CURRICULUM, TEACHING-LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT
BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment
BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q1. Select any one subject from high school curriculum and analyze the curricular and cocurricular activities used for the effective curriculum transaction of the subject. Examine to what extent the National Curriculum Framework (NCF 2005) has been adopted for its effective implementation.
Ans. Some of these approaches to integration in curriculum have been emphatically articulated in the NCF 2005. The following three important ideas relating to learning are briefly summarized below:
a) Primacy of child as an active and natural learner: It is almost
universally agreed now that every child has a natural urge and ability to learn, which is most readily demonstrated by the manner she learns language almost autonomously.
The idea of child-centred pedagogy means giving primaey to children’s experiences, their voices, and their active participation.
In our traditional schools, children’s experiences are not generally given importance because teachers are considered to be repositories of all knowledge that is worth knowing, and children’s voices are not taken into account in the name of discipline and order turning them into passive learners.
This scenario must change completely. Every child has a family and social background and learning has an inevitable social character. Every child, therefore, must be valued for what she is and what she comes with to the school.
Schools should encourage active participation of children in the process of learning. To nurture their curiosity they should do things, ask questions and pursue investigations on their own. BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment
b) Learning as a process of construction of knowledge: In the
constructivist perspective adopted by NCF 2005, learning is a process of
construction of knowledge.
This leads to the idea that learners construct their own knowledge actively by joining new ideas to existing ideas on the basis of materials and activities presented to them.
The structuring and restructuring of ideas are features of constructive learning. However, a social aspect is also involved in the sense that knowledge can be created in a group situation. Hence, there is scope for collaborative learning and social construction of meaning as well.
A good teacher actively supports and facilitates the process of knowledge construction in which a child may be engaged.
Allowing children to ask questions, encouraging them to answer in their own words and from their own experiences and engaging them in well-chosen challenging tasks and questions will help them to develop their understanding.
On the other hand, restricting them to merely answer questions and that, too, in the words written in the books or said by the teacher and expecting them just to memorize and reproduce whatever is taught are sure ways to obstruct learning with proper understanding.
c)Learning through interaction and dialogue leading to a critical pedagogy: Learning happens through continuous interactions with the environment around us, i.e. nature, things and people, both through actions and through language.
Our physical activities of moving, exploring and doing things by our own, with peers or in company of adults, and using language to read, to articulate, to ask, to listen and to interact- are the main processes through which learning takes place.
While dialogue, rather than one-way transmission from the teacher’s side, will engage the child and induce her to think and reflect. BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment
NCF 2005 asserts that critical pedagogy gives many opportunities to reflect critically on any issues in terms of their political, social, economic and moral aspects.
Critical pedagogy facilitates collective decision making through open discussion and by encouraging and recognising multiple views of learners.
The National Curriculum Framework 2005 has discussed the kinds of curriculum for different stages.
According to it, for primary stage, a child should be engaged in joyful learning by giving them safe space to explore the world around.
At this stage, the key objectives are to nurture the curiosity of the child about surrounding (natural environment, artefacts and people), to have hands-on activities with them for acquiring the basic cognitive and psychomotor skills through observation, classification, inference, etc.; and to develop basic language skills i.e. speaking, reading and writing.
Similarly, Science and Social Science should be integrated as ‘Environmental Studies’ along with health and cleanliness as important components.
At the primary stage, there should be no pressure of formal assessment and evaluation.
Moving towards the upper primary stage, the learner should be engaged in learning the principles of science through familiar experiences, hands on activities, and designing simple technological models (such as working model of a windmill to list weights).
The learners should also continue to learn more about the environment and health, including reproductive and sexual health, through activities and surveys.
Group activities, discussions with peers and teachers, surveys, organisation of data and their display through exhibitions, etc. in schools and the neighbourhood should be promoted as important components of pedagogy at this stage.
There should be continuous as well as periodic assessment in the form of unit tests, termend tests. BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment
At the secondary stage, there should be focus on learning Science as a composite discipline, in working with hands and tools to design more advanced technological models than the previous stage.
The activities and analyses of issues concerning the environment and health, including reproductive and sexual health should also be taken as central content.
The curriculum at this stage should promote systematic experimentation as a tool to discover and verify various theories, principles and concepts, and working on locally significant issues involving science and technology.
At the higher secondary stage, the framework advocates for introduction of science through its separate disciplines such as Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, etc. with emphasis on experiments/technology and problem solving.
The current two streams, academic and vocational, being pursued as per NPE-1986, may require a fresh look in the present scenario of National Education Policy-2020.
As the new policy is recommending that the learners may freely choose various subjects of their interest at secondary level without any restriction of streams.
The issue related to the rationalization of curriculum load is also very significant for this stage so that learners will have more time to engage with diverse activities.
During this stage, the core topics should be framed taking recent advances into account.
Q2. Discuss the concepts of assessment of learning, assessment for learning and assessment as learning with the help of examples.
Ans. Assessment for learning (AFL) is an approach to teaching and learning that creates feedback which is then used to improve students’ performance.
Students become more involved in the learning process and from this gain confidence in what they are expected to learn and to what standard.
One way of thinking about AFL is that it aims to close the gap between a learner’s current situation and where they want to be in their learning and achievement. Skilled teachers plan tasks which help learners to do this. BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment
AFL involves students becoming more active in their learning and starting to ‘think like a teacher’. They think more actively about where they are now, where they are going and how to get there.
Effective teachers integrate AFL in their lessons as a natural part of what they do, choosing how much or how little to use the method. AFL can be adapted to suit the age and ability of the learners involved.
AFL strategies are directly linked to improvements in student performance in summative tests and examinations.
Research shows that these strategies particularly help low-achieving students to enhance their learning, AFL and the relationship with formative and summative assessment: Traditionally,
AFL has been closely associated with formative assessment because practices such as questioning and providing feedback help ‘form’ or ‘shape’ student learning.
This differs from summative assessment which typically is an attempt to measure student attainment at the end of a period of learning. It can be argued that all of the assessment strategies in this table support AFL if their ultimate use is to help the student progress in terms of their learning. BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment
A good example of using a summative assessment strategy in an AFL context is where a test or exam is used to identify a lack of understanding (e.g. in a particular area of the syllabus) and subsequently targets are set to rectify this.
There are five main processes that take place in assessment for learning:
• Questioning enables a student, with the help of their teacher, to find out what level they are at.
• The teacher provides feedback to each student about how to improve their learning.
• Students understand what successful work looks like for each task they are doing.
• Students become more independent in their learning, taking part in peer assessment and selfassessment.
• Summative assessments (e.g. the student’s exam or portfolio submission) are also used formatively to help them improve.
Q3. Discuss the diverse roles of teachers in school.
Ans. Teacher Education has always been an important component of education since time immemorial. This is because all societies in the world have always needed teachers to propagate/transmit their cultures from one generation to another.
Teachers need to be seen as creators of knowledge and thinking professionals. A teacher needs to be an information provider, role model, facilitator, assessor, planner, resource and developer.
Educated teachers, with wide knowledge, command the respect of fellow teachers and the people in their communities.BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment
They need to be empowered to recognise and value what children learn from their home, social and cultural environment and to create opportunities for children to discover, learn and develop. Teacher is a facilitator, is a friend, and is a philosopher.
The purpose of teacher education programme should be to develop in each student his general education and personal culture, his ability to teach and educate others, an awareness of the principles which underlines good human relations and a sense of the responsibility to contribute both by teaching and leading as an example to social, cultural and economic progress.
The nation building task will be performed under the leadership of a brilliant set of teacher educators and master educators who will prepare the teachers and who in turn will develop the creative abilities of the teeming millions of the country.
Today the world is interconnected and interdependent.
We are facing the challenges such as climate change, health epidemics, global poverty, global economic recessions and trade imbalances, assaults on human rights, terrorism, political instability, and international conflicts.
It is important to recognize the crucial role of education in contributing to building a culture of peace and condemning instances in which education is undermined in order to attack democracy and tolerance.
Educating young people to become global citizens will allow them to learn about the interdependence of the world’s systems, believe that solutions to global challenges are attainable, and feel morally compelled to confront global injustices and take responsible action to promote a just, peaceful and sustainable world.
As a result of quick economic growth, influence of western culture, over mechanization, urbanization and craving for materialistic life there has been a loss of values and of the value system at the individual level and in the society as a whole.
History speaks and universally accepted fact that the teachers are unchallenged custodian of the society and embodiment of evolutions and revolutions of the world. The kingpin in the schooling process is the teacher. BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment
If the teacher is personally committed to the values and practices them in his/her own life, the students will imbibe the values for which teacher stands.
It is for this reason only those teachers who leave deep impact on their students are remembered and also revered. Therefore, if values have to be nurtured in children it would be crucial that their teachers function as role models.
The participation of teachers in the formulation and implementation of educational plans can yield rich dividends, especially in institutional planning and programmes of qualitative improvement.
Several of the community improvement programmes and school programmes such as improvement of text books, adoption of better methods of teaching and evaluation, intensive utilisation of available facilities, maintaining contact with community, individual guidance to students, inculcation of social and moral values etc do not need much investment in physical or monetary terms.
But their success depends essentially upon the competence of the teachers, their sense of dedication and their identification with the interests of the students committed to their care.
But unless they make every effort to cultivate these skills and values they shall not be able to participate effectively in educational programmes and to discharge their responsibility to students and the society Diverse Roles of Teacher’s in the Global Age: The following 10 roles are a sampling of the many ways teachers can contribute to their schools’ success.
- Resource Provider Teachers help their colleagues by sharing instructional resources. These might include Web sites, instructional materials, readings, or other resources to use with students.
They might also share such professional resources as articles, books, lesson or unit plans, and assessment tools.BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment
Instructional Specialist An instructional specialist helps colleagues implement effective teaching strategies. This help might include ideas for differentiating instruction or planning lessons in partnership with fellow teachers.
Curriculum Specialist Understanding content standards, how various components of the curriculum link together, and how to use the curriculum in planning instruction and assessment is essential to ensuring consistent curriculum implementation throughout a school.
Curriculum specialists lead teachers to agree on standards, follow the adopted curriculum, use common pacing charts, and develop shared assessments.
Classroom Supporter Classroom supporters work inside classrooms to help teachers implement new ideas, often by demonstrating a lesson, co-teaching, or observing and giving feedback.
Learning Facilitator Facilitating professional learning opportunities among staff members is another role for teacher leaders.
When teachers learn with and from one another, they can focus on what most directly improves student learning.BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment
Their professional learning becomes more relevant, focused on teachers’ classroom work, and aligned to fill gaps in student learning. Such communities of learning can break the norms of isolation present in many schools.
- Mentor Serving as a mentor for novice teachers is a common role for teacher leaders.
Mentors serve as role models; accumulate new teachers to a new school; and advise new teachers about instruction, curriculum, procedure, practices, and politics.
Being a mentor takes a great deal of time and expertise and makes a significant contribution to the development of a new professional.
School Leader Being a school leader means serving on a committee, such as a school improvement team; acting as a grade-level or department chair; supporting school initiatives; or representing the school on community or district task forces or committees.
A school leader shares the vision of the school, aligns his or her professional goals with those of the school and district, and shares responsibility for the success of the school as a whole.
Data Coach Although teachers have access to a great deal of data, they do not often use that data to drive classroom instruction. Teacher leaders can lead conversations that engage their peers in analyzing and using this information to strengthen instruction.
Catalyst for Change Teacher leaders can also be catalysts for change, visionaries who are “never content with the status quo but rather always looking for a better way.
Teachers who take on the catalyst role feel secure in their own work and have a strong commitment to continual improvement. They pose questions to generate analysis of student learning.BESC 133 Free Solved Assignment
- Continuous Learner Among the most important roles teacher leaders assume is that of learner. Learners model continual improvement, demonstrate lifelong learning, and use what they learn to help all students achieve.
Q4. Differentiate between cognitive and non-cognitive abilities with examples. Why is it necessary to assess non-cognitive abilities.
Ans. Cognitive skills involve conscious intellectual effort, such as thinking, reasoning, or remembering. ACT WorkKeys assessments that measure these skills require examinees to demonstrate their capabilities in areas including reading and mathematics.
Noncognitive or “soft skills” are related to motivation, integrity, and interpersonal interaction.
They may also involve intellect, but more indirectly and less consciously than cognitive skills. Soft skills are associated with an individual’s personality, temperament, and attitudes.
For virtually all jobs, a worker needs the soft skills associated with working well with other people and functioning effectively in a work environment.
The ACT Work Keys noncognitive assessments measure the soft skills that are considered essential in many occupations. The terminology is often varied, but the focus of this discussion was on the group of traits over multiple domains that contain behaviors and attitudes.
Non-cognitive skills cover a range of abilities such as conscientiousness, perseverance, and teamwork.
These skills are critically important to student achievement, both in and beyond the classroom. They form a critical piece of workers’ skill sets, which comprise cognitive, non-cognitive and job-specific skills.
Research is showing that there are concrete benefits to non-cognitive skills, both in education and labor market outcomes.
The Bank’s STEP survey work, for example, has found concrete payoff for skills such as “grit” (a combination of passion and perseverance), conscientiousness and decisionmaking in the labor market, with even more importance to women and the poorest.
These skills are also becoming more important as trends like automation shift the skills needed to compete in today’s fast evolving labor markets.
Q5. Explain the concept of diversity that exists in classroom.
Ans. Diversity is everything that makes people different from each other. This includes many different factors: race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, ability, age, religious belief, or political conviction.
All these factors work together to inform how students (and teachers, and everyone else) encounter the world.
The University of Rhode Island defines diversity in the classroom as “understanding each student brings unique experiences, strengths, and ideas to our classroom … Diversity is the exploration and incorporation of these differences to enrich learning in our classroom.”
Children go to school to be prepared for the workforce, so teaching must effectively address and embrace the realities that come with living and working in a diverse school, community and country.
Not only that, but there are other research-backed reasons for promoting diversity in the classroom: Diversity in the classroom builds better thinkers: According to an article from Scientific American,
we’re more likely to think harder about an issue when we’re talking to someone who is different than us:
“Decades of research by organizational scientists, psychologists, sociologists, economists and demographers show that socially diverse groups (that is, those with a diversity of race, ethnicity, gender and sexual orientation) are more innovative than homogeneous groups.”
The same article goes on to point out that even the appearance of diversity (and with it, the suggestion that different opinions exist) makes us change how we approach issues.
Students are no exception to this rule. Diversity in the classroom teaches students to appreciate different perspectives and draw stronger conclusions.
Challenging students to consider different perspectives can also teach them how to interact with their peers on a social level, and equip them with skills they’ll use for the rest of their life.
It improves critical thinking skills and encourages academic confidence.
According to a case study from The Century Foundation, students who attended a magnet school in Hartford,
Connecticut that was required to meet racial integration standards through a lottery system outperformed students at suburban school that had a higher percentage of affluent, white students on standardized test scores.
The same report also found that effectively integrated schools had less misbehavior, lower dropout levels and noticed that students were more likely to want to pursue post-secondary education.
It involves more students: According to OISE professor Ann Lopez, diversity can “disrupt narratives and stereotypes in the classroom that position diverse people as lacking invaluable knowledge or unqualified.”
When schools take inclusive and responsive approaches to diversity, students are more likely to see their identify represented in classroom materials or other students.
When diversity is not a priority and these students don’t feel included, they’re more likely to not participate and feel inferior to their peers.
A study from the University of California, Los Angeles looked at diverse classrooms to assess the emotional gains of students, and found encouraging results.
According to the study, students in the most diverse classrooms were more likely to feel safer, less lonely and less bullied at school.
Q6. Describe the features of On-Demand Examination.
Ans. National Institute of Open Schooling has been working on the concept of On-Demand Examination (ODE) at Secondary Level since 2003 in the area of its feasibility and operationalisation.
The novel concept of ODE is a great step in the direction of flexibility to the open and distance learning.
This will make the total system of examination independent of the time frame and will help the student to take up the examinations as per their wish and preparation.
The basic concept of On Demand Examination is that NIOS Student can walk into the examination center as and when he/she feel ready for the examination. NIOS re-introduced the ODES at Secondary level in 2005.
With the success of ODE at Secondary level, NIOS started the On-Demand Examination in Sr.Secondary also from October 2007.
At present, ODES is being conducted at NIOS HQ at NOIDA and at its Regional Centres/Sub Centres of NIOS in the following subjects at Secondary and Sr.Secondary level.
The Features: A set of Question Paper is generated randomly by the computer out of already developed Question Bank based on the blue print and paper design of the subject as and when demanded.
All such generated Question Papers are different with same difficulty level.
For this a huge database of items based on the blue print and question paper design has been developed A number of items having comparable difficulty level are developed for each activated/marked cells of the blue print.
These questions covered in the item bank test learning objectives under knowledge, understanding, application and skill competencies of a Student.
For identification, all these items are given a code indicating the subject, the content area to which the item belong, the objective being tested, the type of question, the marks allocated to the item and the serial number of the item.
Advantages: The advantages of ODES can be stated as follows:
• Allows the Student to get assessed when he/ she is ready. Readiness depends on the Student and not on the institution.
• Attempts to remove the stress of appearing in examination(s), whether for all subjects or in one subject at a fixed time and schedule.
• Attempts to remove the threat of failure in examination.
• Removes frustration, loss of self esteem, peer group ridicule, depression etc.
• Knowledge of results is almost immediate and success, even in one subject, is a strong motivating factor.
• Degree and level of performance is decided by the Student who can reappear in the examination as many times as one wants, till satisfied.
• # Malpractices will be reduced, as it is a system where the tools for evaluation are unique to an individual Student. Every question paper for each Student is different having comparable difficulty level.
• Respects the individuality and sovereignty of each Student.
Q7. How do interventionist, non-interventionist and interactivist models of classroom management differ from one another?
Ans. Classroom climate is closely associated with learning environment and it is seen as a major factor of classroom behavior and learning. Recent research findings suggest strong relationship between classroom climate and students’ school achievement.
Classrooms which are characterized by greater cohesion and goal-direction, lesser extent of disorganization and conflicts, offer better opportunities for learning and consequently students become successful (Adelman & Taylor, 2005).
Mutual respect and understanding is also the essential element of classroom climate that represents stimulating learning environment (Miller & Pedro, 2006).
This is the way to create open minded classroom climate, where students are ready to exchange ideas and explore new learning content.
It is clear that it is very important to create an appropriate classroom climate. To fulfill this task, teacher has to practice classroom management style based on constructive and productive relationship with pupils.
The study carried out by Lewin, Lippitt and White in 1939, shows that democratic leadership style has many benefits in comparison with authoritarian or laissez-faire style.
The democratic leadership in classroom means that teacher is considered as one of the members of class community, he/she exchanges views with students, he/she involves them in the activities and give directions, but without attempt to dominate.
Such behavior of teacher encourages students to accept common work, to take the responsibility for their school obligations, to set high standards of learning and be motivated for achievement.
Nancy Martin and Beatrice Baldwin (1993b) distinguish three main styles of classroom management.
These styles are based on concepts formulated by Walfgang and Glickman (1980), explaining the different teachers’ beliefs about discipline.
They speak about continuum that represents three approaches to interacting with students – non-interventionist, interventionist and interactionist.
The noninterventionist approach is based on the belief that person has his own needs that tend to express and accomplish them, so the teacher has minimal control.
On the other side there is intervening approach, based on the belief that the external environment (people and facilities) affects human development in a certain way, so that the teacher tends to achieve complete control.
Between those two extremes there is interactionist approach that focuses on what an individual does in order to change the environment, as well as how the environment affects the individual.
In this case, control over the situation in the classroom is shared between teacher and students.
Each teacher performs different approaches in the classroom, but it is possible to talk about different styles depending on the most common and prevailing mode of behavior in the classroom.
Having in mind characteristics of productive classroom climate and the ways to create it,
it could be said that interactionist classroom management style is the best way to build stimulating learning environment – classroom climate that will produce the best students’ achievement.
Q8. What are the points to be taken into consideration while using map and globe in teaching learning process?
Ans. Maps provide more information than a globe. Maps are useful pedagogical tool. They help students learn concepts, synthesise and integrate ideas, and draw reasonable inferences and observations.
You must ensure that you carry right kind of map to your classroom. Learning of geography must take place with the help of maps.
Maps can facilitate learning of concepts if learners are made to observe compare correlate and analyse mans They must be made to understand cause and effect
understand the contents through physiographic, climatic and soil maps.
You can design several activities to assess learners’ ability to read maps and draw inferences.
Teacher can see if they are able to correlate the information given in two or more than two maps. These activities can be conducted in room in groups or individually with the students.
You may note that tactile maps may be used for visually challenged students to understand and compare the maps. Care should be taken that tactile maps do not have too much information.
Some organizations like the National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation have developed atlases for visually challenged students.
In case of unavailability of such maps/atlases tactile maps may be prepared with the help of wool, thread, grains etc. At the national level, NCERT has also taken initiative to develop tactile maps.
Learning through maps: Maps in the form of paper, digital images and globes are an important tool for geographers and enable us to record, display and analyse information about people and environments.
Teachers should ensure that their students are able to master a reasonable level of mapping skills and integrate such skills into the learning and teaching of geographical issues in the curriculum.
Understanding and using maps involve the simultaneous use of a number of concepts and skills including aerial perspective, proportion, map language and arrangement.
Students should be given the opportunity to develop their map literacy so that they can use maps to find out about and interpret the world around them in a critical informed way.
In an enquiry based approach students should have access to a wide range of maps including large wall maps, atlases, globes, maps on CD-ROMs and other electronic media, including Google Map and Google Earth as well as a wide range of Ordnance Survey maps at various scales.
Globe: A globe is a spherical representation of the earth’s surface.
The globe is the nearest approximation of the earth. This is one of the essential instructional media for a geography teacher.
Without its use, the teacher cannot explain the shape of the earth. The teacher can use the globe to explain about the axis of the earth, its end points – the North Pole and the South Pole, the Equator and the grid of latitude and longitude, and how the intersection of the two helps in locating any place on the earth with precision.
It is with the help of the globe that one can form correct idea of location, size and shape of ocean and continents.
The globe alone gives the idea of rotation and revolution of the earth causing day and night and seasons. It also shows how the equator divides the earth into two equal hemispheres.
Q9. Distinguish between syllabus and curriculum.
Ans. The basic differences between syllabus and curriculum are explained in the point given below:
•The syllabus is described as the summary of the topics covered or units to be taught in the particular subject.
•Curriculum refers to the overall content, taught in an educational system or a course.
•Syllabus varies from teacher to teacher while the curriculum is same for all teachers.
•The term syllabus is a Greek origin, whereas the term curriculum is a Latin origin.
• The curriculum has a wider scope than the syllabus.
•The syllabus is provided to the students by the teachers so that they can take an interest in the subject.
•On the other hand, normally the curriculum is not made available to the students unless specifically asked for.
•Syllabus is descriptive in nature, but the curriculum is prescriptive. Syllabus is set for a particular subject.
•Unlike curriculum, which covers a particular course of study or a program.
•Syllabus is prepared by teachers. Conversely, a curriculum is decided by the government or the school or college administration.
• The duration of a syllabus is for a year only, but curriculum lasts till the completion of the course.
Q 10. List the steps involved in curriculum development.
Ans. The curriculum development process takes information from a subject matter expert and, through much iteration, creates instruction.
But how does information from an expert get translated into educational content that is effective for learners? It goes through four steps of design.
In each step are important team members including project managers, instructional designers, writers, copy editors, and subject matter experts.
The team works together to create effective content. Let’s have a look at the four steps in the curriculum development process.
(1. Gathering Information: The first step of the curriculum development process involves planning and determining who the learner is and what they need to get out of the material.
The team begins by initially identifying what the scope is. Some examples of questions to ask at this stage are:
• Who will take the course?
• What does the learner already know?
• What is their attitude towards the subject?
Instructional designers then work with the subject matter expert and obtain the necessary information by asking many questions. With information in hand and a clear idea of the audience, the team moves on to the second step.
(2. Design: Now that the team has extracted the information and identified the learner, it is time to begin developing the content. Before designing the content, there needs to be clear objectives. Clear objectives include action words such as:
As the instructional designers create the objectives, they carefully connect them to the content. The objectives are measurable, which ensures that learning outcomes can occur.
The team examines the environment in which the content will be used. They ask questions such as: will the learners be accessing the material on their mobile phones or in a classroom?
The team plans how to sequence the content and what delivery method to use. They perform research, search for appropriate materials, and decide what graphics to use.
(3. Building the Content: The third step of the curriculum development process is to build the content into a workable instructional unit. The team combines written material with newly created graphics and, if needed, animation.
As the material is being built, there is constant communication between team members. Copy editors work to keep the content consistent by ensuring the work is in the correct style and lines up with the learning objectives.
Instructional designers check that the material will lead to measurable outcomes. Multiple iterations occur as material is discussed between team members.
Evaluation: The final step of the curriculum development process is evaluation. Although the one through multiple iterations, it is evaluated once more. You could say that step four is present throughout each of the prior steps.
Each team member from the beginning is constantly evaluating the material and ensuring that it serves the learner well.
For example, the curriculum developer makes sure to match the learning objectives against the material to ensure that the material will lead to measurable results.
The project manager tracks all team members’ changes and ensures that they incorporate all necessary edits and revisions.
It takes a team to design excellent curriculum. Each step involves collaboration and constant iterations of the material.
As a result of this teamwork and dedication to the learner, it is possible to build curriculum that leads to desired learning outcomes.
Q11. What are the tools used in discourse structure analysis?
Ans. The method of discourse analysis evaluates the patterns of speech, such as how people talk about a particular subject, what metaphors they use, how they take turns in conversation, and so on.
These analysts see speech as a performance. The analysts or the researchers of the discourse analysis believe that the speech performs an action instead of describing a specific state of affairs or specific state of mind.
Much of this analysis is intuitive and reflective, but it may also involve some form of counting, such as counting instances of turn-taking and their influence on the conversation and the way in which people speak to others.
The researchers collect and interpret information in the following steps:
i) Target orientation: First of all, the analysts need to know their target or
focus of study. Since beginning, they need to think about the ways by which
they will analyse and interpret data after collecting the information.
ii) Significance of data: Once the relevant information is collected, the
researchers need to judge or examine the value of the collected data,
especially those which may have come from more than one source.
iii) Interpretation of the data: As the research progresses the analyst needs to
try to understand and interpret the data so that the researchers as well as
others can gain an understanding of what is going on.
iv) Analysis of the findings. Finally, the researcher needs to undertake the
mechanical process of analysing, interpreting and summarising the data collected.
On basis of the analysis of the information, the findings can be summarised and concluded. There are many qualitative analysis programs available to social researchers that can be used for a variety of different tasks.
For example, software could locate particular words or phrases; make lists of words and put them into alphabetical order; insert key words or comments; count occurrences of words or phrases or attach numeric codes.
With the help of the software’s, the analysts or the researcher can retrieve text, analyse text and build theories. Although a computer can undertake these mechanical processes, it cannot think about, judge or interpret qualitative data.
BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
BESC 131 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022