IGNOU BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22- Help first

BEVAE 181

AECC on Environment Studies

BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Table of Contents

BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

Q. 1. “Sustainable development is an ideal goal towards which all human societies need to be moving” Justify the statement in about 250 words.

Ans. The future of mankind depends to a great extent on sustainable development. There are a number of issues such as concerning environment which include safe drinking water, clean air, clean living conditions, productive land, quality food, ete.

Also, pollution, deforestation, biodiversity, solid waste disposal, global warming, climate changes, the depletion of ozone layer etc., have created awareness about these issues.

The UN Conference on Environment and Development of 1992, the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 and adoption of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 (to be achieved by 2016-2030 by the UN have attracted the attention of people of the world towards the deteriorating environment.

The following are some of the priority areas for achieving Sustainable Development:

• Slowing down population growth;

•Efforts should be made for improving health and longevity, reducing poverty and inequality;

• Adopting methods for making agriculture sustainable by reducing soil erosion and decreasing use of harmful practices;

• Protecting forests and other habitats, controlling greenhouse gases and ozone layer depletion for reducing air pollution, land degradation, etc.

•Using energy-efficient methods, conserving energy and developing renewable energy resources. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

•Improving the efficiency of water use and protecting water quality.

Initiating methods for reducing waste generation by improving production processes, waste treatment and recycling

BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment
BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 2. Differentiate between the following terms by giving suitable examples in about 125 words each:

(a) Genetic and Species Diversity

Ans. Genetic Diversity: Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. It is the sum of the genetic information that is contained in the genes of individual plants, animals and microorganisms.

It is the fundamental currency of diversity which is responsible for variation. Genetic diversity includes the basic units of hereditary information which is found in a species or in different varieties of the same species passed down generations.

For example, different varieties of rice, is an example of genetic diversity within a species. Genetic diversity helps a species to get adapted to the changing environment.

Species Diversity means the number of species and abundance of each species that live in a particular location.

It refers to the species richness and how evenly the abundance of species is distributed. In this connection, species abundance means the number of members of each species and species richness means the total number of species in an area.

Species diversity explains the biological diversity as per the number of species in an area.

Various estimates are available about the total number of species existing presently on our earth and it is widely accepted that there are about 12.5 million different species on the earth. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

It is also accepted that insects and micro organisms are in most abundance number life forms on the earth.

There are about 4500 species of mammals, 10000 species of birds, 22000 of the Fish, 2.70 lakh species of plants on earth.

(b) Direct and Indirect use Value of Biodiversity

Ans. Direct Use Value: Includes goods which are directly consumed like food or timber, etc. In fields such as agriculture, industry, medical, etc., maintenance of a wide range of components of biological diversity can be of direct use.

It involves using forests, wetlands or other ecosystems for getting timber, collecting non-timber products, fishing, etc.

These direct use values can be due to extractiye use (extracting and consuming resources) or non-extractive use (no extraction of the resource used E.g. bird watching

Indirect Use Values are benefits which are derived from the goods and services provided by an ecosystem which are used indirectly.

Indirect use value relates to the services that support the items that are consumed. The different indirect use values are as under: BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

• Non-consumptive Value is concerned with nature’s services that contribute significantly to social welfare and ecological processes without which earth would be uninhabitable.

• Aesthetic Value of biodiversity is reflected in the efforts made by people to maintain home gardens and the number of people throughout the world visiting parks, botanical/zoological gardens, aquaria, etc., to view natural land-scapes or to see different species.

• Cultural and Religious Values include songs, beliefs, stories, dance and drama, poetry, traditional crafts, cuisines, rituals, names, etc., inspired by species and nature in different cultures of the world.

Cultural value of biodiversity is shown by societies in the respect for life forms or the parts of biodiversity. Also tiger, lion,lizard, turtles, etc., form a part of religious and spiritual beliefs in many countries.

• Ethical Values of Biodiversity relate to its intrinsic value for its own sake. It is independent from different economic, social and cultural uses of species by the people.

It emphasizes that human beings are only one of the millions of species on the earth. Every species is unique and has a right to exist because all the species have come up due to the evolutionary processes without any human intervention.

the millions of species on the earth. Every species is unique and has a right to exist because all the species have come up due to the evolutionary processes without any human intervention BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Q 3. Answer the following questions.

(a) What is biodiversity hotspot? Why is India considered as a mega biodiversity hotspot?

Ans. Biodiversity Hot Spots: Biodiversity hotspots are areas which have significant reservoir of biodiversity and are also threatened with destruction.

According to Myers (1988), there are 18 Hot spots around the world. These areas have about 50,000 endemic plant species (20% of world’s plant species) in only 746,000 km2 (0.5% of the Earth’s total land surface).

The World Conservation Monitoring Centre, U.K. has identified 21 hotspots and in a study by Conservation International, there are 34 global biodiversity hot spots covering about 1.4% of the Earth’s land surface and containing about 44% of all plants, 35% of vertebrates (excluding fishes) and 96% of the world’s most threatened primate species.

India is rich in its biological diversity and out of these 34 hotspots, four are in India extending as: The Western Ghats, Indo-Burma region, the Himalayas and Sundaland.

These areas have rich floral wealth and endemism, reptiles, amphibians, swallow tailed butterflies and mammals.

The tropical moist forests are the richest terrestrial ecosystems on earth. Further, the coral reefs have very rich biodiversity and the species diversity on seafloor is even greater than the coral reefs. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

It is also seen that the economically poor developing countries in tropical areas have rich biodiversity than that of the developed countries in temperate regions.

India : A Mega-Biodiversity Country
India is classified as one of the 17 mega-diverse countries because of the following reasons:

• Four global biodiversity hot spots are in India.
• India has about 33% of endemic flora.
• There are 26 recognised endemism centers in India.

India has two major realms and three biomes, e • India has ten biogeographic regions.
It is one of the 12 centres of origin of cultivated plants.

(b) Describe the life forms of aquatic ecosystem found in different zones with suitable examples and diagrams.

Ans. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

About 3/4th of the earth’s surface is covered with water, fresh water or saline water.

Aquatic ecosystems may be are categorised as fresh water ecosystems including lakes, ponds, pools, streams and rivers, marine ecosystems including shallow seas and ocean and Brackish water ecosystems including estuaries, mangrove swamps and forests, etc.

Aquatic Organisms include species of aquatic animals, plants including fish, marine fish and marine organisms. Such organisms are classified into the following groups:

• Neuston organisms live on top of the air-water interface or just beneath the air-water interface and get food within water, including water striders, spiders, protozoans, snails, etc.

• Periphyton organisms remain attached or clinging to plants and other objects above the bottom sediments. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

• Plankton live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim. These include microscopic plants, algae, protozoans, bacteria, etc.

• Nekton are aquatic animals able to swim and move independently of water currents. These are large and powerful and range in size, including, sharks, dolphins, turtles, etc.

• Benthos are found on the bottom sediments of a water mass. These organisms have large variety of adaptations to environment. Example: Sea squirts, crabs, lobsters, corals, etc.

Freshwater Ecosystem includes – lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands, etc. These systems have two main divisions: Lentic ecosystems (situated in still fresh water like lakes, poolsetc.),

Lotic ecosystems (flowing water) such as rivers, streams and springs.

Lakes are Inland water bodies containing standing water. Its area and depth varies from place-to-place. These lakes have inflow and outflow of water and have different patterns of circulation within its boundaries.

Lakes, Impoundments and Wetlands: Lakes are there in areas that have been subjected to geological changes within past 20,000 years. Impoundments are bodies of water that are confined within an enclosure. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

These may be offstem or onstem. On stem reservoirs, located in upland areas and are formed by making dams on a stretch of river or stream in a river valley.

Offstem reservoirs are built in low land areas by pumping water from a river or from below the ground.

Wetland is an area which is saturated with water, permanently or periodically, including marshes or swamps which are covered with shallow water or have sol saturated with moisture.

These may be classified as inland wetlands occur when inland is surrounded by land and contain fresh water, e.g., bogs and swamps and coastal wetlands are found in coastal watersheds, near the coast. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

These may contain saline or brackish waters. Examples: Salt marshes, fresh marshes, mangrove swamps, mangrove forests, etc.

Lotic Ecosystems – Rivers: These are the flowing water habitats which include rivers, streams, etc.

Water in these is continuously flowing which influences distribution of organisms in the ecosystem.

Rivers are open but lakes are self contained systems, in case of a lake, its nutrients may be used many times but in a river, at any point of time, the plants and animals must avail the temporarily available nutrients.

Biota of Rivers: The animal and plant life of the rapidly flowing and the slowly flowing rivers are different.

Animals: In the open rock surface habitats, those organisms are found who are capable of staying in one place,including fresh water limpet, larvae, fresh water sponges, etc.

In the small places below the rocks having a weak current, animal such as flatworms, clams, some snail species etc. are found.

Animals which can swim nektons) are found in those areas where the water current is not very strong. In places having strong water current, benthos are found.

Plants: Only a few plants are present here and for getting their nutrients, they have to depend on organic detritus washed into the river.

Marine Ecosystems: These ecosystems are the largest of the earth’s aquatic ecosystems and its waters have high salt content. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Sodium chloride in the salt is 27% and other contents are calcium, potassium and magnesium.

The oceans in polar region have a constant temperature of 2°C and in tropics, temperature is 32°C. Marine habitat is in two zones: Benthic zone and Pelagic zone

Biota of Oceans: Every major group of animals and algae may be found somewhere in the sea barring vascular plants and insects. Marine ecosystems have been divided in following zones:

Biota of Littoral Zone is that part of the sea which is near to its shore. Such zone has violence of waves and tides, fluctuation in the water level, variability of temperature, light, saltness and moisture.

The supralittoral zone is the beach area which is regularly splashed and only few species of plants are found in this zone.

The animals found in these areas include snails, barnacles, annelids, sea anemones and sea urchin.

Biota of the Neritic Oceanic Zone is the zone where the sunlight reaches the ocean floor and the water is not deep.

It is also called coastal waters. This zone is rich in species high in productivity because of the fact that light goes down deeper into the ocean and there are large amount of nutrients found in it. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

These zones have almost all commercial species of fish and whales, seals, sea snakes, etc. The zones have animals such as: Shrimps, snails, lobsters, crabs, sea cucumber, starfish, etc.

Biota of Pelagic Zone: The Pelagic region comprises of about 90% of the total ocean yet is less rich in species and numbers of organisms.

Biota of Benthic Zone: It forms the floor of the ocean. Animals in these zones are sea lilies, sea fan, sponges, etc. The snails and clams remain attached with mud and on the water surface, sttarfish, sea cucumbers and sea urchins move.

Estuaries: Estuary is the wide part of a river at the place where it joins the sea. In the end, all rivers and lakes flow into the sea but some rivers develop into a specialized zone before joining the sea which is called estuary.

Estuaries have unique ecological features and biotic communities and are the most productive ecosystems.

An estuary is a partially enclosed area at the coast of a sea, which contains brackish water.

On the one side, it is connected with the sea and on the other side, there is a river mouth with fresh water. There are many such estuaries in India along the coast of Kerala or in the Sunderban area. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Features of Estuaries: Estuaries are characterized by fluctuation in salinity. The difference in the salt concentration (salinity gradient) differs with seasons, with topography, with tides and the amount of fresh water.

Biota of Estuaries: There are three types of fauna in estuaries, marine, fresh water and brackish water. The estuarine range of difference is lower than that of river or marine community because of difference in the physical environment.

Basic plants of an estuary are Phytoplankton, marginal marsh vegetation, mud-flat algae and epiphytic plants. Diatoms, blue-green algae, oysters, crabs and some sea shrimps are also found in estuaries.

(c) Differentiate between the surface and ground water. Describe the factors responsible for degradation of water.

Ans. We can learn the different easily knowing about the over exploitation of surface water is there when the ground water extracted is more than the water recharged into it.

Ground water is found in one of the two soil layers, of which one is nearer to earth’s surface called zone of aeration where gaps between soil are filled with both air and water.

Below is the zone of saturation in which gaps are filled only with water. The third layer is the ground water.

Water table is the upper level of underground surface in which soil or rocks have water. Ground water supplies water to the people for drinking, irrigation and other purposes.

Demand for ground water increasing and its availability depends on rainfall and recharging of ground water table. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

It is a fact that due to man made situations, a large part of population does not have access to safe drinking water. We extract more ground water than its recharging into the soil.

Main reasons for such a situation include lack of adopting water conservation methods, inefficient use, reduced groundwater recharge, poor quality of fresh water sources, etc.

Surface water is obtained from streams, ponds, lakes, reservoirs, canals, etc. and these water bodies are renewable which depends on the other parts of the water cycle.

Green Revolution in India has greatly increased wheat and rice production in the country but it is also important to develop water efficient measures for increasing productivity by efficient irrigation systems, adopting technologies consuming less water, water conservation measures, altering cropping patterns, etc.

Industries also must use less water and properly treat waste water before its discharge into water bodies.

Degradation of Water Sources: Ground water resources are depleting fast, also the water is getting polluted due to mixing of industrial and domestic wastes.

Such water is not fit for consumption by human beings and animals.

With growing urbanization, industrialization and deforestation, water in rivers, ponds, lakes, etc., is getting polluted day by day.

Fine mineral particles in water are making it dirty and cause siltation of rivers and lakes, mainly on account of soil erosion. Soil erosion greatly reduces Water holding capacity and causes floods.BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Even in those areas which have average rainfall and large number of water bodies, people are facing shortage of safe drinking water today.

Further, sewage and industrial effluents are discharged into water bodies without proper treatment. This pollutes the water and also increases the growth of aquatic plants and algal blooms in water bodies.

These are the result of excess of nutrients into water. As more algae and plants grow, others die. Some algal blooms also have harmful effects on people, fish, birds, etc.

(d) Write a short note on nitrogen cycle with the help of a diagram.

Ans. The Nitrogen Cycle: In this cycle, nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

Nitrogen is the building block of all living tissues and it is about 16% of the weight of all proteins.

Nitrogen is the most abundant element in the atmosphere but it cannot be directly used in the elemental form by living organisms.

It has to be converted (fixed) to ammonia, nitrites or nitrates and then it can be used by plants. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

On account of human intrusion in the cyc and the balance of nitrogen in the air is disturbed. Nitrogen pollution is caused by excess nitrogen in air and water.

Q. 4. Why is there a need for participatory forest management? How does Forest Right Act, 2006 helps tribal and forest dwellers? Explain with suitable examples in about 200 words.

Ans. The Indian Government has adopted a strong forest policy to protect forests and plant more trees.

In the entire world, forests are disappearing mainly because of overexploitation for obtaining various products without making arrangements for its re-generation.

These all result in creating an environmental imbalance. Rainwater runoff causes floods and soil erosion causes low fertility of the soil.

Steps taken in the direction of conservation of forests areas in India and in many other countries of the world are:

• Increase in forest plantation areas in unused, waste/degraded lands, on the road side, along railway tracts,etc.

• Developing alternative sources and promoting substitutes for fuel and raw materials for producing paper, furniture, etc. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

• Increasing the area of forest permanently reserved for timber production as dedicated forests is the right step in sustainable forest management.

• Promoting sustainable management of forest to improve its ecological and achieving ecological sustainability.

Practicing Silvi-culture for maintaining biodiversity controll-ing soil erosion, maintaining soil fertility and water quality and safeguarding forest health and vitality.

Using unused and Tow fertility lands to production with better technology in order to prevent vast cleared forests areas from being degraded.

• Developing a reliable mechanism of the information base and regular monitoring of forests including knowledge about its extent, location, and what it is comprised of.

There are remote sensing technologies available nowadays which can easily identify areas of deforestation. International funds may be used for coordinating monitoring about the rate, location and causes of global deforestation.

• Putting in place an effective system of fighting forest fires.

• Strictly dealing with cases of unauthorized cutting of trees as per the laws in force.

• Promoting agro-forestry and social forestry in order to grow fast-growing trees by the people within their village, on the roadsides, canal/stream sides, railway sides, and at other free areas for meeting their needs for wood/timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, etc.

• Participatory forest management should be established and the views of various stake-holders must be considered in planning, management and benefit-sharing.

Although ownership and management of forests should be rest with the state but sustainable timber extraction should be permitted.

Besides this, the state should encourage community participation in forest ownership and management. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

All land reforms must be done keeping in view the interests of farmers and the rights of people living in dependent upon the forest areas must be considered.

Effect on Tribal Population and their Rights

Tribal people live in poor conditions in the rich natural surroundings. These areas have minerals, watersheds of key rivers, food, medicine and other products required by the tribal population.

But developmental activities displace them from their own places and deprive them of their livelihoods. Their natural resources based informal economy.

Tribals are dependent on their natural resource based informal economy which depends on agriculture and other non-timber forest product such as: Herbs, edible flowers, leaves and fruits, timber and wood.

In this way, development affects forest land on which the tribal people depend and they are shifted from an informal economy to a formal economy.

They do get some compensation in lieu of their lands but most of them do not understand money. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

The government of India passed ‘The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006’to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation in forest land in forest-dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers who have been residing in such forests for generations but whose rights could not be recorded. The Act also has a number of other provisions.

Q. 5. Critically evaluate non-polluting energy systems in India. Elucidate your answer with suitable examples in about 200 words.

Improved Chullahas: Scientists have devised smokeless stoves (chullhas) catering to our rural conditions, which are smokeless, save fuel and take less time in cooking.

There has been a tremendous response to smokeless chullhas from different sections of the society and about 3,000 villages have become smokeless by the using improved chullha or biogas plant for cooking food.

Energy from City Sewage: Anaerobic digestion units of city sewage treatment plant ensures effective treatment of sewage waste and also generates high grade gaseous fuel called sewage gas.

The treatment of sewage sludge is the process which is used to manage and dispose of sewage sludge produced during sewage treatment. Sludge gas is generated from it which contains a high proportion of methane.

Government of India has proposed to set up sewage based biogas plants in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi.

Distilleries also release a number of bio-organic wastes as its by-products and for the first time one distillery in Gujarat has come out with a new technology for recycling of waste and its disposal, BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

which, along with treating 45,000 litres of waste, will daily produce energy equivalent to the energy released by 10 tonnes of coal.

Solar Energy: Efforts are being made for tapping solar energy to meet the demands of the people living in rural areas of the country.

It can become an excellent source of energy for meeting the demand of the Indian people and the heat released by the sun can be used for water heating, water desalination, space heating, crop drying, etc., by thermal conversion.

We can have electrical energy by converting solar energy and the solar panels can concentrate light energy on photovoltaic cells in order to charge batteries as another source of electricity for its use in running pumps, street-lighting system or refrigerators.

There are 160 solar photovoltaic pumps installed in rural areas which are being used to provide water for drinking and irrigation.

Experimentally, the Government of India has also provided done by other sources of energy including thermal and hydro electricity.

Wind Energy: Wind energy is the energy obtained from harnessing the wind with windmills or wind turbines.

It is a renewable alternative source of energy. There is an exploitable potential of about 3.2 xlo8 J/year and it can be converted into mechanical and electrical energies for its use, particularly in the remote areas of the country.

As per the Indian Meteorological Department, there is an average annual wind density of 3 kilo watt hours per square meter per day available at many places in the peninsular and Central India.

Also, in some of the areas the density is even much more in the winter season when energy requirements are very acute.

Presently, wind energy is being used in four parts of Ajmer (Rajasthan) for taking out ground water. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

The Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources (DNES), Government of India has installed 924 wind pumps in various parts of the country and in places such as Ladakh, wind electricity generators are being installed for purposes such as lighting and pumping water, apart from charging of batteries.

Apart from these, 85 new wind-powered mills are proposed to be installed in areas where the aerodynamics (properties of moving air) of the area are suitable for it.

We have about one thousand manufacturers who are developing producing various renewable energy devices. It is expected that about 20% of the total energy demands would be met by the non-conventional sources by the end of this century.

BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment
BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment
                        PART-B

Q. 6. Explain the following terms:

(a) Environmental Justice

Ans. Environmental Justice: It means giving fair treatment to all the people irrespective of their castes, color, language, income, national origin, etc., in making/implementing environmental laws because everybody has the right to share a safe, healthy and sustainable environment Environmental justice is the pursuit of equal justice and equal protection under the law for all environmental statutes and regulations without discrimination based on race, ethnicity and socio-economic status

(b) Agenda 21

Ans. International Conventions: The UN Conference on Environment and Development, 1972 (Stockholm Conference) was the first step of the UN to address the problem of international environmental degradation.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) also started with it.

After that, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1973), the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources (1974), BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

the Convention on Long-Range Trans Boundary Air Pollution (1979), the Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, (1985), and the Convention on the Control of Trans Boundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and their Disposal (1989) were held.

Environmental issues were taken up at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also called Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Outcomes of the meeting included:

• Agenda 21 is a comprehensive, non-binding action plan for sustainable development which provides actions to address its social, economic and environmental dimensions.

• The UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was created to promote the implementation of Agenda 21.

•It was also agreed to

(i) The Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and,

(ii) The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Goals of the Earth Summit include:

• Establishment a solidarity fund to remove poverty.

• 50% reduction by 2015 in the world’s population living on less than one dollar a day.
Cutting in half, the number of people lacking clean drinking water/basic sanitation.

• Increase global share of renewable energy.

• Significant reduction in the rate of extinction of rare plants and animals, by 2010.

• Wherever possible, restoring depleted fish stocks by 2015, and

• 50% reduction in the number of people suffering from hunger.

(c) Greenhouse Effect

Ans. The greenhouse effect is the trapping of sun’s warmth in earth’s lower atmosphere, due to the greater transparency of atmosphere to radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the earth’s surface.

The greenhouse effect is a situation when the heat is trapped inside the atmosphere of the earth (similar to that trapped in glass walls of a green house) which cannot escape and results in the increase in temperature.

So, the heat trapped in a greenhouse cannot go out because of the glass walls and the temperature inside increases. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Greenhouses gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and water vapours, etc., cause the greenhouse effect.

Water contributes to the greenhouse effect being about two-thirds and that of carbon dioxide being about one-quarter. Other gases in the atmosphere (nitrogen, oxygen, argon) cannot absorb infrared radiation.

Since the beginning of industrialization, the concentration of greenhouse gases has significantly increased.

Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased due to the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation and with an increase in Carbon dioxide and other gases,

the greenhouse effect has enhanced which is responsible for the increase in global temperature over a period of time, called global warming.

It is now seen that the world’s temperature since the year 1860 has increased by about 0.3°C -0.6°C. The decade 2000-201 was the warnest Since 1850 and the years 2005 and 2010 are seen as Warme years.BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

(d) Climate Change

Ans. The increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. primarily the carbon dioxide has increased warming of the surface.

Such climatic change also changes the rainfall patterns, may cause loods in some areas and drought in some other areas.

It also affects agriculture productivity by changing soil moisture. Climate change affects the pattern of rainfall and soil moisture.

The Indian economy is largely based on agriculture, the change in rain fall patterns clearly affects the agricultural productivity.

Such drastic changes in climatic factors can seriously reduce our food production and its related consequences such as food shortage, malnutrition and also cause sharp in the prices of food commodities.

We know that our agriculture activities depend primarily on rainfall and the related climatic factors. Similarly, we have a densely populated coastline.

In view of such a situation, any significant changes in the climate, rainfall and the potential threat of rise in the sea level, may greatly affect the Indian economy.

When the sea level rises, the lives of these people who live close to these areas would be badly affected and people would have no other option but to migrate in case of any natural disaster, beside bearing heavy losses in terms of human lives and property.

Q. 7. Answer the following questions.

(a) Explain any four impacts of improper waste disposal with suitable examples.

Ans. Impact of Improper Waste Disposal: The most significant adverse effect of improper waste disposal is on the contamination of soil and ground water, more particularly in cases when the waste containing hazardous substances is deposited in landfills or on the ground.

Human exposure to hazardous waste is possible by direct ingestion by drinking, inhalation of contaminants, absorbing contaminants through the skin while washing/bathing, consuming goods from plants/ animals exposed to polluted groundwater, and by handling physically the contaminated soil.

Uncontrolled dumping of hazardous wastes can cause the death of livestock and also create health problems in humans. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Therefore, people all over the world are aware about the ill effects of uncontrolled/improper dumping of such wastes. We know that plastics are not biodegradable but these can be reused/recycled.

Presently, single-use plastic products (such as bottles, bags, packaging materials, etc.) are posing problems in India. Plastic waste clogs drains and can also kill animals because of its swallowing.

(b) What is Ozone Layer Depletion? Describe its effects.

Ans. Ozone Layer Depletion: The ozone layer is a thin part of the earth’s atmosphere that absorbs almost all of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet light.

Ozone depletion is negatively affecting the health of the people and the environment.

This depletion allows the penetration of UV radiations to reach the earth and there may be diseases such as cancer, eye damage, genetic changes, etc.

Earth’s atmosphere can be divided into three zones i.e., troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere.

The ozone layer is present in the stratosphere which extends from 15 to 50 km. The ozone layer absorbs about 99% of the ultraviolet radiations of the sun having wavelengths between 0. nm and 0.4 nm. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

The ozone layer acts as a filter for UV rays and protects us from its harmful effects. The ozone concentration had decreased from about 300 DU in 1970 to about 200 DU in 1984, then to 250 DU in 1988 and again dropped to 88 DU in 1994.

Such depletion is called the ozone hole.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are responsible for ozone depletion, which were used as propellants in spray cans used for packaging shaving creams, hair sprays, paints, insecticides, etc.

CFCs are very stable unreactive compounds which are present in the lower region of atmosphere where they can stay unchanged even for about 100 years. On reaching the higher atmosphere.

these CFCs are broken by UV radiation and highly reactive chlorine atoms are released from them. After undergoing a series of reactions, these chlorine atoms deplete the ozone layer.

With the reduction in the concentration of ozone, more UVB radiations are allowed to reach the earth which can have harmful effects on human and animal health, it can cause skin cancer and eye problems in the people, can affect the immune system of people and also increase the risk of infectious diseases.

UVB radiation also has an effect on Terrestrial Plants by affecting physiological and development, processes in plants.

It may also affect fish productivity, reduction in phytoplankton and damaging development of a number of aquatic animals. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Depletion of the ozone layer has now become a matter of concern all around the world. In the international convention held in Vienna on March 22, 1985, there was an international agreement called the Montreal Protocol.

Under this agreement, a schedule was agreed to completely phase out the Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS), CFCs, Halons, CHCI, and CH CCI.

India acceded to the agreement in 1992 and seven of the twenty substances controlled by it are produced in India (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, Halon-1211, Halon-1301, Carbon tetrachloride and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane).

In India, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MOEF) is coordinating matters relating to the Montreal Protocol and an ozone cell has been set-up for implementing the agreement.

A number of projects are being implemented to phase out Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) and other supporting activities.

The National Ozone Unit (NOU) has the responsibility to monitor/implement in this regard.

The Government of India has also taken fiscal measures including exemption from various duties and many other benefits to the entrepreneurs shifting to the non-ODS technology.

Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation) rules, 2000 have been notified to cover aspects relating to production, sale, consumption, export and import of ODS, etc.

In January 1965, the UN General Assembly resolved that 16th September every year to be observed as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer’.

In its report of November 2018, the United Nations has informed that the ozone layer is now healing mainly due to the steps such as the decreased use of CFCs.

It is also expected that the ozone layer depletion above the Northern Hemisphere is fully healed by 2030 and the same above Southern Hemisphere, by the year 2050.

(c) Describe the role of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) as an institution for monitoring the pollution levels of environment.

Ans. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) was constituted in September 1974 under the provisions of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. The main functions of the Board are: BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

• To promote cleanliness of streams and wells by prevention, control and abatement of water pollution; and

• To improve air quality and prevent and control air pollution in the country.

The Board gives its advise to the Central Government on matters concerning prevention control of air, water and noise pollution.

It also provides technical services to the Ministry to help in implementing provisions of the Environmental (Protection) Act-1986.

The Government has notified effluent and emission standards for different categories of industries under the Act.

The Board has identified 17 catégories of heavily polluting industries which include cement, thermal power plant, distilleries, sugar, fertilizer, integrated iron and steel, oil refineries, etc.

It has also identified many critically polluted areas in the country after consulting State Boards. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

These areas require special attention for pollution control and many action plans are being implemented. The Board monitors the quality of fresh water resources in the country through 507 monitoring stations located all over the country.

(d) How do collective actions help in addressing environmental issues and concerns? Explain.

Ans. Many environmental problems such as global warming, biodiversity loss and waste accumulation can be described as large-scale collective action dilemmas.

Previous research on collective action in Common Pool Resource settings has demonstrated that institutional structures and social capital are important for the successful management of natural resources.

The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of such factors on large-scale environmental collective action.

The analysis employs survey data and indicators of institutional quality for 22 countries. Two measurements of environmental collective action are used:

(i) intermediate group collective action; and

(ii) latent group environmental action. Findings point to a dominating role for two factors – institutional quality and membership in voluntary organisations – as key determinants of participation in both latent and intermediate group environmental collective action.

The collective action problem, by which individual rationality disrupts collective action, implies that individuals will not cooperate to overcome environmental problems.

The theories of the collective action problem also set out suggestions for how to change individual rationality. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 8. “Protected areas play a very important role in in-situ conservation of species.” Elucidate the statement with respect to present day context in about 200 words.

Ans. In,situ conservation means the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticates or cultivated species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties.

There is an obvious fundamental difference between these two strategies: exsitu conservation involves the sampling, transfer, and storage of target taxa from the target area, whereas in situ conservation involves the designation, management, and monitoring of target taxa where they are encountered.

Because of this fundamental difference, there is little overlap between the two strategies.

In situ conservation involves the maintenance of the genetic variation making up PGRFA in the location where it is encountered naturally, either in the wild or within a traditional farming or domestic situation.

While existing nature reserves or national parks are designed for the purpose of in situ conservation, this is normally targeted at animal species, habitats, or ecosystems rather than specific PGRFA. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Few have as their primary goal the conservation of plant species, let alone plant genetic resources.

Furthermore, the conserved material is not immediately available for exploitation, and in reality little guarantee can be given as to the likely ‘longevity of the germplasm being conserved.

However, awareness of the importance of in situ conservation is increasing for a number of reasons, and it is seen as an important component of complementary conservation strategies.’

In situ conservation often takes place in protected areas or habitats as opposed to ex situ conservation.

The second report on The State of World Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, 2010, has indicated an increase in the number of protected areas.

The Erebuni reserve has been established in Armenia to conserve populations of Hordeum spontaneum, H. bulbosum, and Hordeum glaucum along with cereal wild relatives.

Research in West Asia has found significant CWR diversity in cultivated areas especially at the margins of fields and along roadsides.

Rare CWR of barley along with wheat, lentil, pea, and faba bean have been reported in the modern apple orchard of Jabal Sweida in the Syrian Arab Republic.

In order to protect CWR. the Syrian Arab Republic in 2007 established a protected area at Alujat and has banned grazing of wild ruminants in the Sweida region.

Besides these, the priority locations for conservation have been identified for Hordeum species in America. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Chile is the high-priority location for Hordeum chilense identified as one of the high-priority CWRs.

For wild species of Hordeum, namely, H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum and H. bulbosum, the highest priority location for conservation has been identified in the Near East.

Q. 9. ‘Polluted water is a threat to our health and survival of life forms” Explain it with respect to different agents of water pollutants in about 200 words.

Ans. The mankind has posed a great threat to its own survival. Reads like a paradox but it is unfortunately true.

Why so? – because man cannot keep his surroundings i.e. environment neat and clean. Daily tonnes of smoke is released into the atmosphere by factories, vehicles and power plants, etc.

This smoke contains toxic gases which cause bronchitis, asthma and other respiratory diseases.

The burning of fossil fuels is the potent danger to human health. Many metropolitian cities are becoming unfit places for dwelling purposes. Their roads have virtually turned into gas chambers and became a real threat to the survival of life.

Vehicle exhausts make breathing uncomfortable, and eyes begin to water due to irritants from the poisonous fumes. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

People can be seen wearing mask-type inhalers and escape the discomfort. Even the noise of loudspeakers and vehicles vitiate our survival.

Sometimes the sound level crosses the maximum decible level tolerable which can in turn cause deafness. The flowing river water is too polluted to be used because all the garbage, filth and rubbish are thrown into it.

There is yet another form of pollution which equally poses a threat to human existence and that is ‘land pollution’ which we very often forget to consider while discussing ‘pollution as a larger entity.

Thus, there are four major kinds of pollution, i.e. air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and land pollution.

It is alarming how we today have to withstand these four types of pollutions. We – human beings – are to be accounted for pollution and thanks to our sophisticated lifestyles we are in some way or other party to causing pollution.

Not only do we increase pollution but also are ignorant enough to retain remedial elements like forests, mountains, and open landscapes, which help to reduce the pollution and its adverse effects. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Thus, it is very much in our hands to contain the increasing pollution levels, it is high time we realise that it is in the best interest of all of us that we keep our environment clean and promote afforestation to have control over the monstrous threat of pollution.

It is not the time to play the blame game, rather everyone should put in genuine efforts to cleanse the earth to make it a better place to live not only for us but for all future generations to come.

Q. 10. How do natural disasters as floods and cyclones adversely affect the lives and properties? Explain your answer with suitable examples.

Ans. Floods: A flood is an overflow of water on normally dry ground. Apart from a large number of deaths and damage to property in South Asian countries, a large number of people get displaced every year due to floods.

Floods may be caused by extreme climate conditions, melting of snow, dam collapsing, deforestation, landslides, silting of river beds, lack of proper coordination among adjoining countries/states.

The adverse effects of floods can be reduced by constructing dams/reservoirs, strengthening river embankments, etc., besides using techniques such as weather forecasting and flood plain management to reduce deaths and minimize losses.

Cyclones: Cyclone is a violent wind which moves in a circle and it causes a storm. It is a low pressure area with winds spiraling inwards. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Cyclones are the most common coastal calamities that claim large number of lives every year and also cause great damage to the property.

Primarily, cyclones are caused in the tropical belt when the sea water gets heated up to 27 degrees Celsius and more due to which low-pressure areas develop above the water levels.

These low-pressure areas remain unmoved for some days and draw energy from the sea surface. But, when the pressure in its centre falls, the wind speed increases and cloud burst starts spiraling, causing squalls. BEVAE 181 Free Solved Assignment

Thereafter, winds in the surrounding areas rush inwards and create spiral storms. Then it moves to the lands in the direction of areas of lowest pressure and the heavy rain/strong winds destroy the weather.

With advancements in weather prediction techniques, remote sensing satellites and cooperation sharing of information between countries, now we can predict the beginning of cyclones and monitor its movements to specifically identify the areas where the cyclone can hit the coast.

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