Media and Communication Skills
BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q1 What are the basic functions of communication?
Ans:- The following are the basic functions of communication Information
Information as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to imparting instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation.
Persuasion:- Persuasion is a form of social influence. It is the process of guiding people towards the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational and symbolic (though not always logical) means.
It is the strategy of problem-solving relying on “appeals” rather than strength.
Manipulation is taking persuasion to an extreme, where one person or group the cost of the other. Aristotle said that one of the most important functions of communication is to persuade the other party.
Why is it so? Because persuasion helps in reaching decisions or consensus on public policy so that it is possible to control and govern.
But it is possible that one may resort to persuasion with an ulterior motive. The receiver must be careful about the source of such persuasion.
Debate and Discussion:- Debate or debating is a formal method of interactive argument, Debate is a broader form of argument since it includes persuasion which appeals to the emotional responses of an audience which enable people to discuss and decide on differences, within a framework defining how they will interact.
Deliberative bodies such as parliaments, legislative assemblies, and meetings of all sorts engage in debates. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
The outcome of a debate may be decided by audience vote, by judges, or by some combination of the two.
Formal debates between candidates for elected office, suchas the leaders’ debates and the U.S. presidential election debates are common in democracies.
Q2 List the seven Cs of Communication and describe them briefly.
Ans:- Here are the seven C’s, in order:
1) Content:- This is the best possible measure of communication effectiveness. What do you want your audience to walk away with and remember? Once you have defined your prime question, set out to answer it.
What information is required? Do you have the answer already, or do you need to search it out? The content determines the audience.
Hence, the message must have the meaning for the receiver and it must be compatible with his/her value system.
2) Context:- The context must be clear and should not contradict the message. It must provide for participation and play back what’s going on. Do you understand the situation? Is there a dead elephant in the middle of the room that you are not aware of?
Ask good questions. You’ll need a clear goal before you begin to design any communication.
3) Channels:- Only the established channels of communication should be used — channels that the receiver uses and respects creating new ones is difficult.
Different channels have different effects and serve effectively in different stages of the diffusion process. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
4) Clarity:- This is one of the hardest parts of the process and most often neglected. People’s attention will quickly drift — they expect you to get to the point. Learn to edit. The message must be put in simple terms.
Words must mean the same thing to the receiver as they do to the sender. Complex issues must be compressed into theme slogans that have simplicity and clarity. The farther a message has to travel, the simpler it should be.
Q3 What is the importance of advertising and what objectives does it fulfill?
Ans:- An advertisement is essentially a piece of persuasive communication – persuasive because it seeks to influence public opinion by coaxing people into accepting what it has to offer.
An advertisement is also a paid announcement intended to promote the sale of a product or service, to advance an idea or bring about some other effect desired by the advertiser.
It is a general message, not forcing anyone to buy anything, but inviting everyone to identify, understand and adopt the use of goods, services and ideas. The advertiser pays the medium (press, radio, television, etc.) to deliver the message.
He chooses the paper, or a number of papers simultaneously, or the issue of a magazine that will publish his message. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
If the medium chosen is TV or radio, he enjoys the freedom to select even the timing of the broadcast. But he has to pay heavily for exercising his choice.
In this sense, newspapers, if not the other media, owe their existence to advertisers.
The product advertised may vary from matches and toothpaste to farm houses and automobiles. The services may range from restaurants and laundries to foreign tours.
The ideas may be as simple as personal integrity and love-thy-neighbor themes, or they may be issues that affect society at large, such as fire prevention, afforestation, rehabilitation, of the old and disabled, traffic rules, drug abuse, crime control and universalisation of elementary education.
Whatever the product, service or idea advertised, the advertisement seeks to point out its qualities so that it becomes attractive to the group of consumers whom the advertiser wishes to influence.
Q4 What is the ASCI and what role does it perform?
Ans:- In order to ensure ethics in advertising, in India we have the Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI), which has one major aim to maintain and enhance the public’s confidence in advertising.
The ASCI sees to it that all advertisements conform to certain basic principles, like honest representations. This implies that the ads should convey a truthful and honest message to the consumers and even to competitors.
Advertisements should also remain within the bounds of generally accepted standards of public decency and propriety and be non-offensive to the public.
Ads should not be used indiscriminately for the promotion of any products which may be harmful to society or any individual. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
There should not be any plagiarism in advertisements which means that the advertisements should be original in their creativity and subject matter.
According to the ASCI, advertisers are encouraged to show ads which promote safe practices, eg. Wearing of helmets, using seatbelts while driving, not using mobile phones while driving etc.
Q5 List some of the dangers of mass media.
Ans:- The developments on the mass media scene in India which we have described above are having an intense impact on the society.
The behaviour, thinking, and expectations of people everywhere have been altered and will be molded even more extensively as the full influence of the information flood is felt.
It is claimed that this proliferation of information and the swiftness of its distribution would certainly improve the human condition.
owever, along with the positive values it fosters, the communication explosion has created areas of danger that must be recognized and controlled. Among them are these five major concerns: BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
Manipulation: Perversion of truth by electronic trickery is a major concern today Clever users of electronic devices can alter the meaning of recorded visual and audio material, making it appear to be what it really isn’t.
Privacy: There have been innumerable complaints about the invasion of privacy. The whole question of co-relating the right to privacy with public interest has become a big problem for policy planners and social scientists alike.
Security: Violation of security, both governmental and institutional is another major concern.
Protection of secret government information, private financial transactions, and institutional records in computer systems has become a matter of concern.
Q6 What is the difference between public service announcements and commercial advertisements?
Ans:- The main purpose of a PSA is the dissemination of information on a public problem and in the public interest.
For example, BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
“THERE IS ONLY ONE INDIA. IT BELONGS TO ALL OF US. WE THE PEOPLE MUST ACT FOR UNITY” (National Integration Campaign)
“SIGHT —YOUR CHILD’S MOST PRECIOUS GIFT. PROTECT IT”.
These are advertisements issued in national public interest.
Communications which urge its audience to implement or support some kind of social or economic cause deemed beneficial by the consensus of the general public is Public Service Advertising. It is also likely that most of the PSAs do urge some kind of action.
That commercial advertisement seeks to share the market while PSA seeks to share the mind.
By advertising specific consumer products, commercial advertisement satisfies a felt need of the consumer. In contrast, PSA provokes the audience to recognize a need.
For example, by advertising a slogan “Save Water” the PSA makes its audience recognize the need to save water for a dry season.
So the arousal or awakening of one’s awareness is primarily a function of the PSA, while the commercial advertisements cater to the felt need of the consumer.
PSA is created by advertising professionals and exhibited free of charge by the media which donates both space and time.
Q1 What is News and what are its basic elements?
Ans:- News pertains to some recent event which is a matter of interest to readers or listeners. Also, news implies new or the latest information. News relates to information from North, East, West and South. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
There are many definitions of the term “News”. These definitions can be summed up thus:
“News is anything that is timely and significant to readers in respect of their personal affairs or their relation to society, and the best news is that which possesses the greatest degree of this interest and significance for the greatest number.”
Some of the important news-on-air include All India Radio News, BBC News, Internet Radio News, CNN News, Ham Radio News etc.
News should be:
b) of interest to the public
d) significant in relation to matters of interest to the greatest number of people
e) unbiased in its account or events or affairs.
Further, the standard definition that only ‘man bites dog’ is news is obsolete and inaccurate With fairly good communication facilities in our country, news reporting has gained considerable importance today
Most of the definitions of “news” repeat that news is of interest to the public. The interest, however, differs from person to person and place to place. The two important things about news are its immediacy and authenticity.
Q2 What is an editorial and what is its importance?
Ans:- An editorial is an article that states the newspaper’s views on particular news, events or an issue of concern. It is the official stance of the publication.
You can find them at the same place on the same page of the newspaper, everyday. This page is called the editorial page and the place is the left hand column of the page, from top to bottom.
Importance of an Editorial
An editorial is usually written by the editor, one of the associate or deputy editors or one of the writers on behalf of the editor. These opinions reflect the stance of the newspaper and do not have bylines. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
Politicians, bureaucrats and the common people – all want to know the stand of the newspapers on matters which make a difference to society.
Why is this view so important? Well, the press is the fourth estate and the watch dog of society. The rest of the world would definitely want to understand the policy of the newspaper, on issues of importance.
The editorials not only persuade the reader to change their views, but also help them to form views.
This creates a major public opinion and public wave. Hence, the interest of politicians and bureaucrats in editorials is justified.
Q3 List some of the advantages and disadvantages of internet journalism.
Ans:- There are many effects which the internet has on journalism and most of them are positive although some have proved to be harmful as well.
One of the more positive effects it has had is that it actually is one of the easiest ways of having content distributed on a large scale.
It is the chosen way for journalists to reach out to a larger and more diverse targeted audience.
Another advantage is that the content can be updated very fast and the web design can be changed very easily. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
Any “breaking news” can be announced almost instantly without having to wait for papers and other publications to be printed and delivered.
Journalists now have smart phones, tablets and I pads and other such devices so that they can provide any news within minutes.
Many journalists are now even choosing to tweet while on the move to keep people up to date.
It goes even further because by placing news online it means that people can leave comments and start a discussion with other people about an article.
Previously people would have to write in to the editors or phone-in which was a lengthy process.
Q4 Write a note on cyber crime and its prevention.
Ans:- The impact of cyber revolution, in the field of education, society, business and politics, has also given rise to corresponding cyber crimes that are increasing at an alarming rate.
We mentioned online financial frauds, violation of privacy of net users, cyber bullying, identity thefts, sex crimes like trafficking in child pornography, rise in cases of violence, murders, burglaries etc. and also the menace of plagiarism.
A large number of criminals, who are exploiting the ease and speed of the internet, are indulging in nefarious cyber crimes, taking advantage of the anonymity offered them by the Internet. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
Listed below are some preventive measures that can minimize the threats posed by cyber-attacks on web users.
• One should be very careful what personal details one posts on the Net because these will permanently remain there.
While making online purchases, one should see that details like one’s name, age, address, mobile number, bank details etc. are given only after making sure the websites are secure otherwise hackers can easily hack into the information provided.
• The safety of one’s personal computer should be ensured by putting in a strong password and by using anti-virus software.
Also, one should always activate one’s computer firewall. These measures will prevent any virus from infecting one’s computer and corrupting files and data.
• One needs to be careful while downloading material and applications because these are the channels from where viruses may enter one’s accounts.
Q5 What is editing and why do we need to edit?
Ans:- News stories come in from various sources. If you pick up your newspaper and just read the first page, you will find that it has stories which are credited to either individuals or news agencies like PTI, UNI, AFP, UPI, TASS and many more, or to the correspondent or reporter.
These stories are tailored to the required shape and size by using the right kind of symbols and expressions with news sense in mind. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
And all this happens before they come to you. This process of checking stories for grammatical errors, syntax or sentence structure and style, facts and figures clarifying for easy understanding, and condensing for economy of space is editing.
It also means writing the headlines, paraphrasing the story as per the style book of the organization, writing an attractive lead and allotting the story to a particular page
Why do We Need to Edit?
We need to edit because the first version is never perfect. The more you chisel the diamond, the sharper it gets. There are also other reasons listed below which will tell you of the need to edit.
• Because of lack of clarity in the writing the tone or mood may not be as it is intended to be. The story may not seem to be reader specific.
• There may be lack of space on the page and the story may be long. On the other hand there may be lots of space but the story may be short.
Q6 What are Blogs? Explain briefly.
Ans:- Blog term is a mash up or blend of website-logging. It is a shortened term of Weblog. It is not something new. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
Comments are what make blogs really different from a web site as interaction is unique with blogs. Jorn Barger coined the term Weblog on Dec. 17, 1997.
It entered into lexicon – Webster’s word of the year -2004. The entry says “Blog noun (1999, a web site that contains an online personal journal with reflections, comments, and other hyperlinks provided by the writer”.
It was in 1999 that Peter Merholz shortened it to blog.
By mid-2001 blogging as an activity was gaining momentum but blogs still represented an extremely small slice of the internet pie.
Blogging has come a long way from its modest beginnings. These days, there is money to be made, fame to be earned and influence to be gained.
BLOG HOSTS: Starting a basic blog is no more difficult than registering for an email address. Within a few minutes you can start blogging. All you have to do is to sign up with a blog host, pick a name and you are ready to start posting.
If you are new to blogging or not particularly computer-savvy, the best way to start blogging is to begin simply- and that means signing up with a blog host.
The host will provide a web address for your blog, various readymade page templates and easy-to-use online tools for adding or updating posts.
You won’t have to worry about anything vaguely technical such as registering and managing a domain name, learning HTML, or installing special software. Blogger allows you to use your own domain name. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
Q1 What are the different types of mass media? Discuss the impact they have on our lives.
Ans:- The concept of mass media is complicated in some internet media as now individuals have a means of potential exposure on a scale comparable to what was previously restricted to select group of mass media producers.
These internet media can include television, personal web pages, podcasts and blogs.
The communication audience has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media techniques such as advertising and propaganda.
The term “MSM” or “mainstream media” has been widely used in the blogosphere in discussion of the mass media and media bias.
1) Journalism:- Journalism is a discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying and presenting information regarding current events, trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists.
The development and widespread use of printed text in Europe in the 1500s produced a brand new form of communication.
For the first time, a single message could be duplicated with arguments, this “mass” approach to communication quickly caught on and was soon being used to distribute news, entertainment and government regulations. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
News-oriented journalism is sometimes described as the “first rough draft of history” (attributed to Phil Graham), because journalists often record important events, producing news articles on short deadlines.
While under pressure to be first with their stories, news media organizations usually edit and proof read their reports prior to publication, adhering to each organization’s standards of accuracy, quality and style.
Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised questions about holding the press itself accountable.
2) Broadcasting and Telecasting:- Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals (programs) to a number of recipients (“listeners” or “viewers”) that belong to a large group.
This group may be the public in general, or a relatively large audience within the public.
Thus, an Internet channel may distribute text or music world-wide, while a public address system in (for example) a workplace may broadcast very limited ad hoc sound bites to a small population within its range.
Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting over frequency bands that are highly regulated by the Communications Commission.
Such a regulation includes determination of the width of the bands, range, licensing, types of receivers and transmitters used and acceptable content.
Q2 What is the importance of ethics in advertising and what moral principles should advertisements follow?
Ans:- Ethics means a set of moral principles which govern a person’s behavior or how an activity is conducted. And advertising means a mode of communication between a seller and a buyer. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
Thus ethics in advertising means a set of well defined principles which govern the ways of communication taking place between the seller and the buyer.
Ethics is the most important feature of the advertising industry. Though there are many benefits of advertising, there are also some points which don’t match the ethical norms of advertising.
An ethical advertisement is one which doesn’t lie, doesn’t make fake or false claims and is in the limit of decency.
Nowadays, ads are more exaggerated and a lot of puffery is used. Puffery is a promotional statement or claim that expresses subjective views rather than objective ones.
Puffery puts up an exaggerated image of what is being advertised. These views are not to be taken literally.
Sometimes the advertisers lack knowledge of ethical norms and principles. They just don’t understand and are unable to decide what is correct and what is wrong.
The main interest for advertisers is to increase their sales, gain more and more customers, and increase the demand for the product by presenting well-decorated and colorful advertisements. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
They claim that their product is the best, having more unique qualities than the competitors, along with being more cost effective, and more beneficial.
But many of these ads are found to be false, and unethical. They only serve to mislead customers.
The best examples of these types of advertisements are the ones which show snacks for children.
These advertisements use bright colors and glossy pictures to make the product look attractive to the consumers who are watching the advertisements on television and convince them to buy the product without giving a second thought to the nutritional value of the food being shown. Ethics also depends on what one believes.
Q3 Describe the important functions and principles of news editing.
Ans:- The principles of Good News Editing:
. Balance and Fairness
. Human interest and
. Sharp observation
The sub-editor should be obsessed with accuracy because one mistake can destroy the la reputation of a newspaper or magazine, and it takes just a fraction of a second to make one. Checking and cross-checking names, figures and verifying facts are of utmost importance.
Attribution: Always attribute the news to the source so that readers can judge its credibility. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
“A higly placed Defense Personnel, Finance Ministry Sources”. Etc. are attributions that help readers to arrive at their own conclusions, while steering clear of the suspicion that the reporter is giving his own version of the story.
Balance and Fairness: Balance and fairness form the foundation of good editing. Balance is giving both sides of the picture, while fairness is not taking sides.
It also means not providing support to political parties, institutions, communities or individuals, etc., through the columns of the newspaper.
It is the attribute of a professional reporter and the duty of a sub-editor to implement it.
Q4 The World Wide Web is an important medium of communication. Identify its main elements and discuss how to create content for the web.
Ans:- We live in a world where communication happens in many different ways, across multiple channels and in many forms.
Our relationships are held together by speech, writing on paper, images on screens transmitted by satellite links, words in text messages on cell phones and emails, as well as face-to-face conversation.
But perhaps the biggest transformation in our communication landscape has come from the development and spread of the Internet – or what we now know as the World Wide Web.
The Internet, which was first developed in 1982, is a “mega” network of computer networks spread across the world. BEGG 171 Free Solved Assignment
Originally used mainly for information sharing between research institutions, the Internet gradually became a popular medium for communication, first among universities, then spreading to the information The World Wide Web technology corporate before hitting the general public in the mid-1990s.
Since then it has grown rapidly, and current estimates are that nearly 1.8 billion people use the Internet for some form of communication and research
In India, perhaps similar to the rest of the world, more than 60 percent of users are below the age of 30, and about 25 percent are below 21 .
The World Wide Web is the part of the Internet that is visible to us – it provides the face of this network and links the thousands of information sources contained on the computers that form the network.
It is organized sources contained on the computers that form the network. It is organized in a way that can be accessed easily by users.
It provides the interface between the physical network of wires and satellite and microwave links and servers and the information contained within, and the user.
Now, however, we tend to use the terms ‘Internet’, ‘Web’, ‘Net’ and ‘Cyberspace’ more or less interchangeably to mean the online space that we access to find information, communicate with friends and colleagues, or be entertained through multimedia content.
While we do not need to know much about the technical details that make the Web possible, it does help to understand how information is organized in this medium, so that as writers we can create material that best utilizes its capabilities.
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