now) and from the east of India from Banaras, Bengal etc. to the west of India mainly to the Gujarat territories, and thus on his way defeating numerous kings and rulers like the GurjaraPratihara king Nagabhata II, King Dharmapala of the Pala Empire, Pallava Dantivarman, Cholas, Pandyas,
Vishnuvardhana IV of Vengi, and several others. Even the King of Ceylon (current-day Sri Lanka) admitted his own subjugation and continued as a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas by paying time to time tributes to them.
Next in line was the greatest of all the Rashtrakuta kings, Govinda III’s son, Amoghavarsha I, also called Nripatunga (c. 814-878 CE).
He ascended the throne at a very early age due to the death of his father in 814 CE but could not hold real power as an emperor until 821 CE.
He was a scholar king under whom the art, literature, and culture of the kingdom flourished. He himself endorsed and wrote landmark pieces in both the Kannada and Sanskrit languages.
He also made Manyakheta (Malkhed in Karnataka now) the centre of the empire by which they are known today as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta.
Amoghavarshal ruled for almost 64 years, and though he faced many wars and battles, by temperament he was a peace-loving ruler.
He preferred friendly relations with his feudatories over war and used marriages and other amiable gestures to secure their loyalty. BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
Being a lover of art and scholarship, scientists prospered under his rule and his kingdom was adorned beautiful and intricate artworks and architecture all around.
He also equally patronised Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism, but many scholars are of the opinion that personally he probably followed Jainism.
After Amoghavarsha I came various rulers (like Krishna II, Indra III, Amoghavarsha II, Govinda IV, Amoghavarsha III, Krishna III, Khottiga Amoghavarsha, Karka II, and Indra IV) with mixed successes.
One of the notable successes was that of King Indra III (r. 915-928 CE), who captured Kannauj in the early 10th century (c. 916 CE).
Inscriptions in temples in Tamil Nadu and its surroundings reveal that King Krishna III (r. 939-967 CE) invaded the Chola territory and defeated the Chola army decisively in the 10th century CE.
Q. 3. Outline the main features of chol local administration with special referenc to Ur and Nadu.
Ans. King was the most important person in the Chola administration. All authority rested in his hands. He often went on tours in order to Reep Better touch with the administration.
The king was atded and advised by a council of ministers who held office at the pleasure of the king. There was a fully developed secretariat to oversee the functioning of Central administration
There were two types of villages at the local level in the Chola empire. One type of village consisted of people form different castes and the assembly which ran this type of village was called ‘ur.BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
The second type of village was ‘agrahara’ type of village which were settled by brahmins in which most of the land was rent-free.
The assembly of this agrahara type of village was a gathering of the adult men in brahmana villages called Sabha’ or ‘Mahasabha.
These villages enjoyed a large measure of autonomy. The affairs of the village were managed by an executive committee to which educated person owning property were elected eit by drawing lots or by rotation.
These members had to retire every three years. There were other committees for helping in the assessment and collection of land revenue for the maintenance of law and order, justice, etc.
One of the important committee was the tank committee which looked after the distribution of water to the fields.
The mahasabha could settle new lands and exercise ownership rights over them. It could also raise loans for the village and levy taxes.
The self-government enjoyed by the Chola villages was a very fine system. However, the growth of feudalism tended to restrict their autonomy.
The Chola Empire was divided into Mandalams (provinces). These Mandalams were further divided into Valanadus (districts). The tax on the land was collected by the village assemblies. BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
The village assemblies were responsible for maintaining tanks used for agricultural prosperity. There are three types of village assemblies.
These were the ur, sabha or mahasabha and nagaram. The ur was the assembly of common villagers. The sabha was the assembly of learned Brahmins.
The nagaram was the as smbly of merchants, traders and artisans. The Uttarmerur temple inscription gives a detailed description of the functioning of these assemblies.
There were provisions of land survey, Classification of various types of lands and assessment of land revenue. Chola rulers built a network of roads for the purpose of trade and communication.
The whole empire had been divided into nine provinces called mandalams. Each province was headed by a viceroy who received orders from the king.
Each mandalam was divided into number of Kottams or Valanadus which was further sub-divided into nadu. BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
Each nadu was further divided into villages called Urs.
Chola government depended mainly on the land revenue as the main source of income. of the land produce was collected as tax.
Besides land revenue, customs and tolls were the other source of income for the empire. Moreover, taxes on ports, forests and mites confibuted to the treasure of the lang.
The Cholas possessed an efficient army and navy. The army was made of 70 regiments. Chola kings imported highly efficient Arabian Horses at a very high price
The Chola king acted as the chief justice, as the trial in major cases were conducted by the king himself.
The minor disputes at the village level were heard by the village assembly. One of the most important administrative units of the Cholas was Nadh. Eachinadu was headed by a Nattap while the council of nadu was named attavai.
The responsibility of the village administration was entrusted to the village assembly called Grama Sabha, the lowest unit of the Chola administration.
It was involved in he maintenance of roads, tanks, temples and public ponds. The village assembly was also in charge of payment of taxes due from the villages to the King’s treasure.
Q. 4. Discuss the temple architecture and major temple styles of India.
Ans. Hindu temple architecture has many varieties of style, though the basic nature of the Hindu temple remains the same. BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
Hindu temple architecture reflects a synthesis of arts, the ideals of dharma, beliefs, values and the way of life cherished under Hinduism.
Influenced by early Buddhist structures such as the stupa, the first Hindu temples were built from rock-cut caves.
Then, with the arrival of Gupta architecture in the 4th to 5th century CE, the first free-standing Hindu temples were constructed with features such as towers and projecting niches.
The architectural principles of Hindu temples in India are described in Shilpa Shastra. Shilpa Shastra mentions three main type of temple architecture – Nagara or the Northern style, the Dravida or the Southern style and the Vesara or Mixed style.
The form and meanings of architectural elements in a Hindu temple are designed to function as the place where it is the link between man and the divine, to help his progress to spiritual knowledge and truth, his liberation it calls moksha
Garbhagriha (Sanctum Sanctorum)
. It literally means womb-house and is a cave like sanctum.
. In the earliest temples, it was a small cubical structure with a single entrance.
. Later it grew into larger chambers.BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
The Garbhagriha is made to house the main icon (main deity) which is itself the focus of much ritual attention.
Mandapa: It is the entrance to the emple. It may be a portico or colonnaded (series of columns placed at regular intervals) hall that incorporate space for a large number of worshippers.
Some temples have multiple mandapas in different sizes named as Ardhamandapa, Mandapa and Mahamandapa.
Shikhara or Vimana: They are mountain like spire of a free standing temple.
. Shikhara is found in North Indian temples and Vimana is found in South Indian temples.
. Shikhara has a curving shape while Vimana has a pyramidal like structure.
Vahana: It is the mount or vehicle of the temple s main deity along with a standard pillar or Dhvaj which is placed axially before the sanctum.
Amalaka: It is a stone disc like structure crowning the top of the North Indian style shikhara.BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
Kalasha: Wide-mouthed pot or ornamental pol-design decorating the sbikhara in North Indian temples.
Antarala (vestibule): Antarala is a transition area between the Garbhagriha and the temples main hall (mandapa).
Jagati: It is a raised platform for sitting and praying and is common in North Indian temples.
Q. 5. Analysis the urbanization in the early medieval north India.
Ans. Urbanisation in the early medieval period (c. 600-1300 CE) of Indian history was connected with the growth of regional Kingdoms and an expansion of Indian Ocean trade.
Maero level changes took place which produced new patterns of interaction. Agrahara system of land grants by the royalty created a new class of land holders which was a new socio-economic formation based on land grants.
There was a substantial change in the material milieu from the earlieh period as a result of these land grants. BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
Expansion of agrarian economy could be perceived along with state formation and expansion of state societies in the periphery, Villages were neither isolates nor undifferentiated, and were connected with the apex or supra-local political centres through administrative tiers at locality levels.
Agrarian economy gave fillip to non-agrarian sector thereby leading to a process of urbanisation.
Thus early medieval urbanisation could be characterised by changes in the agrarian economy, greater complexities in the political sphere and an expanding Indian Ocean trade network.
However to locate the urban centres and then to explain their growth remain a vexed problem and sifting through the vast epigraphic and other types of textual data and looking for a pura, nagara or pattana, different terms denoting urban centres, would be a preliminary way of approaching the problem.
Q. 6. Indian cultural in southeast Asia.
Ans. The rise of India’s influence had taken place when the Khmer kings spread it to other regions and decline began with the coming of Islam.
But even though it was a long time ago that India’s influence on Southeast Asia’s culture and civilization more or less halted, the impact can be seen and felt even today on its customs, culture, architectural designs.BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
The syncretic culture of Southeast Asia is evident in Buddhism being practiced in Hindu temples in Cambodia, Muslim wedding rituals and dress in Malaysia which are based on Hindu rituals and attire, Garuda – the vehicle of Hindu God Vishnu, is the name of Indonesian Airlines, and Naga and Kuber which are prevalent in both Hindu and Buddhist cultures can be seen carved in many places.
A Mahabharata Monument depicting Krishna and Arjun riding a chariot pulled by eleven horses is placed prominently in a park in central Jakarta.
Southeast Asia absorbed and retained its past Indian influence in a very distinctive manner over the centuries and today it has melded into the Southeast Asian culture.
Q. 7. Agrarian Organization.
Ans. An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland.
Another way to define an agrarian society is by seeing how much of a nation’s total production is in agriculture. BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
In an agrarian society, cultivating the land is the primary source of wealth. Such a society may acknowledge other means of livelihood and work habits but stresses the importance of agriculture and farming.
Agrarian societies have existed in various parts of the world as far back as 10,000 years ago and continue to exist today.
They have been the most common form of socio-economic organization for most of recorded human history.
Agrarian societies were preceded by hunters and gatherers and horticultural societies and transition into industrial society.
The transition to agriculture, called the Neolithic Revolution, has taken place independently multiple times.
Horticulture and agricultime as types of Subsistence developed among human somewhere between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent region of the Middle East.
The reasons for the development of agriculture are debated but may have included climate change, and the accumulation of food surplus for competitive gift-giving.
Most certainly there was a gradual transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural economies after a lengthy period when some crops were deliberately planted and other foods were gathered from the wild. BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
In addition to the emergence of farming in the Fertile Crescent, agriculture appeared in: by at least 6,800 B.C.E. in East Asia (rice) and, later, in Central and South America (maize and squash).
Small-scale agriculture also likely arose independently in early Neolithic contexts in India (rice) and Southeast Asia (taro).
However, full dependency on domestic crops and animals, when wild resources contributed a nutritionally insignificant component to the diet, did not occur until the Bronze Age.
Q. 8. Property rights of women.
Ans. During Vedic period woman was considered as a goddess and was adored. The only Disability from which she suffered is that she didn’t have the right of inheritance.
Vedic literature prescribed inheritance to the unmarried daughter and to a brother-less married daughter.
The widow was not given any right of inheritance in her husband’s property but childless widow was entitled to succeed to her husband estate.
The Indian woman’s position in the society deteriorated during the medieval period when Sati, child marriages and a ban on widow remarriages became part of social life The Muslim invaders brought the purdah practice in the Indian society.
Among the Rajputs of Rajasthan, the Jauhar was practiced. Polygamy was widely practised especially among Hindu Kshatriya rulers. BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
Women had no property rights during this period. In the smriti period, the widow, the daughter and the mother were expressly named as heirs.
But they could succeed to the property of a man only in the absence of male heirs.
Q. 9. Shankracharya and Advaita Philosophy.
Ans. Shankaracharya was an early 8th century Indian philosopher who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
It is a Hindu philosophy which focuses on Brahman, atman, vidya (knowledge), avidya (ignorance), may karma and moksha.
It refers to the idea that the soul or Amman is the same as Brahman. It has roots in the oldest Upanishads.BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
The classical Advaita philosophy of EaEkara recognizes a unity in multiplicity, identity between individual and pure consciousness, and the experienced world as having no existence apart from Brahman.
Advuita Vedanta is a school of Hindu philosophy and spiritual experience. The term Advaita refers to the idea that Brahman alone, pure consciousness, is ultimately real, the phenomenal transient world is an illusory appearance (maya) of Brahman, and the true self, atman, which is self-luminous pure awareness, is identical with Brahman.
In this view, jivanatman or individual self is a mere reflection of singular Amman in a multitude of apparent individual bodies.
Q. 10 Influence on Arabic Science.
Ans. For the best part of a millennium, from the Seleucid era and through to the Sassanid period, there had been an exchange of scholarship between the Greck, Persian and Indian cultoral spheres. BHIC 105 Free Solved Assignment
The origin of the number zero and the place-value system notably falls into this period; its early use originates in Indian mathematics of the 5th century (Lokavibhaga), influencing Sassanidera Persian scholars during the 6th century.
The sudden Islamic conquest of Persia in the 640s drove a wedge Between the Mediterranean and Indian traditions, but scholarly transfer soon resumed, with translations of both Greek and Sanskrit works into Arabic during the 8th century.
This triggered the flourishing of Abbasid ura scholarship centered in Baghdad in the 9th century and the eventual resumption of transmission to the west via Muslim Spain and Sicily by the 10th century.
There was continuing contact between Indian and Perso-Arabic scholarship during the 9th to 11th centuries while the Muslim conquest of India was temporarily halted.
Al Biruni in the early 11th century traveled widely in India and became an important source of knowledge about India in the Islamic world during that time.
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