STRUCTURE AND MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION
BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q 1. What do you understand by three language formula? Discuss the challenges being faced in its implementation in India.
Ans. The three-language formula has its roots back in the year 1961 and it was implemented as a result of a consensus during the meeting of various CMs of the Indian states.
The Three Language Formula was supposed to be not a goal or a limiting factor in language acquisition, but rather a convenient launching pad for the exploration of the expanding horizon of knowledge and the emotional integration of the country.
The National Education Policy 2020 has pushed for the three-language formula, to promote multilingualism and national unity.
This move has restarted the debate over suitability of three language formulas all over India. It has been rejected by the Tamil Nadu Chief Minister recently and has only reiterated the State’s unwavering position on an emotive and political issue.
According to the National Education Policy of 1968, the three-language formula means that a third language (apart from Hindi and English), which should belong to Modern India, should be used for education in Hindi-speaking states.
In the states where Hindi is not the primary language, regional languages and English, along with Hindi shall be used. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
This formula was altered and amended by Kothari Commission (1964-66) so as to accommodate the third language (apart from Hindi and English), which should belong to Modern India, should be used for education in Hindi-speaking states,
In the states where Hindi is not the primary language, regional languages and English, along with Hindi shall be used.
This formula was altered and amended by Kothari Commission (1964-66) so as to accommodate regional languages and mother tongues of the group identities.
Also Hindi and English remained at the two ends of the line. The First Language that students should study Mother tongue or the regional language.
The Second Language: In Hindi-speaking states, this would be English or some other language belonging to Modern India. In Non-Hindi states, this will be English or Hindi
The Third Language: BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
In Hindi-speaking states, this would be English or some other language belonging to Modern India, but the one that is not chosen as the second language.
In Non-Hindi states, this will be English or some other language belonging to Modern India, but the one that is not chosen as the second language.
Concerns associated over three language formula Though TLF provides scope for mother tongue language education, the emphasis is lost due to varied implementation Amidst asserting political rights of dominant ethnic groups, this policy fails to protect various mother tongues from becoming extinct.
Students have to face increased burden of subjects because of the three language formula In some areas, students are forced to learn Sanskrit The draft policy’s push for Hindi seems to be based on the premise that 54% of Indians speak Hindi.
But according to the 2001 Census, 52 crore out of 121 crore people identified Hindi as their language. About 32 crore people declared Hindi as their mother tongue
This means that Hindi is the language ot’ less than 44% Indians and mother tongue of only little over 25% people in India. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
But there has been greater push for making Hindi a pan-India language, which is seen as imposition of Hindi by many states, especially that of the South.
The states like Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Tripura were not ready to teach Hindi and Hindi-speaking states did not include any south Indian language in their school curriculum.
State governments often do not have adequate resources to implement the three-language formula.
The inadequacy of resources is perhaps the most important aspect of the challenge. For resource-strapped state governments, it will be an extraordinarily difficult task to invest in so many language teachers in a short span of time.
Way forward for Three language formula in India Language is primarily a utilitarian tool. While acquisition of additional tools can indeed be beneficial, compulsory learning should be limited to one’s mother tongue.
Besides, English, as the language that provides access to global knowledge and as a link language within India, could be a supportive language.
Given this, not everyone is satisfied by the changes, and the three-language formula itself is seen as an unnecessary imposition.BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
Even if there is intent all around, implementing the three-language formula is not really doable in the current situation. Moreover, the two-language formula, or a shoddy version of the three language formula has not undermined national harmony.
The three language formula is well intended to bring about national unity by bridging the linguistic gap between the states. However, it is not the only option available to integrate the ethnic diversity of India.
States like Tamil Nadu with their own language policy have managed not only to enhance the education standard levels but also promote national integrity even without adopting the three language formula.
Hence, providing the states autonomy in the language policy seems to be a much more viable option than homogenous imposition of three language formula all over India.
Q 2. Why do we require a regulatory body for pre-primary and elementary education in India? Critically reflect on the roles and functions of SCERT of your State to ensure quality pre primary and elementary education.
ANS: Functions of SCERT: The State Council of Educational Research and Training discharges the following functions:
1 To organize and implement the special educational projects sponsored by UNICEF, NCERT and other agencies for qualitative improvement of school education and teacher educators. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
2 To prescribed curricula and textbooks for the school and teacher training institutions.
3 To produce instructional materials for the use of teacher- educators.
4 To arrange in-service training for different categories of teachers, inspecting officers and teacher-educators and coordinate the work of other agencies operating at the state level.
5 To organize programmes including Correspondence-cum- Contact Courses for professional development of teachers, teacher-educators and inspecting officers.
6 To supervise the working of the Teacher Training Colleges, Secondary Training Schools and Elementary Training Schools.
7 To provide extension service to Teacher-Training Institutions at all levels in the state.
8 To conduct studies and investigations on the various problems of education.
9 To evaluate the adult and non-formal education programmes entrusted by the Government BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
10 To conduct the public examinations specially at terminal stages like the end of Class HI and Class IV etc. with a view to selecting candidates for scholarships through such examinations.
The State Council of Educational Research and Training has a Programme Advisory Committee under the chairmanship of the Education Minister.
There are also Special Advisory Committees for programmes like Population Education, Educational Technology and Non-formal Education.
The SCERT has the following departments:
1. Department of Pre-School and Elementary Education.
2. Department of Non-formal Education.
3. Department of Curriculum Research and Special Curriculum Renewal Projects,
4. Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
5. Department of Population Education.
6. Department of Teacher and Inservice Education.
7. Department of Educational Technology.
8. Department of Examination Reform and Guidance.
9. Department of Research coordination,
10. Department of Art and Aesthetic Education. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
11. Department of Adult Education and Education for Weaker Sections.
12. Department of Publication.
The Director is the head of the Council and he is assisted by one Deputy Director in administration and other in academic matters.
Besides, there are four Class I Officers, three in the OES (Colleges) Cadre and one in OES (Field) Cadre, 23 Class Il officers in the OES Cadre of both College and School branch and some assistants.
The State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) is established and maintained in order to improve the standard of education in the state.
The primary objective of the Council is to help through suitable programmes of research, training and extension.
It plays an important role in Orissa in implementing the training programmes and orientation courses for different types of workers for introducing changes in the system of examination.
At present the SCERT has been working as the academic wing of the Department of Education and Youth Services, Government of Orissa.
It has been acting as the Directorate of Teacher Education. The appointment, transfer and promotion of the teaching and non-teaching staff of the Institute of Advanced Studies in Education (IASES), Colleges of Teacher Education (CTES), Training Colleges, District Institute of Education and Training (DIETs), Training Schools, etc. are done by the Government in consultation with the Director of SCERT.
All kinds of academic programmes are coordinated, streamlined and maintained by the SCERT. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
Periodical revisions and upgrading of curricula, preparation of text books, teachers’ guidance and other teaching and learning materials and improvement in methods of teaching and evaluation are also undertaken by the SCERT.
Q 3. Discuss the role and functions of National Medical Commission (NMC) in India.
ANS: National Medical Commission (NMC) is an Indian regulatory body of 33 members which regulates medical education and medical professionals. It replaced the Medical Council of India on 25 September 2020.
The Commission grants recognition of medical qualifications, gives accreditation to medical schools, grants registration to medical practitioners, and monitors medical practice and assesses the medical infrastructure in India.
It was earlier established for 6 months by an ordinance in January 2019 and later became a permanent law passed by Parliament of India and later approved by President of India on 8 August 2019,
FUNCTIONS OF NATIONAL MEDICAL COMMISSION :
(a) lay down policies for maintaining a high quality and high standards in medical education and make necessary regulations in this behalf,
(b) lay down policies for regulating medical institutions, medical researches and medical professionals and make necessary regulations in this behalf,
(c) assess the requirements in healthcare, including human resources for health and healthcare infrastructure and develop a road map for meeting such requirements;
(d) promote, co-ordinate and frame guidelines and lay down policies by making necessary regulations for the proper functioning of the Commission, the Autonomous Boards and the State Medical Councils; BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
(e) ensure co-ordination among the Autonomous Boards;
(f) take such measures, as may be necessary, to ensure compliance by the State Medical Councils of the guidelines framed and regulations made under this Act for their effective functioning under this Act;
(g) exercise appellate jurisdiction with respect to the decisions of the Autonomous Boards;
(h) lay down policies and codes to ensure observance of professional ethics in medical profession and to promote ethical conduct during the provision of care by medical practitioners;
(i) frame guidelines for determination of fees and all other charges in respect of fifty per cent of seats in private medical institutions and deemed to be universities which are governed under the provisions of this Act;
(j) exercise such other powers and perform such other functions as may be prescribed.
Q 4 Why do we need privatization of higher education in India? Discuss the benefits and concerns associated with privatization of higher education.
ANS: Education has always been considered as the only key component of human development and greatest liberating force that contributes significantly to economic development. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
A well developed and equitable system of higher education that promotes quality learning as consequence of both teaching and research is pivot for success in the emerging knowledge economy.
The developed world understood much earlier the fact that individuals with higher education have an edge over their counterparts.
They are the ones who always believed that any amount of investment in higher education was justifiable.
Privatization means initiation of private ownership, management and control of organizations.
The control is in terms of decision making and responsibility of money and administration. The need to privatize higher education is because of following reasons:
1. To increase competitive efficiency of public sector.
2. To meet the growing demand of higher education with rapid growth in population.
3. To reduce the financial burden on the government and for the decentralization of educational institutions. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
4. For imparting quality education and training and shaping of the curriculum according to global, national and local needs.
5. To fulfill the need for skilled manpower and to fulfill the need of the country in liberalization, privatization, and globalization.
6. To facilitate technological developments and information based economic development
Impact of Privatization on Higher Education:
Higher education in India has expanded rapidly over the past two decades. This growth has been mainly driven by private sector initiatives. There are genuine concerns about many of them being sub standard and exploitative.
Due to the government’s ambivalence on the role of private sector in higher education, the growth has been chaotic and unplanned.
The regulatory system has failed to maintain standards or check exploitation. The private institutions of present are motivated by profit.
The large growths of these institutions (which make huge profits) represent commercialization of education. These institutions do not hesitate to admit students with poor academic credentials.
The contributions of private sector to research and advanced level education are also found to be limited. (Tilak, 2005). BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
It is rightly observed, “higher education is far too expensive to be made privately profitable unless it is reserved for the rich or is of very poor quality” (Patel, 2003).
Q 5. What are the benefits of managing assessment and evaluation in online mode? Give example of at least five different tools and their utility in online assessment of learners.
ANS: There are many advantages of online examination systems – they are secure, customizable, reliable, highly interactive, reduced turnaround time and accessible via various devices.
Online testing is an objective and systematic evaluation of human abilities, skills, behaviors/characteristics, etc.
These assessments take place over the internet using available web technologies. Online testing has become increasingly popular in these areas: education, government and corporate companies.
The benefits of online testing include a wealth of assessment opportunities for both the examinee and the examiner providing the assessment.
Organizations can receive multiple benefits by making the transition to online assessments, whether it is about a corporation running certification programs, a college adopting an online mode for conducting exams or a training company planning to scale up assessments.
Given below are some benefits of switching to an online exam system:
. Benefits Of An Online Examination System
. Environment-Friendly BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
. Quick Turnaround Time
. Highly Secure
The traditional pen-and-paper exams have detrimental effects on the environment. Considering the copious waste of paper, efforts must be made to minimize natural resource usage.
In a world where addressing the climate change crisis is our utmost priority, one of the advantages of an online examination system is substantially safeguarding the environment.
The all-pervasive nature of technology and its impact on the way of life is blurring the difference between real and virtual. There is a considerably lower use of pen and paper in the digital age.
The administrators experience numerous online exam advantages. When considering the human, logistic and administrative costs associated with the traditional exam setting,
it’s easy to distinguish an online exam system as the most economical system to conduct exams at scale. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
Q 6. Discuss various types of higher education institutions in India.
Ans. Universities and University Level Institutions Central Universities Central Universities are managed and funded by the Indian government. Curriculum is common across the country in all such institutions.
State Universities are managed and funded by their respective state governments. Curriculum and examination patterns will vary with every state.
Institutes of National Importance Private institutions which have gained national importance with their impeccable curriculum and academic standards fall under this category.
They are highly reputable, most competitive and internationally recognized.
Deemed to be Universities:
Colleges and private institutions recognized for their high caliber education are deemed to be universities.
This status grants full autonomy with respect to setting both the curriculum as well as admissions requirements. Programs and requirements will vary between institutions.
Colleges: BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
Affiliated Colleges: The vast majority of colleges in India are Affiliated Colleges which follow their affiliated university’s curriculum, examination structure, and grading protocol. Transcripts and degrees are awarded by the university.
Autonomous colleges are overseen by universities, but operate under a different protocol and can set their own curriculum and admission requirements.
They award provisional certificates with the name of the college printed on the transcripts.
Q 7.Explain some important characteristic features of open and distance learning.
ANS: Open distance learning ( ODL ) is easy and accessible to all. ODL is a learning distance that can open or available for anyone and is regardless of age, qualification, or to the ethnic group as well.
The distance is to study away from the institution or college and the time of teaching and learning is separated. The learning for the student and teacher – the student is learning in different place, time and maybe both with the tutor.
E.g. WOU, the student can always learn thru the ‘My LMS’ to go to Public forum’ or the General Discussion link to learn more.
The learner need to be self-managed – student need to be independent and well organize to learn by themselves.
E.g. WOU, will provide a course material such as textbook, printed material or CD form for each student. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
The student can learn or study their own when they are free. Is thru ‘synchronous and asynchronous learning process ( WOU:CD:Unit2.2) – the tutor will be teaching and learning that maybe at the same place or different times.
E.g. WOU, the tutor and the student will only meet once a month for a discussion or learning at the centre or maybe thru video conferencing.
The course can be unlimited access – student can have unlimited access to course by internet to the tutorial which flexible throughout 24 hour a day, a week or a year.
E.g. WOU, student can have the support to get more information to the course by using the internet access that provided from the Open University
Learning process is on-demand and ‘Just in time’ – from the digital learning will provide knowledge as often as student required regardless when and where.
From this learning concept is generally student finds more satisfaction and benefit to give benefit of cost saving for the employers
E.g. WOU, student can access anytime by provided website from the Open University that can give them easy access and knowledge such as the ‘Tutorial’ link with the upload of the files or document that relevant to their course. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
From this method is save a lots of time and they can learn ‘anywhere-anytime’.
Q 8 Explain the role of vocational education for national development.
ANS: Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) systems play a crucial role in the social and economic development of a nation.
Owing to their dynamic nature, they are continuously subject to the forces driving change in the schools, industry and society.
Mechanized farming requires technical skills that could be obtained in technical and vocational schools.
The real tests of success of VTE are the employability of the graduates, personal development, opportunities for further education and career development, public acceptance and image.
Ultimately, the effectiveness and responsiveness of a VTE system would be measured by its impact on the social and economic development of the nation. Promotion of the Nigerian Economy. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
It promotes the national economy through foreign exchange by exporting our products.
The knowledge of technical and vocational education helps in the conversion of local raw materials, this reduces the importation of foreign goods which lessen our import dependency and encourage exportation of our local products
Q 9. Discuss the structure and functioning of Navodaya Vidyalaya?
Ans: Navodaya Vidyalayas are run by the Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS), an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Education (MoE)(formerly the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) (1985-2020) ),
Department of School Education and Literacy, Govt. of India. The Chairman of the Samiti is the Minister of Education, The Samiti functions through the Executive Committee under the Chairmanship of the Minister of Education.
The Executive Committee is responsible for the management of all affairs including allocation of funds to the Samiti and has the authority to exercise all powers of Samiti.
It is assisted by two sub-committees, the Finance Committee and Academic Advisory Committee.
The executive head of the administrative pyramid is the Commissioner who executes the policies laid down by the Samiti’s Executive Committee.
He/she is assisted at the Headquarters level by Joint Commissioners, Deputy Commissioners and Assistant Commissioners.
The Samiti has established eight regional offices for the administration and monitoring of Navodaya Vidyalayas under their jurisdiction. These offices are headed by a deputy commissioner and assistant commissioners. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22
Q 10. Describe the recommendations of NEP 2020 regarding restructuring of school education in India.
ANS; The NEP states that the Right to Education Act, 2009 has been successful in achieving near-universal enrolment in elementary education, however retaining children remains a challenge for the schooling system.
As of 2015-16, Gross Enrolment Ratio was 56.2 percent at the senior secondary level as compared to 99.2 percent at the primary level.
GER denotes enrollment as a percent of the population of the corresponding age group. Further, it noted that the decline in GER is higher for certain socio-economically disadvantaged groups, based on:
(i) gender identities (female, transgender persons),
(ii) socio-cultural identities (scheduled castes, scheduled tribes),
(iii) geographical identities (students from small villages and small towns),
(iv) socio-economic identities (migrant communities and low-income households), and
(v) disabilities. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment 2022
In the table below, we detail the GER in school education across (i) gender, and (ii) socio-cultural identities.
The Policy states that establishing primary schools in every habitation across the country has helped increase access to education. However, it has led to the development of schools with low numbers of students.
The small size of schools makes it operationally and economically challenging to deploy teachers and critical physical resources (such as library books, sports equipment) With respect to this observation, we analyse the distribution of schools by enrolment size in the table below.
Note that, as of September 2016, more than 55 percent of primary schools in the country had an enrollment below 60 students.
The NEP notes that the higher education ecosystem in the country is severely fragmented. The present complex nomenclature of higher education institutes (HEIS) in the country such as deemed to be university’, ‘affiliating university’, ‘affiliating technical university’, ‘unitary university’ shall be replaced simply by ‘university’.
According to the All India Survey on Higher Education 2018-19, India has 993 universities, 39,931 colleges, and 10,725 stand-alone institutions (technical institutes such as polytechnics or teacher training institutes). IGNOU BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
Q 11. Explain the role of NCTE in ensuring quality of teacher education.
ANS: The main objective of the NCTE is to achieve planned and coordinated development of the teacher education system throughout the country, the regulation and proper maintenance of Norms and Standards in the teacher education system and for matters connected therewith.
The mandate given to the NCTE is very broad and covers the whole gamut of teacher education programmes including research and training of persons for equipping them to teach at preprimary, primary,
secondary and senior secondary stages in schools, and non-formal education,part-time education, adult education and distance (correspondence) education courses.
FUNCTIONS ( According to Act 1993) :
1. Undertake surveys and studies relating to various aspects of teacher education and publish the results there of. BESC 132 Free Solved Assignment
2. Make recommendations to the central and state governments, universities, UGC and its recognistion institutes in matter of preparing plans and programmes for teacher education,
3. Coordinate and monitor teacher education and its development in the country.
4. Lay down the guidelines in respect a person to be employed as teacher in school.
5. Lay down the norms for any specified category of course in teacher education.
6. Lay down guidelines for recognised insitution to starting new course.
7. Lay down guidelines regarding tution fees and other fees chargeable by recognised insitution.
8. Promote and conduct innovation and research in various fields of teacher education.
9. Examine and review periodically the implementation of norms, standards and guidelines laid down by the counsil.
10. Take necessary steps to prevent commercialisation of teacher education.
BESC 131 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT IN HINDI 2021-22
BESC 131 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021-22