SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD
BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q. 1. What is Archaeology science Bebin the sourdes od methods of archaelogical researches.
Ans. An Introduction to Archaeology: Archaeology studies human activities of the past period by analyzing material culture it conducts research about the past on the basis of objects found on the ground.
In order to understand the period for which written history is not available, archaeology, analyzes the things made by humans at that time and were left behind.
Archaeology can cover all the time periods and all geographic regions when humans were living.
It tells about their lives communities, families, etc. With advancements of the methods being used in archaeology, now, it is possible to know about the lives of people which would have remained unnoticed otherwise, because of the non-availability of written materials.
Sources and Methods of Archaelogical Research:
Artifacts are the portable material remains or tangible evidence made or used by humans in the past. Archaeology conducts research about the prehistory with the help of these artifacts.
Artefacts may be available in the form of stone tools, bone, etc. which were made millions of years ago, clay pots and stone vessels, textiles, pieces of bones, wooden materials, etc.
Features are non-portable artifacts that provide significant information about the archaeological sites. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Features include soil stains, biofacts (ecofacts), etc. which help archaeologists in understanding about that period.
Soil stains indicate about a pit, garbage dump, or about a structure, etc. that would have existed at the place during the period. The natural environment and climate of an area play an important role in the availability
Chemical Analysis of Soil: Here, the content of potassium and phosphate in the soil is measured to get indications of the presence of any human activities in the past.
Detection of Anomalies in Subsoil: Subsoil layer of the soil lies between ground surface and hard rock below.
To know about the anomalies in the subsoil, archaeologists use a potentiometer to measure its resisting power and then by recording changes in resistivity, etc. conclusions can be made about the possible presence of stone walls, ditches, graves and other archaeological structures.
Prospection by Acoustic or Seismic Methods: This method is particularly used by Archaeologists to know about submerged sites.
Under this method, the ground is hit and sound and vibration under it are noted by using instruments which can record vibrations by reflection, refraction or resonance after the sound. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
These techniques provide indications about the presence of human activities in the past and before finally deciding about conducting excavations at the site, archaeologists conduct a physical inspection thereof.
After collecting the artefacts/remains during excavation, its location must be determined and preserved and the layer where it was found must be recorded.
Otherwise, no useful archacological purpose can be served by removing an artifact in isolation from the site. For this purpose, archaeologists prepare complete maps and site plans of its location.
Q. 2. Discuss the contribution of Thucydides to Historiography by explaning the Greek history and Tradition of history writing.
Ans. The term history has been taken from the Greek word istoria that means inquiry or the act of seeking knowledge. It is believed that the Greeks had started what we know as the elements of historiography.
Herodotus is known as the father of historiography and the first historian of the world. He and Thucydides had lived during the age of classical Greek civilization in the fifth century BCE and their views were written in Greek.
Their views contained some amount of origi-nality: these were forward in time and also reflected the prominent ideas relating to that period.
It is further believed that Thucydidesavas the person who wrote the first seientitic history.
But both Herodotus and Thucydides had differed significantly as regards their respective approaches to write history and had different styles as well as purposes the Greek historians used to recognize the importance of sources and provided documentary evidences, reference to traditional/religious sources, interviews/eye witness accounts, etc.
It is believed that the historians used to give detailed narration about the significant events happening during their period. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
In their works they made clorts present dillerent form as compare that of the poets dramatists.
They did not try to find out the causes of the events. Several such narrations had described the events as a kind of fight between the good and the bad.
In the same way, some of the events were termed as the involvement of God and contained references of God’s anger, fate, etc.
The historians also recognized conflicts of material/supremacy, such as those between Sparta and Athens.
History and Hisoriography:
It is believed that in the ancient times, the Greeks had awareness about their ancients and they felt very grateful to them. making the Greek civilization, such earlier influences had a lot to contribute.
Therefore, it is not correct to believe that the ancient people did not have any knowledge of their past, they were not aware as to how their societies were created or they did not know about their existence in the nature. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Although, such expressions cannot be treated as historiography but these inform us about the societies and the way these had changed over a period Herodotus is called to be father of historiography and the first historian of the world.
He and Thucydides had provided views that had some amount of originality: these were forward in time and also reflected the prominent ideas relating to that period. Thucydides wrote the first scientific history.
But both differed significantly as regards their respective approaches to write history and had different styles as well as purpose.
Greek historians recognized the importance of sources and provided documentary evidences, etc.
Historians used to give detailed narration about the significant events happening during their period and also made efforts to present a different form as compared to that of the poets/dramatists.
It was the endeavour of the historians to conserve the fabulous events, particularly those relating to battles happening during their times or earlier times but the scope of their interests was very narrow. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Herodotus had narrated about the conflicts between the Greek and the Persians.
He had visited different important places in order to gather knowledge about prevailing stories and thereby presented an account of the civilized world of the period and covered descriptions in respect of Persian Empire and its people as well as about building the great pyramids.
Herodotus tried to preserve the history of the conflicts by incorporating the achievements made by the Greeks as well as by the Persians.
He had provided detailed accounts about the Persian life and Mesopotamian agriculture, Thucydides was an Athenian general and historian.
He provided detailed accounts of the Peloponnesian War. He mainly concentrated on the matters concerning the working of the city-state.
Q. 3. Write a note on the evolution of nomadic life and major nomadic groups in Central Asia.
Ans. Nomads and Noradie Empires in Central Asia: The nomads, of Central Asia had adapted pastoral nomadism in which they remained dependent on their livestock for their needs and kept moving towards pasture lands.
Herding of animals was their chief activity up to the third millennium Jnitially nomadism had come up when these people had federal naming herd of livestock us their livelihood and horses for riding and Transportation.
In the second stage, they started using bows. So, these well-organised warrior nomads used to migrate to different places in search of water and grass pastures and they had mastery in warfare tactics to have their control over settled communities.
Due to their warrior skills, these nomads could have their domination over the settled civilizations BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
These nomads continued to remain dependent on the sedentary people for procuring grains, other agricultural produce and other consumption things.
They could survive for a long period on meat and milk and also fulfil their clothing, shelter and equipment needs from their animals. The nomads used to make a number of things with animal skins and in exchange for their necessary items.
Also, the sedentary people were getting arms, ornaments, etc. from the nomad groups. Pastoral nomad tribes used to perform sedentary farming.
Although these nomadic tribes of Centralia were keeping many animals but the horse continued to be their chief asset.
According to Scholars, the nomads were getting most of their luxury goods from the sedentary people by doing trade peacefully but in case of any problems it its procurement due to the settled people, the nomads would become angry and used to loot their belongings. For a very long period, the nomadic people continued to remain undefeated in war.
The relationship between the settled people and the nomadic population in the words of Beckwith is that, the settled population was in need of government as well as protection and the nomads (steppes) could provide both.
Further, the later (nomads) needed education and they lacked administration, both of these could be provided by the later (settled people).
The nomadic groups, after gaining strength, used to capture the sedentary societies and in this way, the Nomadic Empires were formed which had ruled over the sedentary societies for many centuries. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
In this way, nomads of the steppes had created the Nomadic Empires when they were able to have their control on the settled population.
When these nomadic people had different groups among themselves, they could never dominate the settled population of the steppe.
On the other hand, after getting united, these nomads could come up as most powerful opponent of the settled empires.
The nomadic groups could run very fast and attack their enemies and after their tribal unification, they could easily attack the sedentary groups of the steppes because most of the members of the nomadic groups were expert warriors.
The Nomadic groups were able to form a unified empire because of the strong bond among the members of the tribal community.
To form strong Nomadic empires, they attacked and absorbed other nomads into tribal unions.
Thereafter, nearby settled populations were attacked by the tribal group which was stronger than other groups because of their military advantage.
These nomads were generally uneducated but after establishing domination over the settled groups, the nomadic groups tried to get adapted to the cultural and political skills of the former. But they remained fully dependent on the settled groups for administrative matters.
Because of their powerful military and horse riding skills, these nomad people were able establish their strong nomadic empire and had achieved their political supremacy in tbe region.
Thereafter, they had established Nomadic Empires. At the top was the ruling lineage followed the governors at the second place.
The governors were also commanding the armies in war. The local tribal leaders were at the third and the last stage of the imperialistic leadership.
After this, by the tenth and eleventh century, a number of other powerful groups had emerged in the region. Among these were the Samanid Seljuk Tucks and Khwarezmid.
MAJOR NOMADICIGROUPS OF CENTRAL ASIA
The Scythians: Scythians were the first tribal group who used to live on the banks of Black Sea. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
These people had their ancestry from the Iranians and they were leading nomadic lifestyle in the steppes of the Iranian country (present-day Russian Turkestan).
The name Scythia was given by Ancient Greeks to those areas that were lying in north-east Europe and the northern coast of Black Sea.
The Huns had occupied these areas after the Scythians. The land of the Scythians included the part of Eurasia lying between River Danube and the mountains of Tian Shan (also designated as the Altai mountain range) in which the Bronze Age had started.
Scythians had come from Turkestan and Western Siberia during the period between 750 to 700 BCE after defeating the Cimmerians (nomads of Indo-European origin) from the steppes and had established their influence.
These Scythians had a strong empire in southern Russia and Crimea (Ukraine) from the fifth century BCE to second century BCE and King Ateas was its strongest king who had united the tribal communities.
The Scythians used to live in wagons which were like moving houses for them. The wagons had four wheels and were pulled by horse or cattle. These wagons were serving as yurts (stable huts) for the tribal group.
The movements of Scythians were like a travelling city. The Scythian men used to have a beard and they wore tunics and wide trousers having pointed caps. Their chief weapon was bows and they were using horses. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
So, the Scythians were using horses, carts and covered wagons in their seasonal movements. The Scythian art was unique about gold in their carpets and plaques.
The Scythian tribes were feudal and were having a well-organized state system despite living with complete independence.
The state had six major provinces which were subdivided into nomes or districts and these were governed by a nomarch (governor).
The nomes also had a very significant part of the Scythian military organization. During 750-700 BCE, the Scythians had moved out of Turgai region and the Ural River towards southern Russia where they forced out the Cimmerians and remained lords of the Russian steppe.
Then, they went across the Derbent Gateway and came into contact with the Assyrian Empire.
In fourth century BCE, the Western Scythians were defeated by Macedonia. The eastern Scythians had gone towards South Asia where they become Indo-Scythians. The Seythians of Turkistan were pushed out by the Huns.
Xiongnu: This was the first unified empire of the nomadic people. According to some views, it was a confederation of several nomadic groups having different ethnicities.
This Central Asian nomadic tribe had lived in the Mongolian Plateau and modern Chinese provinces of inner Mongolia during the period between third century BCE and late first century CE. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Xiongnu were also called Asiatic Huns and during the fourth and third centuries BCE, they were engaged in continuous attacks in Northern China.
Chin-Shi Hwang Tiwas the king of China and the first sovereign emperor of China. He grouped together a great part of China in the form of a kingdom in order to protect save themselves from the nomadic group.
Also, for preventing the invasions of the Asiatic, he constructed the Great Wall of China and succeeded in keeping the Asiatie s away from Aurdupan Shensi.
The strongest ruler of the tribal community was Touman.
He brought together various nomadic groups of Mongolia and attacked Northern China He was stronger even than his father and had defeated Yuezhi in the year 203 BCE.
But after that Jiyu (Maodun’s son) could not perform well and the power of Xiongnu had reduced during his period,
The Xiongna kiugs were having for powers in the political organisation and they used to have their control on all other small leaders of the group.
Also, there were four governors in the eastern and western regions, mainly from the Xiongnu family, who had significant role in the empire.
These governors used to follow the rules formed by the central government and were also giving tributes to the king and the governing body of the central empire.
The Chinese had attacked Xiongnu in the year 129 BCE and the latter got split into two separate empires (Eastern and Western Xiongnu).
Thereafter, the Western Xiongnu Empire was attacked and demolished by a Chinese dynasty called Han but the Eastern Xiongnu had continued to hold power and also extended their influence on a vast area from Manchuria upto Kashghar.
But in 216 CE, the Han rulers of China defeated them. After this, Xiongnu had expelled the Yuechi tribe from Xinjiang and Gansu areas. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Then, the Yuechi went towards eastern Kazakhstan people had become the Kushans of the Indian, Iranian and Afghan history
Huns: Huns were a significant nomadic group during fourth and fifth century BCE. It is believed that the group had originated in the areas between the eastern edge of the Altai Mountains and the Caspian Sea.
They were known as the Hsiung-nu in China, were called Huns by the Romans and Indians. The Huns were meat-eaters and were expert horseman warriors due to which they could make their significant place all over Europe.
This people were having animals such as horse, camel, sheep, etc. The pastures of the Huns included the Scythian lands of Tyanshan and Altai.
The Huns had become a powerful force because of their wealth derived from cattle breeding, skills of making iron equipments and for better military skills.
Up to about 454 CE, these Huns did not have any strong king and the groups got together in 432 CE under the Hun chief Rua. In the Hun administration, the chief did not enjoy any special status.
The Huns were dependent on milk and meat and wore clothes made of leather and felt. The warriors were respected and given their chosen food.
It is believed that the Roman Empire had fallen during the period of 376 CE to 476 CE mainly due to the attacks of the Hun. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Bleda and Attila were Rua’s successors with whom the Eastern Roman Empire had entered into a peace treaty.
To protect their kingdom from the severe attacks by the nomadic groups of Central Asia, the settled groups used to pay them subsidies in the form of gold and other things.
The Huns also had their dominance over China and plundered and looted the towns and villages in southern areas. After 450 CE, the Huns could not keep their flocks together and the Hun Empire had broken down.
In the history of the Far East, the Huns were significant and they had captured Turkistan by the fifth century.
Thereafter, the Huns came in the proximity of the Persian Sassanid Empire. There were conflicts between the Persians, Huns and the Hephthalites because of the accupation of Baristan by the Huns.
Sassanid’s emperor Feroz I was killed in 484 CE due to such fights and on winning the war, the Persians were forced to pay a heavy tribute to the Huns for keeping the investres from sidst the Harderetter than ledemanding and had become as the strongest Eurasian Tribe.
Their movements were later stopped by the Gepids and Ardaric (the king of Gepidea) had defeated the Huns in 484 CE in the bottle of Medio Thebe Gepids were brave warriors and they also possessed the skills to shoot arrows from horseback, just like the Huns
Wusuns: Although their origin is not clear, the Wusuns were believed to have originated from Europe and they are taken to have developed from the Scythians.
Their history can be traced from the Bronze Age. Just like many other nomadic groups of the steppe, Wusuns used to move from place to place looking for water.
These people used to live between the Qilian Mountains and Dunhung (Gansu, China). These people had captured the areas from Carpathians to the Kokonor.
The Xiongnu as well as the Chinese wanted to have relations with the Wusun. The territory under the Wusuns was surrounded by the prosperous Fargana valley.
This valley was very famous for horse breed and had become significant for having the Silk Road. During 80 BCE, the Wusuns were attacked and defeated by Xiarsnu.
But in 72 BCE. Wusun chief Kunmi had defeated the Xiangnu with the help of the Han due to which their power got strengthened.BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Wusun king Nandoumi was killed by Yuezhi and the Wusuns were completely destroyed. Later, the Xiongnu had defeated the Yuezhi in 162 BCE and they were forced to move towards the west.
During the second and the third century, they had become the most powerful. In the same period, the power of the Huns was on the rise.
On becoming stronger, the prince of Wusun, Liejiaomi, attacked the Yuezhi by using the force of the Xiongnu and defeated Yuezhi in 133 BCE.
Then, the Yuezhi had expanded in South Asia. The power of the Wusuns had increased and they started controlling a large area including the silk route.
The Wusuns had established the first nomad royal city, named Chigu, which was on the Silk Road.
In the Chinese sources, the last mention of the Wusuns was there in the period 436 CE, showing them to have settled in the Pameer mountains.
In happened when a Chinese envoy was sent to Wusun to which the later had also reciprocated.
The Wusuns also went down along with the downfall of the Han dynasty in China and got disappeared from the history of Central Asia.
Turks: There were continuous fights between the nomadic groups during the period between 500 CE to 1500 CE. Turks were a strong nomadic group that came up during this period. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
It is believed that the Turks were the descendants of a small tribe of horsemen that had originated in the Altai Mountain region, which is situated between the Gobi Desert and the Siberian Plain.
The Turks of Altai were brought together by Bumin and they were very strong. The word Turk in Chinese means strong and it is believed that later, the word was started to be used to denote the Turks, which was a strong group of tribes.
The Turks had continued to be a dominating force in Central Asia for around two centuries and were having a large area where they could establish a strong empire.
The Turkish Empire in the sixth century CE was spread from the present day Mongolia to the northern frontier of China to the Black Sea.
They were also having their control over the Silk trade route between China and the Wei Bumined to the strongeschichtain of the Turks tribal group who had established a strong Turkish Empire in the Mongolian steppe region by gaining control over all the tribes of the region.
The Turks used to communicate in the Turkic languages Written records relating to the Turks are available and they were the first such Central Asian group to have left written records. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
The 7th century inscriptions which are found in Mangolia on the funeral stones near the Orkhon River are considered to be the oldest existing Turkic written records.
Quite a lot of important information about the interconects of this pastoral nomadic state has been obtained from these Orkhon inscriptions.
It is believed that at the peak period of its power, this state had covered vast areas from the Chinese borders to Byzantine (modern day Istanbul, Turkey).
The Turkish were following a democratic procedure in choosing their successor. Later, the Turks got divided in two factions, Eastern and Western Turks, due to a rift among them during the period under Nivar (581-587 CE). On account of the internal tussle between the clans, the Western Turkish Empire was destroyed.
A second Turkish Empire was established in the eastern Turkish tribes in 630 CE in the north of Ordos and Shansl.
But, literish conquered the central and northern Mongolia in 687 and established the kaghan traditional structure of Turks.
The Kaghan used to exercise control on the state and was also the head of the tribal group. Koumiss was the favourite drink of the Turks which was made from fermented mare’s milk and was also used as a medicine.
Initially, these Turkish nomads had embraced Buddhism. Subsequently, these people had adopted Islam. Even after adopting these two religions, this nomadic group had continued their tribal funerary traditions. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
These people used to place the dead body in front of the tent of the deceased. The children, grandchildren and other relations used to present a horse or a sheep.
These people also used to set up stones on the grave of the dead which were symbols of mourning. The number of such stones used to reflect the number of the enemy killed slain by the deceased.
Mongols: In late twelfth century, the Mongol was a group of tribal union in the steppe of Central Asia in which there were some steppe nomads and some others were engaged in hunting and fishing.
These groups were organized in different lineages and clans. Historian Ata Malik Juvaini says that before the rise of Chinggis Khan, the Mongols did not have a ruler and they were engaged in constant fights with one another.
He says that some Mongols used to consider robbery, violence, immorality, etc. as such acts which were normally associated with men (manliness).
Their diet included dogs, mice, etc. besides other dead things and koumiss (liquor made from fermented mare’s milk).BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
It is believed that the Mongols were grazing the herds of their animals alongside the Onon and Kerulen rivers in Mongolia.
During this period, different tribal groups were spread over a large area in the Mongolian region.
A tribal group called Naiman was there towards the north of the Mongols. This group was having areas upto the Irtysh River in Siberia. On the southern side of the Mongolia was another tribal group called Talar and in the western side, there were Karaits.
There were many other tribes towards the north of the Karaits and the Naimans. The most prominent from among these tribes were the Oirots and the Merkits tribes which were spread over in the south of Baikal region.
After getting united under the Mongol Khan, all these tribes (Tatar. Karaits, Naiman, Oirors and Merkits) were together known as Mongols.
The tribal chieftains were designated as Khan and the leader of all the tribes was known as khaqan. In 1206. the Turkic and Mongol tribes got united under Chinggis Khan which had led to the formation of the Mongol tribe. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Before, Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khaminikio nidu had sinrted the unification of tribes. The Tatars were one of the strong tribal groups of Mongolia.
It is believed that the Chinese rulers were not in favour of the unification of the tribal groups It is because the Chinese rulers were apprebersing about be attacked by the united tribal groups on their territories.
In order to prevent such attacks, the rulers of the Jin dynasty of China had been trying to divide the tribal union of Mongolian groups.
These rulers were able to obtain the favour of Tatars.
The Tatars had helped Jin to defeat Qabul’s Sweden Ablinger Khoo was killed by the Chineselin 16 E is way, conflicts had arisen between the Mongols and the Tatars due to the intervention of the Jin dynasty’s rulers of China and the unification got disintegrated during the late 12th century because of the war between Mongols and Tatars.
Chinggis Khan was able to control the wars going on between the tribal groups and also expanded the supremacy of the Mongol all over Central Asia.
After defeating the ruler of Jin dynasty of China in 1211, Genghis Khan attacked Iran, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. In 1226, he was able to defeat the tribal union of Tangut (in northern China).
The Mong Empire was the largest nomadic empire in the history of Central Asia and it became the first Nomadic Empire which included the tribe as an entity and which had controlled many regions including China and many other parts of inner Asia.
The Mongol Empire got spread across territories from Southeast Asia to Eastern Europe and it had established its supremacy.
In this way, the supremacy of the Mongol during the 13th century had come up as an important victory of the nomadic people over the sedentary groups.
Thereafter, for about one century, most of the areas of Central Asia were under the rule of the Mongols. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Even after that, for another century and a half, the Turkic speaking descendants of the Mongols had controlled these areas.
Q. 5. Throw light on the reasons for the expansion and decline of the Assyrian Empire.
Ans. The Assyrian Empire: By semitic group, we mean the ethnic and cultural group who spoke Semitic languages (Afro-Asiatic family of languages).
Different Semitic groups had moved towards the northern Mesopotamian region and the groups which had got settled in the Upper Tigris area were called the Assyrians.
The Assyrians were a mixed group of Semitic settlers and the local people and their name Assyria had come up from their most prominent deity Ash-shur.
During the period 1350 BCE, these Assyrians had established a large empire Assyria which had become a prominent power in West Asia.
Assyria had greatly affected the history of West Asia. Modern historians call the kingdom as Assyria, the city as Assur and these people are called as Assyrians.
Territorial Expansion: During the first phase of the rise of Assyria, there were many major territorial expansions. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
By 1300 BCE, the Assyrians had taken their control on the Upper Tigris areas and then they had started moving towards Syria which was being ruled by Shalmaneser I.
During the period of Tiglathpileser I, Syria and Babylon were brought under control.
Thereafter, Assyria had risen to become a prominent power in West Asia. In the tenth century, there were many tribal incursions which were stopped by around 900 BCE and a New Assyrian Empire was established by Ashurnaipal II.
He built a new city, called Kalhu near Assur and also made it as the seat of his government. His successor, Shalmaneser III could not further expand the empire. Tiglathpileser III was able to regain control on Babylon.
He expanded the Assyrian control by winning Syria and many important parts of Palestine. Towards eastern sides, he crossed the Zagros mountains and took over Iran (called Media at that time).
In this way, under Tiglathpileser III, the Assyrian empire had expanded from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea and from the Zagros/Taurus mountains to the Persian his success agresso took Assyrian empire to new heights.
During 626 BCE, there was a rebellion in Babylonia against the rule of the Assyrians and in 612 BCE, Nineveh was captured by the forces of the Babylonians and the Medes
Administration and Military System: Tiglath-pileser III had put in place a good administrative system and a strong military. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
He tried to strengthen his monarchical authority by dividing his territories into administrative districts under governors who wore directly answerable to the king these governors were given financial administrative, judicial and military powers but since the ruler had the final authority in all matters, the use of the powers by the governors was not absolute.
The state was getting a large part of its revenue from the tribute from these areas. In Mesopotamia, there was a system in which the ruler used to get troops from large landlords. As against this system.
during the reign of Tiglathpileser Ill a standing army was formed. Earlier, poor peasants were recruited forcibly into military.
Tiglathpileser III realized that in order to exercise control on the entire territory of the empire, it was necessary to have a properly trained army for protecting the empire. Army troops were also taken from the districts.
It was the responsibility of each governor to prepare an army contingent from his area for handing it to the central empire. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Such a system had drastically improved the efficiency of the Assyrian army. There were different specialized units in the army, like the infantry from Anatolia and Syria-Palestine, the camel riders from Arabia, etc.
The strong standing army of Tiglathpileser III was mainly responsible for his success in expanding his territories and with its help: he could expand into northern Iran.
Also, for maintaining such a large army, it was required that there should be continuous conquests for procuring resources by conducting army raids.
Tiglathpileser III also started another policy by which the people were made to shift over to the areas newly won.
This was done for the purpose of preventing any conflicts and rebellion. Particularly, in respect of the areas which were taken over after fierce battle, such policy was adopted. He moved about 65000 people to Iran after completing the campaign.
The Old Testament of the Bible also reflects about the hatred that the people felt towards the Assyrian empire. With all such measures, Tiglathpileser III could build an empire that was later carried on by his Sargoind successors.BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Babylon was ordered to be restored by Esarhaddon who had assumed power in 681 BCE. He also asked its inhabitants to come back. Esarhaddon had died in 672 BCE, but before his death, he gave Assyria to his elder son, Ashurbanipal and his younger son.
Shamas-shum-ukin was made the ruler of Babylon with the rights of a prince. The later was not an independent ruler but was under the larger control of his brother.
Shamas-shum-ukin entered into a secret alliance Egypt, Elam and sew Syrian states and in 652 BCE, he attacked Assyria.
But, Ashurbanipal was able to bring out Elam from the alliance. In 648 BCE, Babylon was conquered by Ashurbanipal.
Afterwards, he also defeated Elam in 646 BCE. Again in 626 BCE, a Chaldean chief, Nabopolassar, was able to bring together Elam and Babylon and had led the rebellion of Babylon against Assyria.
After about 10 years, Babylon had become free from the Assyrian empire. In 614 BCE, the Medes helped Babylonians in capturing the Assur city, which was the old capital of Assyria, Nabopolassar also got married his son, Nebuchadnezzar to Amytis, daughter of the MedianKing. in his bid to seal the alliance.
The joint forces of the Medes and the Babylon were able to capture Nineveh city in 612 BCE. By 609 BCE, Babylon was able to consolidate its position over Phoenicia, Syria and Palestine. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
A fierce battle was fought in n 605 BCE between Egypt and Babylon. Thereafter, Syria, Palestine and some Phoenician cities submitted themselves to Babylon.
After the death of his father in 603 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar 11 became the king. He had captured Jerusalem, the capital of Judah by 597 BCE.
Thereafter, he had a war with Apries who was the Pharaoh of Egypt. Then the Pharaoh madd the fulcr ar Jerusalem to rebel against Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar I was able to quell the rebellion and recapture Jerusalem.
He died in 562 BCE. But, the priests of Babylon were not in its favour. Nabonidus was also able to capture the caravan route towards Egypt, going through the oasis of Teima. He left his son Belshazzarin Babylon and himself moved to Teima.
On the eastern borders of Babylone there were constant threats from the persian king cyrus. To protest Babylon, Nabonidus returned to Babylon, after spending ten years at Teima.
But, Babylon was defeated and captured by the Persians in 539 BCE.
Q. 6. Write a brief note on the sources and urbanization of the Bronze Age.
Ans. Sources for the Bronze Age: The Bronze Age means the pre-historic period in which bronze was used for the first time. We know about this period from written records available and from its material remains. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
The material smains tell us about its widespread use by the people of the period. The practice of writing was started in a number of cultures of the Bronze Age.
The cuneiform writing of Sumerians, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Cretan hieroglyphs, Chinese logographs, etc. were among these. Cuneiform is the Mesopotamian writing and the Egyptian form of writing is known as hieroglyphs.
The other forms of archaeological evidences include monuments, art and different other objects such as pottery, ornaments, tools, etc, which were being used by these people.
The material remains are organic or inorganic. Organic materials are cloth, wood, etc. which do not remain intact for a long time and these do not survive.
The inorganic materials such as stone, metal and clay, etc. do survive for longer durations.
A number of texts belonging to the Mesopotamia and Egyptian civilizations have survived. These have also been read and understood.
We get a lot of information from these texts about the histories of these two civilizations. The Egyptian pyramids and the temples, palaces, graves, etc. belonging to Mesopo-tamian cities have been studied by archaeologists.
The houses and other archeological remains of the things being used commonly by the people also inform us about the societies and the lives of its various sections.
The Bronze Age was characterized by its association with urbanism. There has to be a good agriculture base for urbanism. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
On the basis of some archaeological evidences, the growth of urbanism in the Bronze Age has been termed as the Urban Revolution by Gordon Childe.
A number of cities, for example, Ur and Uruk in Mesopotamia and Mohenjodaro and Harappa in South Asia, were typical Bronze Age cities which had different types of monumental architecture, writing, art, etc. and there was a growth of various non-agricultural occupations, specialists as well as growth of trade covering different regions.
The Fertile Crescent comprises of the areas from the Levant to Iran. About 10000 to 8000 years back, in the northern mountainous regions of the Fertile Crescent, there was a beginning of farming and animal breeding.
But urbanism did not start in these areas and the people had gone to the alluvial plains of south Mesopotamia.
Urban development had begun thereafter, starting from the mountainous region and gradually moving towards the northern alluvial areas in modern day Baghdad.
Thereafter again, people had moved in large numbers from the northern part of alluvium to the southern alluvium during the Early-Middle Uruk period about 4000 to 3400 BCE and by the Late Uruk period around 3400 to 3200 BCE, such significant shift had become easily noticeable. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
According to Robert Adams, the growth of cities in the southern alluvimn in mesopotamia can be attributed to a combination of factors including the southward movement by a large numbers of villagers and also due to the adoption of sedemary Lifestyle by the nomadic poenie.
Because of all this, there wes rapid increase in the population of cities (for example Uruk) in the southern alluvium which can be said from the increase in the size of the area of Uruk city which grew from 70 hectares (during Early Uruk period) to about 100 hectares (during Late Uruk period) and thereafter to ghout no hectares during Early Dynastie period from 3000 2350 BOD f the same way, in South Asia, the population had moved from the hills of the Baluchistan region to the Indus valley.
It is also believed that a greater increase in agricultural productivity did not take place in the small areas of hilly valleys.
But in the larger plains of the great rivers, there was large increase in productivity. We know that there were small Harappan settlements in the hilly areas.
But after the movement of people into valley areas in the Mature Harappan period, there were larger settlements.
Q.7 Egypt : Religion and Temple.
Ans. Religion and Temples: People believed that Gods were created by the first God of all the Gods and Goddesses, just like the human beings. Gods were considered to be not immortal always.
People perceived the God as a person and gave certain positions and attributes. God was being characterized by a name and form.
Among the three most significant Egyptian Gods are Re/Ra, Ptah and Osiris. Re is understood as companion, Ptah is linked with sculpture and Osiris is meant as seat of the eye’. The war Goddess is symbolized by Neith. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Thoth is considered to be messenger of Gods. The Egyptian King served Gods by building temples, donating images and similar other acts. Temple and the state were not demarcated and land was held by both.
Local officials of state were controlling the apportioning areas of the temples. Priests were dependent on the temples, which were having granaries.
The temple lands were tilled on King’s behalf. Priests looked after the temples and its images.
Priesthood: The priests (Ka) were having significant position in the Egyptian society and many contemporary economic records are indicative of the significance of priesthood as a major social institution.
Initially, Royal family members only were occupying this post but later, due to increasing complexities in its administration, many nonroyals were also deployed as priests, Smaller temples had about 50 to 80 priests.
The First Priest used to be the King himself. Offerings were made in kind to the God or other statues in temples/tombs and the priests were paid out of these offerings. The different kinds of priesthoods are: BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
• Khery Bebet or Lector Priest: These priests had important role in administration. They primarily performed the recitation of specialized religious texts in the temple as well as during the mortuary rituals. .
• Sem Priests: This title was a prestigious one and was attached to Anubis and Khnum sects. These priests were the First Priest and they supervise the temple lands, priests, etc.
• The Hem Netcher: They worked as the local governor and had many economic powers. He used to keep a watch on materials being used for daily offerings.
• The Iwnmuter Priests: These were funerary priests who used to perform duties with the sem and were connected with private and royal mortuary cults.
The priests in ancient Egypt were living in villages with their families. They had a significant status in the society.
It is believed that from the Greco-Roman period, priestsaucre being represented on the walls of temples as a part of a procession or performing funerary rites.
Q. 8. Written and Epigraphical evidence of Iron
Ans. Evidences: Tests and Inscriptions: By the Second millennium, HCE iron had become a prominent metal.BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
As per the Early Assyrian inscriptions in the second millennium BCE found at Kültepe (Turkey), iron was used in exchange for ld and silver, and it was considered forty times more valuable than silver.
As regards the use of iron to symbolize monarchy, it is mentioned in the records of the Assyrian King Shalmaneser I that he donated valuable stones, gold, silver, iron, copper, tin, etc. for the temple at Assur being built by him.
Also in the Hittite texts, the word iron was used in relation to royalty as a precious metal. By around 1800 BCE, iron was started to be recognized and it became a favorite metal for making weapons.
In the early Kaltepe texts during the second millennium BCE in the Akkadian language, the term amutum was used for iron.
Six iron daggers, precious things such as pins with gold head, etc. were found from the royal tombs of Alaca Huyuk (Turkey) which relate to 2800 BCE.
There are references in the available texts about the use of iron during the third-second millennium BCE from which the significance of iron in the early societies can be known.
Q. 8. Sassanid Empire
Ans. The Sasanian (or the Sassanid) Empire was considered to be the Golden Age of pre-Islamic Iranian empires. This period is known to be among the most significant and influential historical periods of Iran.BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
This Empire was there from the third century CE till the seventh century CE and during this period; a number of developments had taken place in Iran, particularly, in the fields of art, agriculture and urbanization.
It is believed that the Empire had risen through the struggles made by a minor ruler from the province of Persis against the Parthian state and many other neighbouring rulers. There are the following three phases of this empire:
. During the third and fourth centuries, the empire was established and its rulers had wished to create a large empire,
. The period between fifth and the initial sixth century was period of decline due to border attacks by the Hephthalites, who were the most powerful nomadic group of Central Asia.
. During the remaining part of the 6th and the 7th centuries, there was a kind of renaissance (rebirth) under Khusraul and the empire had achieved great heights.
But there also came up competition for power because of its large wealth. The rulers changed very fast and due to instability, the invading Arab armies had move
into the region.BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
It is very difficult to understand a particular Sasanian Era because, for the Sasanians, the time started at the start of the reign of each ruler.
There is Iranian as well as non-Iranian sources from which we can know more about the Sasanians. The military organization of the Sasanians has been reconstructed from the archeological remains from sites along the Euphrates River.
But many areas including Anatha and Thiluthat are still unexplored. We know more about the fortifications from the excavations done by the French teams in areas like Bactra.
Also, a more clear understanding about the chronology of this Fupire Cambe had from the coins. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
There are inscriptions and seals relating this period which also provide us more information. Inscriptions are also available from the starting period of Ardashir I
Dio Cassus was a Roman historian of Greek origin who has published many volumes on the history of ancient Rome.
He has provided details on the rise of the Sasunians Propeoples was a chronicle person who provides accounts of historical events) who accompanied the Roman general Belisarius in his campaigns against the Sasanians,BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
He has also provided details relating to some aspects of the history of the Sasanians in a factual manner. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
During 977 CE, Firdowsi, a Persian poet, had authored the epic poem Shahnameh which is considered to be an authoritative history for the Sasanian period in Persian language.
Written in the twelfth century, Fars-rama by Ibn al-Balkhi. also provides lot of authentic information about the Sasanian period. Also available are the Armenian sources which on a number of occasions have not proved to be reliable, therefore, need to be used judiciously.
Further, in order to study the early Sasanian period, there is Syriac work, Chronicle of Arbela, which is considered to be very useful.
Apart from these, there are detailed accounts of the interactions by the Chinese travellers with the Sasanians.BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 9. Women in Greek society
Ans. Women in Greek Society: Women were a significant part of the slave population and they also used to work as domestic slaves and in textiles handicrafts.
Since, about a half of the total population was women, it was very important to discuss and understand their place and role in the society and in politics.
Women also constituted a part of the work force and they used to work at home and in fields, Women deities were being worshipped and many learned women belonging to the ruling classes had become well known individually.
Earlier also, women used to take part in public religious rituals. Still there was a great difference between women of the ruling classes and the women labour, women slaves and even non-slaves. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
There was the subordination of women in earlier societies, they were not given the liberties provided to citizens, were not considered as citizens, they had no participation in the assemblies and they were not provided the rights of ownership of property and inheritance
Q. 10 Dark Age
Ans. Dark Age: During the period around 1200 BCE, there was a more undeveloped level of culture and society in Greece and the period lasted till 800 BCE.
The Mycenaean period had declined and a sharp reduction in the centers of economic activity was there, many cities had lost its splendor and many cities were destroyed.
Greece witnessed poverty and continuous fights among the petty warriors of its ruling class. Most of the producing and ill-treated people were agriculturists.
There are archaeological evidence which suggest that during this period, long distance trade in tinand copper had significantly declined, there were smaller burial places and only a few luxurious goods in comparison to the Mycenaean burial places.
With the beginning of the use of iron for producing simple tools and the introduction of better technology for working on iron, a revival of the economy had started during about 1000 BCE. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Iron tool production had spread to different areas and it also helped in reducing the impact of losses caused due to decline in trade of tin/copper.
Social mixing had improved with the settlement of Greek speaking population in areas such as: Asia Minor, the Aegean islands and western coast of Anatolia.
Due to this reason, there was revival of languages also and three dialects got developed which were lonic Doric and Aeolic. BHIC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Writing had also revived and a script of writing got from the Phoenicians was got adapted to the Greek language. This script is written from right to left side.
So, this period was characterized by some features of reversal in the society, There were revivals after the period of setbacks, and there were new developments and achievements. The period is considered as the dark period just because for a very long time.
very little was known about it. Presently historians believe that any period cannot be considered to bedark period during which any great literary works were created. So, this period of Greece is now not considered to be an idle period.
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