IGNOU BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Help first

BGDG 172

Gender Sensitization: Society and Culture

BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment July 2022 & Jan 2023

Section A

Q 1. Describe the terms masculinity and femininity in India? Do you think it shapes gender roles? Explain.

Ans. In India, the terms masculinity and femininity are often associated with traditional gender roles and societal expectations.

Masculinity is generally associated with strength, courage, and assertiveness, while femininity is associated with softness, delicacy, and submissiveness.

These traditional gender roles are deeply ingrained in Indian society, and are often reinforced by cultural norms and values, family dynamics, and religious beliefs.

The concept of masculinity in India is often associated with the traditional male roles of provider, protector, and leader of the family.

Men are expected to be the primary breadwinners and to take on the responsibility of protecting and supporting their families.

They are also expected to be strong and assertive, with a sense of dominance and authority. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

On the other hand, femininity in India is often associated with traditional female roles such as homemaker, caregiver, and nurturer.

Women are expected to be responsible for taking care of the home and the family, and to be submissive and obedient to their male family members.

They are also expected to be delicate, graceful, and modest in their appearance and behavior.

These traditional gender roles and expectations shape the way in which men and women interact with each other and with society.

They also shape the opportunities and expectations available to men and women in terms of education, employment, and other life choices.

It is worth noting that these traditional gender roles are changing and evolving in India as the country continues to modernize and globalize.

However, these traditional gender roles and expectations continue to have a significant impact on Indian society, and are likely to shape gender roles and expectations for some time to come.BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

In conclusion, the terms masculinity and femininity in India are associated with traditional gender roles and societal expectations.

These traditional gender roles shape the way in which men and women interact with each other and with society, and also shape the opportunities and expectations available to men and women.

However, these traditional gender roles are changing and evolving in India as the country continues to modernize and globalize.

BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment
BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2. Describe the relationship of labour force participation, economy and gender question as a key focus. Support your argument by providing suitable examples.

Ans. Labor force participation, economy, and gender are closely interconnected and play a crucial role in shaping the lives of individuals and society as a whole.

The relationship between these three factors is complex and dynamic, and has been a key focus of economic and social research for many years.

Labor force participation refers to the percentage of individuals who are either employed or actively seeking employment within a given population.

This can include both men and women, but the labor force participation rates for men and women often differ due to a variety of factors such as societal expectations, cultural norms, and discrimination.

Economy refers to the financial and economic conditions of a country or region, including the level of economic growth, employment, and income.

A strong economy is characterized by high levels of economic growth, low unemployment, and rising incomes, while a weak economy is characterized by low levels of economic growth, high unemployment, and falling incomes.

Gender question refers to the ways in which gender affects an individual’s life chances and opportunities. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

This can include factors such as access to education, employment, and political representation, as well as the ways in which societal expectations and cultural norms shape an individual’s life experiences.

The relationship between labor force participation, economy, and gender can be seen in the ways in which economic conditions and societal expectations shape the labor force participation rates of men and women.

For example, during times of economic recession, women’s labor force participation rates tend to decline more than men’s, as women are more likely to be employed in sectors that are particularly vulnerable to economic downturns, such as retail and hospitality. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Similarly, during times of economic growth, women’s labor force participation rates tend to increase more than men’s, as more job opportunities become available.

Another example of this relationship can be seen in the ways in which societal expectations and cultural norms shape the labor force participation rates of men and women.

In many countries, including India, there is a cultural expectation that men should be the primary breadwinners for their families, which can discourage women from participating in the labor force.

Similarly, in many countries, there is a cultural expectation that women should prioritize domestic duties and child-rearing over paid employment, which can also discourage women from participating in the labor force.

Section B

Q 3. Critically evaluate the role of the family from gender lens.

Ans. The role of the family from a gender lens involves examining how familial dynamics and societal expectations related to gender shape individuals’ experiences within families. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Gender roles and expectations within families have traditionally been quite distinct, with men often being seen as the primary breadwinners and decision-makers, and women being seen as responsible for domestic duties and child-rearing.

One of the major ways in which the family shapes gender roles is through the division of labor within the household.

Traditionally, women have been responsible for domestic tasks such as cooking, cleaning, and childcare, while men have been responsible for paid work outside of the home.

This division of labor often continues even when both partners work outside of the home, and can limit women’s opportunities for career advancement and financial independence.

The family also plays a role in shaping gender roles and expectations through socialization and education. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Children learn gender roles and expectations through observing and interacting with their parents and other family members.

Boys are often taught to be assertive, independent, and to avoid traditionally feminine activities, while girls are taught to be nurturing, submissive, and to prioritize domestic responsibilities.

These gender roles and expectations can have a lasting impact on individuals’ career choices, relationships, and overall life experiences.

Additionally, family expectations and culture can also enforce gender stereotypes and discrimination, particularly when it comes to marriage and childbearing.

For example, in some cultures, women are expected to give up their career or education aspirations once they get married and have children, and men may face pressure to provide financially for their families and to be the head of the household. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

However, it’s worth noting that family dynamics and societal expectations are changing and evolving.

More and more families are challenging traditional gender roles and expectations, and advocating for a more equal division of labor and responsibilities within the household.

Additionally, some families are also challenging societal expectations related to gender and sexuality, and advocating for more inclusive and accepting attitudes towards non-binary individuals and those who identify as LGBTQ+.

Q 4. What is Sexual Harassment at Workplace. Examine its forms

Ans. Sexual harassment at the workplace refers to any unwanted or unwelcome sexual behavior that creates a hostile or intimidating work environment.

It can take many forms and can be directed at individuals of any gender or sexual orientation. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Some common forms of sexual harassment at the workplace include:

Verbal harassment: This can include comments, jokes, or suggestions of a sexual nature that make the individual feel uncomfortable or humiliated.

Physical harassment: This can include unwanted physical contact such as touching, hugging, or kissing.

Visual harassment: This can include displaying or sharing sexually explicit materials, such as pictures or videos, that make the individual feel uncomfortable or humiliated.

Quid pro quo harassment: This occurs when an individual in a position of power, such as a supervisor or manager, makes unwanted sexual advances and links them to job-related decisions, such as hiring, firing, promotions, or salary increases. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Cyber harassment: This can include sending sexually explicit messages, images, or videos via electronic means such as email, text message, or social media.

Gender-based harassment: This occurs when an individual is harassed because of their gender, whether it is because of their actual or perceived sex, gender identity, or gender expression.

Sexual harassment can have a significant impact on an individual’s physical, emotional, and mental well-being.

It can lead to feelings of anxiety, depression, and fear, and can also negatively impact an individual’s work performance.

Moreover, it can create a hostile work environment that affects the entire organization and can lead to decreased productivity, increased absenteeism, and higher staff turnover. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

It is important to note that, sexual harassment is a serious violation of human rights, and it is illegal in many countries.

Employers have a legal and moral obligation to prevent and address sexual harassment in the workplace, and it is the responsibility of all employees to conduct themselves in a manner that respects the rights and dignity of others.

Q 5. Write in your own words the ‘construction of a girl child’ with suitable examples.

Ans. The construction of a girl child refers to the socialization and cultural expectations that shape how girls and young women are perceived, treated, and expected to behave within society.

This construction can be influenced by a variety of factors, including societal norms, cultural values, family dynamics, and media representation.

For example, from a young age, girls may be socialized to prioritize appearance and beauty, and to conform to traditional gender norms of being submissive, quiet, and nurturing. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Girls may be encouraged to play with dolls and dress-up clothes, while boys are encouraged to play with action figures and sports equipment.

This sends a message that girls’ primary value is in their physical appearance and that they should aspire to be caretakers.

In many cultures, girls are also expected to prioritize domestic responsibilities and to take on the role of caregivers, even at a young age.

They may be expected to help with household chores and to take care of younger siblings, while boys are encouraged to pursue education and career opportunities.

This reinforces the idea that girls’ primary role is in the home and that their career aspirations should come secondary.

Furthermore, media representation also plays a significant role in the construction of a girl child. In many advertisements and movies, girls and young women are often sexualized and portrayed as passive, dependent, and submissive.

This reinforces harmful stereotypes and sends the message that girls’ value is primarily in their physical appearance and sexual appeal.

BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment
BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Section c

Q 6. Write a note on patriarchy.

Ans. Patriarchy is a social system in which men hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

It is often characterized by a hierarchical organization of society, where men hold power and make decisions, while women are typically relegated to secondary roles and are expected to be submissive and obedient.

Patriarchy can manifest in various ways and can be seen in the ways that men are treated differently from women, in terms of access to opportunities and resources, as well as in the ways that gender norms and expectations shape men’s and women’s behavior, attitudes, and aspirations.

It can also be observed in the ways that gender-based violence and discrimination are used to maintain power and control over women.

Patriarchy is a deeply ingrained cultural and societal system that is often perpetuated through socialization, cultural norms, and laws.

It can also be reinforced by the media and other cultural institutions, such as religion. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment 2023

Patriarchy is often seen as a root cause of many social issues, including gender discrimination, gender-based violence and economic inequality.

While patriarchal systems have been present throughout history, it is important to note that it is not a fixed or unchanging concept, but it can change over time and space.

There have been efforts to challenge and overcome patriarchy, through feminist movements, advocacy and policy changes, but it remains a persistent problem in many cultures and societies.

Q 7. What is radical feminism?

Ans. Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses on the fundamental societal structures and institutions that perpetuate male dominance and female oppression. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment 2023

Radical feminists believe that the root cause of women’s oppression is patriarchal society, which is a system of male dominance and control.

They argue that patriarchal societies are characterized by a male-centered power structure in which men hold most of the power and privilege, and women are marginalized and oppressed.

Radical feminists believe that the traditional gender roles and societal expectations that are imposed on women are not only limiting but also harmful.

They argue that these traditional gender roles are used to justify women’s oppression, and that the only way to achieve true equality is to fundamentally change the societal structures that perpetuate this oppression.

Radical feminists argue that the patriarchal structures that oppress women are deeply ingrained in society and cannot be reformed or changed through incremental or gradual measures.

They believe that true change can only be achieved through radical means such as dismantling the patriarchal structures and institutions that perpetuate women’s oppression. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

This can include challenging traditional gender roles, advocating for women’s rights, and promoting equality in all aspects of society, including education, politics, and the workplace.

Radical feminists often advocate for the dismantling of traditional gender roles, and the rejection of traditional gender identities, as they argue that these are artificial constructs that have been imposed on individuals by society, and that they serve to reinforce patriarchal power.

They also argue that the traditional nuclear family, where the man is the head of the household, is a patriarchal institution that is harmful to women and children, and that it should be dismantled.

In summary, Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that emphasizes the societal and systemic nature of women’s oppression, and argues that true equality can only be achieved through radical changes to the patriarchal structures and institutions that perpetuate it. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Q 8.What are reproductive rights of Indian women?

Ans In India, the right to access contraception and make decisions about one’s own reproductive health is guaranteed under the Constitution, as well as various national and state laws and policies.

However, in practice, many women face barriers to accessing these services, particularly in rural and low-income areas.

In addition, there is often a lack of information and education about reproductive health and family planning, which can lead to high rates of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions.

Abortion is legal in India under certain conditions, but the laws are relatively restrictive and there have been efforts in recent years to further limit access to abortion services. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

In addition, many women, particularly those in rural and low-income areas, may not have access to safe and legal abortion services.

This can lead to a high rate of unsafe abortions, which can have serious health consequences for women.

There is ongoing advocacy and activism in India to improve access to reproductive health services and information for women, including efforts to increase funding for reproductive health programs, improve access to contraception, and ensure that abortion is safe, legal and accessible to all who need it.

In overall, various socio-economic, cultural and religious factors are hindering the reproductive rights of Indian women, making it difficult for them to make informed decisions about their reproductive health and have access to safe and legal services.

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Q 9. Define productive and reproductive work.

Ans Productive work refers to activities that produce goods and services. This can include manufacturing, construction, agriculture, and other activities that contribute to the economy. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

It is typically considered to be the work that is done in the formal economy and is often associated with paid employment.

Reproductive work refers to activities that sustain and reproduce human life. This can include caring for children, elderly, and sick family members, cooking, cleaning, and other domestic tasks.

It is typically considered to be the work that is done within households and communities, and is often unpaid and unrecognized.

In summary, productive work is the work that contributes to the economic growth and is paid, while reproductive work is the work that is done in households and communities, unpaid and unrecognized.

It’s also worth noting that, while these terms are often used to describe different types of work, there is often overlap and the line between them can be blurred.

For example, a woman who is a paid home care worker is doing both productive work by receiving a salary and reproductive work by caring for the elderly person.

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Q 10. What is mass media?

Ans. Mass media refers to the various means by which information, entertainment, and advertising is disseminated to a large audience.

This includes forms of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and the internet. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Mass media plays a significant role in shaping public opinion and influencing cultural norms.

It is often considered to be a powerful tool for communication and can be used to inform, educate, and entertain the public, as well as to promote political and commercial interests.

The concept of mass media has become more complex with the advent of digital technologies, the internet, and social media.

These new forms of media have given rise to a more participatory culture, where individuals can produce and consume media content, and interact with one another.

This has led to a more diverse and decentralized media landscape, with a wider range of voices and perspectives.

However, it has also raised concerns about the spread of misinformation, the erosion of privacy, and the potential for manipulation of public opinion.

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