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BGDG 172

Gender Sensitization: Society and Culture

BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2021

Section-A

Q. 1. Describe Gender Roles briefly.

Ans. Gender roles can be conceptualized as behavioral expectations based on biological sex.

Traditionally, for men to be masculine, they are expected to display attributes such as strong power, and competitiveness, and less openly display emotion and affection (especially toward other men).

Thus, the roles and responsibilities assigned to them is based on perceived differences that is why gender roles are socially constructed gently role obligations influence career choice and commitment to the occupational sphere.

This role difference reflects in selecting an occupation. The term Division of Labour used in social sciences and gender and women studies to indicate roles and responsibilities of men and women m reference to occupations.

It indicates that gender roles are purely assigned and not based on their skills.

The traditional view of the feminine gender role prescribes that women should behave in ways that are nurturing. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

One way that a woman might engage in the traditional feminine gender role would be to nurture her family by working full-time within the home rather than taking employment outside of the home.

Men, on the other hand, are presumed by traditional views of gender roles to be leaders.

The traditional view of the masculine gender role, therefore, suggests that men should be the heads of their households by providing financially for the family and making important family decisions.

In broader terms, men’s roles are related to economic activities and it is accounted for in System of National Accounts (SNA) while women’s roles are related to care and nurturing, which may not be included in the System of National Accounts.

According to Caroline Moser, Women are subjected to triple burden in most of the developing countries.

They perform three types of roles i.e Reproductive, Productive and Community Managing and Community Politics.

Reproductive Roles played by women include childbearing, child-rearing, taking care of elders in the family and domestic household work.

Along with reproductive roles, women also perform productive roles by becoming secondary income earners but their economic activities are not included in the System of National Accounts (SNA). BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

The economic activities performed by women include part-time job, agriculture wage earners, taking care of milch animals and doing jobs in informal sectors in urban areas.

Community managing and community politics is considered as an extension of productive work and it includes work related health care and education of the entire community.

Women also carry out productive activities such as maintaining small pieces of land agricultural plots for farming systems and animal husbandry but normally their work is not paid.

Although in some formal and informal economic sectors, women are being paid but they get less amount for the same work i.e. in contrast to men’s, are often undervalued or given relatively little recognition.

Every society, ethnic group, and culture has gender role expectations, but they can be very different from group to group. They can also change in the same society iwver time.

For example, some cultures expect women to stay at home and do household chores, while men should go out to work. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

These norms are also called gender roles, which are specific roles men and women are expected to perform within society or even within the family.

Also, in India, unskilled labour is considered women’s work” while in Africa it is “men’s work.”

BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment
BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 2. Explain feminist’s perspectives on family in detail.

Ans. Feminists Perspectives: According to general study, family is a social institution based on cooperation, harmony, common interests and equality.

They have taken man as the important unit of family and ignored women’s experiences. In order to draw attention to wants the situation of women in the domestic sphere, feminist criticised the institution of family.

Liberal Feminism

Liberal feminism argues that women and men must be differentiated not on the basis of their biological imperatives but due to the process of sex-role socialization.

The sex-role socialization taught women to become housewives primarily, thus the women could not realize their full potential and remain independent of their husbands This is the main cause of their subordinate status in front of men.

Liberal feminists demand equal opportunity for women in all spheres including the equal opportunity for jobs which can be brought by legislation and social reforms.

Betty Friedan, Ann Oakly, Susan Okin Moller are among many liberal feminists who favored the respectable position of women in the family.

Socialist Feminism

Marxist feminists argue that women’s subordination is related to the ownership of property. Marxist feminism explores how gender ideologies of femininity and masculinity structure production in capitalism. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Socialist feminists contest such ideas and state the ways in which even the working-class male benefits from the family.

Socialist feminists argued for the social wage to bridge the divide between paid productive work and unpaid reproductive labor. The social wage sought to give material value to reproductive labor.

Radical Feminism

Radical feminists give stress on sexual exploitation rather than economic exploitation. They relate women’s oppression to their reproductive role that is performed by them within the family.

According to them, women should reject their biological reproductive role and take the help of technology to overthrow male domination.

Kate Millet, Shulamith Firestone is among the important radical feminist. According to Kate, the status of both child and mother is chiefly dependent upon the social and economic status of the male. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Firestone in her book The Dialectic of Sex (1972) wrote that the material basis for the inequality between men and women is produced within the biological family.

Feminist Studies of Family

Most the feminists concentrated their work around the family institution in terms of the structure of marriage.

unequal distribution of resources between men and women and gender division of labour. Women are often discriminated in access to health, education, food and clothing.

Son’s preference within the family, domestic violence are some other issues that often occur within the family structure.

Critique of Mainstream Research: Feminists argue that early Indian sociologists had focussed only on the Hindu joint family in terms of classical and sanskritic usage and ignored the family structures and kinship ideals and practices of non-Hindus including south and north-east India, lower castes, of non patrilineal communities and others.

They also did not focus on various kinship patterns in different regions and also the position of women. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Through Irawati Karve’s work only, we can get a comparative study on kinship and marriage in north and south Indian families that threw some light on different patterns of kinship and its effects on its members especially that of women.

Thus, according to feminists, mainstream studies has failed to inform about practical challenges related to the institution of family in India and it wrongly portrayed the family as an egalitarian and harmonious institution benefitting all

Familial Ideology and Women’s Subordinate Status

Women are subject to the violent behaviour in the name of family honour that subordinates women and provides power to men in order to obtain control on women’s self and sexuality.

It shows that how the honour of family remains dependent upon the purity of female sexuality. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

In order to maintain this purity, families socialize its members especially females to control their sexuality Gitare not allowed to get attracted towards any male remain pure.

Restrictions on mobility, maintaining purdah, early marriage of girls, etc. are certain practices adopted by a family in maintaining caste boundaries and for protecting its purity and honour.

Thus, men are provided with power rights over females.

As ainstream scholars support patriarchal ideology and observe nothing wrong in its reproduction, feminists argue that the process of gender socialization is based on rituals and ceremonies, the use of language, and practices within the family.

Due to the desire for the baby boy, girl child grow up with the notion of temporary and secondary membership within the natal home.

Most of the burden regarding to domestic household work is imposed on girls, while boys generally remain free and accompany their male elders.

Also division of labour kept women away from the market oriented income generating productive work thus making women economically dependent on men.

Dalit Feminists Critique of Family Studies

Dalit Bahujan feminists argue that in sphere of easte inequality, it is important to understand the politics of difference for understanding the dalit women’s subjugation.

According to queer critiques, feminist questioned gender roles, subordination of women, violence against women, unequal rights to property and decision-making and others within family, BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

but they neglected the role sexuality played in determining family form, and the unequal distribution of power within.

According to Rinchin, violence in the sphere of family can be seen as a serious concern but it never threatened the validity, its relevance and existence of the family institution itself.

Section-B

Q. 3. What is the role of media in shaping and reinforcing Masculinity and Femininity in India? Explain

Ans. Role of Media: Media is another gendering agent that has a powerful influence in constructing notions of femininity and masculinity.

The impact of media, particularly electronic media is significant on the people about what to wear, how to talk and how to behave in the family, community and the society at large.

For example, the image of angry young man was portrayed and promoted in the film industry.

The hindi movies like Mard’ and ‘NH10’ have showcased aggression and adopting violent behaviour. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

These types of films highlight how a society deals with the gendering of boys and make them construct their hegemonic masculinity,

Advertisements also play an important role inculcating gender stereotypes of masculinity and femininity.

Male aggression and power is appreciated and idealized by presenting them as a machoman, who rides a motorbike at high speed in slush, on mountains, or jumps from high mountains and buildings, etc. to demonstrate his toughness.

There is no use of showing a disclaimer that is run before the advertisement as it is hardly noticeable and presented in order to complete the legal formality

These potrays are of particular concern when it comes to young boys, who nt be more influenced by the media.

Mainstream media representations also play a role in reinforcing ideas about what it means to be “real” man in our society. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

In most media portrayals, male characters are rewarded for self-control and the control of others, aggression and violence financial independence, and physical desirability more recent stud Fono similar patterns in how male characters were portrayed in children’s television around the world: boys are portrayed as tough, powerful and either as a loner or leader, while girls were most often shown as depending on boys to lead them and being most interested in romance.

These portrayals are of particular concern when it comes to young boys, who may be more influenced by media images than girls, Boys, on the other hand, tend to incorporate media content into their own imaginations wholesale, taking it in, assimilating it, and then taking the story further.”

According to Götz and Lemish, boys… dream themselves into the position of their heroes and experience a story similar to the one in the original medium.”

The portrayal and acceptance of men by the media as socially powerful and physically violent serve to reinforce assumptions about how men and boys should act in society, how they should treat each other, as well as how they should treat women and children.

Each season’s new ads for cooking and cleaning supplies include several that caricature men as incompetent buffoons, who are klutzes in the kitchen and no better at taking care of children.

While children’s books have made a limited attempt to depict women engaged in activities outside of the home there has been little parallel effort to show men involved in family and home life. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

When someone is shown taking care of a child, it is usually the mother. not the father. This perpetuates a negative stereotype of men as uncaring and uninvolved in family life.

Women in the Media

Women are also the potential victims of the media’s influence over society. The portrayal of women as sexual figures in popular culture is also a threat to the well-being of our society.

Women’s exclusion from the serious news of the day was raised as early as the 18th century by women suffragists and women’s rights activists in Europe and North America.

The early suffrage leaders needed the attention of the news media to carry their ideas and activities to the wider public, but male-run newspapers and magazines largely ignored the women activists.

The news outlets that did cover women frequently trivialized their goals. Women, who departed from the social norms of passivity and deference to male authority, and the traditional roles of wife and mother, risked being characterized as inappropriate, insane or misfits.

If they demanded equality with men, the media depicted them either as curiosities or as loud, militant and aggressive. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Objectification of Women in the Media: We all know that media often portrays women in vulnerable and easily overpowered situations.

Feminist scholars say that the objectification of women involves the act of disregarding the personal and intellectual abilities and capabilities of a female; and reducing a woman’s worth or role in society to that of an instrument for the sexual pleasure that she can produce in the mind of another.

Gender and Print Media: Gender is the social construction of ideas that define the roles society expects from men and women.

In other words, gender determines masculinity and femininity through the cultural codes. These cultural codes that constitute gender are transmitted through language.

Language is the greatest force in the transfer of cultures, ideologies, and in the perception and evaluation of the world, Culture and language are two phenomena that are constantly affected by each other and cannot be considerd separately.

By examining the language of a society, it is possible to observe the traditional views of gender, their roles, power distribution, and prejudices of society.

The way women are represented in the print media is influenced greatly by the length ge used. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Print Mattia reflects social values and reveals traditional gender stereotypes and is possible to see representations of guide desintomassacdia.

Women are subjected to pressure and are considered secondary in the media, as well as in language.

The mass media, especially newspapers, play important roles in teaching traditional gender roles. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

This study aims to show how language is used in the newspapers as an instrument of patriarchal ideology and how it reflects gender.

Gender and Electronic Media: In India, given the enormity of illiteracy, especially among women, radio and television exposure is considerably higher than print media exposure.

Electronic media offers women entertainment and information in a homebound environment.

The tremendous popularity of television and its ability to reach a vast audience with illiteracy being no barrier led to the idea of using television as a channel for information on development among several governments/administrators.

From the mid-seventies, television began to be used to promote development-oriented messages among the Indian population.

But there was no exclusive focus on women’s problems and their development.

In the absence of a comprehensive media policy in India, television content emphasizing entertainment has grown to such an extent that today all television channels are oriented towards commercialization.

Though television in India began with the avowed goals of education, modernization and development, today’s satellite channels have done more damage to the cause of women’s development by regressing to highly negative values that impede women’s empowerment.

Gerbner and Gross (1976) argue that television is the central cultural arm of society, serving to socialize most people into standardized roles and behaviours.

They suggest that television cultivates people’s beliefs about how the world works more through the sum total of interactions, behaviours, and values present in television content than through finite attempts to persuade.

Hum Log was the first Indian soap in 1987 which kept millions of viewers across India glued to their T.V sets. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

The serial discussed issues of family planning, freedom of choice to find a life partner or job and the role of women in society.

Another popular TV soap of early years, Buniyaad had strong women’s roles while Humraahi focused on the rights of women to equal education and employment, to choose their own marriage partners, and to determine whether and when to have children.

With the advent of soap opera producing production houses like Balaji Telefilms, television soaps took a new form.

Women were basically seen as performing a decorative function and being marginal to national growth and development.

Their primary place is seen as being within the home and this value is reflected in the content and setting of most of television programs.

The plural nature of Indian culture and the diverse role that woman play is neither acknowledged nor communicated.

This results in reinforcement of the stereotyped image and role specification of woman in the uni-dimensional projection of their reality. Most of the soaps shown in Indian television are sexist. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Even the so-called matriarch (supposedly the 206 Visualising Gender head of the home) shown in some of the TV soaps victimizing the younger daughters and ‘bahus (daughters in laws) of the house and teaching them how to be ‘good’.

Women are all the time portrayed in roles where they are seen as compromising and negotiating.

Gender stereotyping is also very much evident in television portrayal of men and women in their appointed roles.

Invariably masculine personality attributes are emphasized and women in the world of television are presented in role of domestic help, a wife, a mother, etc. and they are portrayed as submissive and engrossed in common family affection and duties. As against this, men are depicted as employed, competitive.

Women shown in similar competing roles with men are far less in number and are considered to be oddities and deviations from the norm, trait wise though there is a stereotyped portrayal of women being congenitally much more than men.

Even when women are presented as power holders, the patriarchal context is unmistakably present. The attributes of power and aggressiveness is portrayed as something unnatural to a women and a challenge to the male ego.

In families in which the gender roles are largely traditional, television may tend to serve to reinforce such gender roles. In this way, television certainly plays a role in the construction of gender roles. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Gender Roles in Advertisements: In the world of advertising, men and women have consistently been portrayed in stereotypical ways.

Men are portrayed as more autonomous than women with men portrayed in many different occupations as compared to women being shown as housewives and mothers. Men were far more likely to advertise vehicles, business products, or job websites, while women were found mostly in advertisements for domestic products.

Advertisements also project women as the torch bearers of cultural heritage as advertisers have long been enamored with women and culture. Advertisements of a major life insurance company picture the transformation of the sindoor of women into the company’s logo.

Most of LIC advertisements picture the women left all alone, helpless, susceptible to exploitation if the husband does not have insurance. In the advertisements, women are predominantly employed to promote products and services.

In every item, they are utilized whether it requires their presence or not. Even in masculine accessories, women are presented. From these advertisements, a desirable value can be discerned.

Gender Roles in Cinema: The narratives of Hindi cinema have undoubtedly been male dominated and male-centric. Themes have been explored from the male audience’s point of view. The heroine is usually secondary to the hero.

Some film-makers dared to explore subjects from the women s perspective. Mother India (1957)a Hindi Mother India (1957)a Hindi film epic, written and directed by Mehboob Khan is a strong political statement on a woman who can do anything to establish that justice has been done even while remaining within the framework of marriage and motherhood.

Q. 4. Discuss Gender Gaps in Labour Force Participation and Economy briefly with suitable examples.

Ans. Gender Gaps in Labour Force Participation and Economy: Discrimination against women and girls is a pervasive and long-running phenomenon that characterises Indian society at every level. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

India’s progress towards gender equality, measured by its position on rankings such as the Gender Development Index has been disappointing, despite fairly rapid rates of economic growth.

In the past decade, while Indian GDP has grown by around 6%, there has been a large decline in female labour force participation from 34% to 27%.

The male-female wage gap has been stagnant at 50% (a recent survey finds a 27% gender pay gap in white-collar jobs).

India has a lower share of women’s contribution to GDP than the global average of 37 percent, and the lowest among all regions in the world.

For India to maintain its position as a global growth leader more concerted efforts at local and national levels and by the private sector are needed to bring women to parity with men. an attitudinal shift is essential for women to be considered as equal within their homes and in broader society. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

The role of women in the workplace cannot be viewed in isolation from their role in society

Data from India National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) Surveys shows that women? labor-force participation is significantly lower than that of men in both urban and rural areas. As per the famous scholars Chaudhary and Verick 2014,

India’s female labor-force participation rate is just 21 percent in urban areas and 36 per cpu in rural areas compared with 76 percent and 81 percent, respectively, in the case of men.

Moreover, in recent times The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) released results of its Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) for the year 2018-19. The estimates show a marginal improvement in overall labor force participation rates, more so for rural women (up from 18.2 percent in 2017-18 to 19.7 percent in 2018-19),

Urban female labor force participation rates also show a modest improvement over the same period – from 15.9 to 16.1 percent.

This seems a reprieve from the intense decline in female participation in the Indian economy, more so in rural areas, which has been the subject matter of many debates in the recent past. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

The Global Gender Gap Report (2014) reveals a widespread perception that women are paid lower wages compared with men for the same work. Only 7 percent of tertiary-educated women have jobs as senior officials compared with 14 percent of men.

Similarly, women account for only 38 percent of all professional technical jobs. Women constitute just 5% of the boards of companies in India. In both rural and urban areas, about 92 percent spent most of their time on domestic duties.

Among those who spent most of their time on domestic duties, about 60 percent in rural areas and 64 percent in urban areas did so due to the reason ‘no other member to carry out the domestic duties

The Securities and Exchange Board of India SEBI has set of fresh warnings to listed companies to appoint, at least, one woman director on their Boards by the April 1 deadline failing which they would face regulatory action.

The market regulator was informed by the stock exchanges the close to one-third of top 500 listed companies do not have any women on their boards.

Underlying social attitudes about the role of women are, arguably, some of the biggest barriers India’s women face. MGI (2015) found a strong link between attitudes that limit women’s potential and actual gender equality outcomes in a given region.

Q. 5. Explain the importance of the Enumeration of work from a Gender Perspective from your own word

Ans. An enumeration is a complete, ordered listing of all the items in a collection. The term is commonly used in mathematics and computer science to refer to a listing of all of the elements of a set. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

The precise requirements for an enumeration (for example, whether the set must be finite, or whether the list is allowed to contain repetitions) depend on the discipline of study and the context of a given problem.

Some sets can be enumerated by means of a natural ordering (such as 1. 2. 3. 4. … for the set of positive integers), but in other cases, it may be necessary to impose a (perhaps arbitrary) ordering.

In some contexts, such as enumerative combinatorics, the term enumeration is used more in the sense of counting – with emphasis on the determination of the number of elements that a set
contains, rather than the production of an explicit listing of those elements.

The term “women’s work may indicate a role with children as defined by nature in that only women are biologically capable of performing them: pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

It may also refer to professions that involve these functions: midwife and wet nurse. “Women’s work” may also refer to roles in raising children particularly within the home: diaper changing and related hygiene, toilet training, bathing, clothing, feeding monitoring, and education with regard to personal care.

It may also refer to professions that include these functions, including teacher (up to the age of puberty), governess, nanny, daycare worker, and au pair. “

Women’s work” may also refer to roles related to housekeeping, such as cooking, sewing, ironing, and cleaning. It may also refer to professions that include these functions, such as maid and cook.

Though much of women’s work is indoors, some is outdoors, such as fetching water, grocery shopping or food foraging, and gardening.

At least in the European context, and until the industrial revolution, society was primarily agrarian and women were just as involved in working on farms as men. Related concepts include gender role, wage labor and employment, female workforce, and women’s rights (cf. Gender roles and feminism).

The term may be pejorative because historical advertisements have promoted the misrepresentation of women as only housemaids.

Most of the time, the contribution of women’s productive activities are not recognized. It is invisible most of the time. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

When the statistical enumerator approaches family members to note the contribution of work of the cach family member, they tend to contact male members of the family to take note of the family member’s contribution.

The term micropower refers to having greater power in the home; which means that it is easier for men to avoid housework and care labor. Micropower may also be a tool men use to prevent women from entering the workforce.

When women are kept in the private sphere, men remain the sole provider financially, which provides headway in American society.

BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment
BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Section c

Q. 6. Write short mesos Gender boundaries and gender identity

Ans. Gender Boundaries: Gender boundaries are not physical or geographical but are conceptual’. They are subject to change.BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

For example, a few decades back the dressing of women and girls did not include pants or jeans, now it has become common them to wearers and pants

Gender Identity: Gender identity is related to a person’s inner sense of being male or female. This sense is internalized and developed since childhood. It is also marked by the voice physique, dress, hairstyle, behavior and language used by gender.

gender identity is not only about how one perceives one’s own gender but also about how one presents one’s gender to the public. Gender identity can correspond to, or differ from the sex we are assigned at birth.

The language a person uses to communicate their gender identity can evolve and shift over time, especially as someone gains access to a broader gender vocabulary.

Q. 7. What is Representation?

Ans. Representation is the use of signs that stand in for and take the place of something else. It is through representation that people organize the world and reality through the act of naming its elements. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Signs are arranged in order to form semantic constructions and express relations. For many philosophers, both ancient and modern, man is regarded as the “representational animal” or animal symbolism, the creature whose distinct character is the creation and the manipulation of signs – things that stand for” or “take the place of something else.

Representation has been associated with aesthetics (art) and semiotics (signs). Mitchell says “representation is an extremely elastic notion, which extends all the way from a stone representing a man to a novel representing the day in the life of several Dubliners”.

Representation of Women in Media and Literature
Imagination plays a significant role in representation. In literature, it helps in engendering and re-engendering women.

Though the 21st century has often been referred to as the age of women-empowerment when every crusader against patriarchal norms is applauded, representation of female emancipation, be it in films and serials or in literature, often assumes distorted forms.

The depiction of women in media and literature seems to be aimed more at satisfying the subconscious male voyeuristic desires than at how the females have become modernised enough to take on the world. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Importantly, this is not a novel phenomenon. Since the time of The Ramayana or The Mahabharata, women have been constantly relegated to peripheries vis-à-vis the usual male assumption of centrality, with the powerful men looking down upon their female counterparts merely as submissive sexual objects.

Women have been consistently stereotyped as unintelligent human beings who are expected to serve in kitchens, follow the directions of their male and female in-laws, act as caring mothers to children, and ensure, on the peril of unpopularity, that servants did their tasks correctly.

We know how the woman is represented in art and sculpture. All these representations are gendered and need to be understood from a gender perspective.

Representation as Social Reality

Representations are based on social realities. Therefore, they are social constructs. They can only change when the overall picture changes,

Self and Other

The binary of self and other is perhaps one of the most basic theories of human consciousness and identity, claiming, in short, then the existence of another, a not-self allows the possibility or recognition of a self.

In other words: I see you. I do not control your body or hear your thoughts. You are separate. You are not me. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Therefore, I am me. The self/other binary seems to be an accepted division of how the modern individual comprehends who she is, by recognizing what s/he is not.

Q. 8. What is Empowerment?

Ans. Empowerment: According to Naila Kabeer, Empowerment is defined as the expansion in people’s ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability was previously denied to them”.

She suggests three dimensions of empowerment: resources (conditions); agency (process); and achievement.

The process of empowerment can be a multi-dimensional social process that helps people gain control over their own lives.

The people become able to develop self-confidence and solve their problems independently. The following case study further elaborates on the concept of empowerment.

Case Study

The Organization Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) was founded in 1990 by three social activists in one of the most backward areas in the state of Rajasthan, India.

The members of the organisation are small and marginal farmers and landless laborers. The basic aim of the organisation is to ensure the payment of government-approved wages for workers and to bring transparency and accountability in the local administration.

The meetings are conducted at community and village levels through demonstrations and ansuvai”. Ajans unveil is a participatory social audit in which government officials are brought face to face with citizens in a public gathering.

This is a platform through which the village people, especially daily wagers in government projects and applicants of antipoverty plans ask questions from the officials and verify official government records. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

Such fans often result in the public exposure of the corrupt practices of officials. Also, people raise their voices on locally relevant issues and demand transparency in an administration that leads to their empowerment.

The organisation contributed significantly in the implementation of the Right to Information Act in Rajasthan. The organisation has inspired people in other Indian states also.

Q. 9. Write in your own words about Glass Ceiling with an example,

Ans. Glass Ceiling: A glass ceiling is a metaphor used to represent an invisible barrier that prevents a given demographic (typically applied to minorities) from rising beyond a certain level in a hierarchy.

The metaphor was first coined by feminists in reference to barriers in the careers of high-achieving women.

In the US, the concept is sometimes extended to refer to obstacles hindering the advancement of minority women, as well as minority men.

Minority women in white-majority countries often find the most difficulty in breaking the glass ceiling” because they lie at the intersection of two historically marginalized groups: women and people of color.

East Asian and East Asian American news outlets have coined the term “bamboo ceiling to refer to the obstacles that all East Asian Americans face in advancing their careers Similarly, off invisible obstacles posed against refugees’ efforts to workforce integration has been coined the canvas ceiling”.

Q. 10. Deseribe Social Attitudes and Stereotypes concerning disability.

Ans. Social Attitudes and Stereotypes: The social status of persons with disabilities is always lower than the normal persons as they have been portrayed as freaks, helpless victims, and a lifelong burden for family and society.

In religion and mythology also, negative traits have been attributed with a form of a deformity like Manthara was portrayed with a hunchback in the Ramayana and Shakuni in Mahabharata as lame. BGDG 172 Free Solved Assignment

The disability is perceived as a punishment for past misdeeds in Indian society. Such a type of attitude and social constructions about the disabled by the non-disabled leads to the marginalization and dis-empowerment of this group.

Also due to the internalization of such negative stereotypes within the disabled people feel passive, dependent, isolated, low self-esteem, etc.

Pity. segregation, discrimination, and stigmatization are normal towards the disabled group. The most common attitude is the expression of pity towards persons with disabilities in India. This also reflects in social policies which are based upon charity and welfare.

Through various state policies, persons with disabilities are distributed with assistive aids and appliances such as braces, crutches, hearing aids, etc.

There are special schools, vocational training in low-end occupations, and sheltered employment for them.

But as these persons are denied access to normal school education and social experiences, they are not confident and unable to make their presence felt in public life.

As they are regarded as a politically significant group and hence their issues and concerns have not been taken up seriously by the political class. But after 1981, the issue of disability was opened up at the national level.

Now the focus is on human rights and the empowerment of marginal groups impelled the government to make some policy changes such as reservations in educational institutions and employment.

The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities. Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 was introduced in India in order to ensure equal opportunities for people with disabilities, which has now been replaced by the Rights of Persons with Disability (2016).

It attempts to address various themes with the ultimate goal of not only improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities, but also promoting and safeguarding equality, self-determination, dignity, and social inclusion of persons with disabilities.

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