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Understanding Poetry

BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2021 & Jan 2022

Section A

(i) Main concerns of Victorian Poetry

Ans. Victorian poetry was divided into the main group of poetry the high Victorian poetry and the Pre Raphaelites.

Dealing with the first group the major high Victoria pels were Almea lor nyson, Robert Browning, Elizabeth Bennett (Browning), Matthew Amold and Gerard Manley Hopkins.

Queen Victoria’s reign meet the idea of tha empire appear in poetry and one of the poet who used it was Tennyson for Robert Browning the dramatic monologue was a great innovation but Alfred Tennysor invented and used it too.

“To be a dramatic monologue a poen must have a speaker and an implied auditor and that the reader often perceives a gap between what she actually reveal Elizabeth Bennett (Browning) poetry voice important for the feminist literature because before her poetry, there were no too much poetry about feminism.

Matthew Amold was influenced by Wordsworth and often considered a precursor of the modernist revolution and Gerard Manley Hopkins wrote in an unusual style and influenced a lot of the 1940 poets. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

The victorian era does not have a topic in the poems about love and worship of nature as the Romantics had in their poetry.

It is because the Romantics loved nature it was shown through their poems adoring and blessing her as if she were God.

But in Victorian poetry we have not found themes related to the topic of this paper, love and and what shape of nature because the Victorians does not talk about her in their poetry.

Therefore we will not relate this topic with the Victorians poets refer to in the descriptions of places in the poem And The Love and Worship of God, in comparison with love and worship of nature.

Nature understood as part of God created by him maybe as a personification of God himself in the earth.

It can be mentioned that, the selection of poems has been made talking only the topic of this work into account and not the importance of the poem itself in the poets poem.

Then we are going to show two most important Victorian poets that refer to nature or that have aspects related with nature.

BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment
BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

(ii) Characteristic features of Indian English Poetry

Ans. When we talk about Indian English Literature, it is obvious to mention Indian English Poetry, since it is the oldest form.

The typical and actual India is beautifully being carved and described by Indian poets who write in English. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

A new form of English poetry had been discovered by Indian poets by using Indian culture, traditions, issues etc and made the world know about them.

During the pre-independence era, few of the poets tried to be English by copying the style and pattern of the native English poets, they lost their identity by not paying heed to their own potential.

When British came to India, they brought their culture, language and religion along with them which resulted in the writers and poets trying their hands in this foreign language and they are famed as well as reputed till date.

Indian English differs from western or native English in a number of ways like theme. language, style of writing. imagery etc.

The poems were written in Indian English get more connected to Indians because it is for the Indians and by the Indian”.

But when a poet writes for foreign audiences, the Indian touch in the poem makes it worth reading. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment
BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Section-B

Q. I. Images consult
one
another,
a conscience-stricken
jury,

Ans. Context: These lines are taken from On The Death of A Poem by Ramanujan.

Explanation: The poet tries to say that images that a poem is made up of the thoughts and memories that constitute the images which in turn constitute the poem itself is consulting one another.

The purpose of consultation would be cleared soon as we read through the poem. Next, the poet says, the images consult each other like *conscious-strickenjury.

Jury is a group of people who judges to give a verdict. The images are compared with that of a jury that gives the verdict of whether they would fit together in a sentence.

They are conscious-stricken maybe because they are conscious that they lack the element of significance and magic, that makes the poem renowned in the best form.

Thus, in the end, the poet says they give a verdict of coming together to a sentence, as if the judges coming together to a decision. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 2. Sweep the house
Under the feet of the curious
Holiday seekers
Sweep under the table and the bed

Ans. Context: These lines are taken from The Dead Baby by William Carlos Williams.

Explanation: The speaker here wants to sweep not just the house clean, but of the reminders of death itself.

A symbolic way of moving on from the loss is described through a mindless act of sweeping.

What makes the loss all the more difficult to fathom is that the baby has died without any complications, suggested by the word “unproblematically”.

The parents merely have a set of facts to comprehend their child’s sudden death. Just like how the medical discourse sweeps the death of the child “by force of the facts”,

the parents are also expected to sweep the house of any markers that remind them of the lack of causality in the child’s death. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

This only goes on to show how both the parents are in denial of their loss in the face of harsh reality and the terrors of life.

The very act of sweeping shows how the event has affected the parents emotionally, although the father may not express it overtly.

Q. 3. Had we but world enough and Time,
This coyness Lady were no crime.
We would sit down, and think which way

Ans. Context: These lines are taken from To His Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell.

Explanation: The first lines of “To His Coy Mistress,” a poem by the seventeenth-century English poet Andrew Marvell.

The poet tells a woman whom he loves that if they had endless time and space at their disposal, then he could accept her unwillingness to go to bed with him.

Life is short, however, and opportunities must be seized. The speaker of the poem starts by addressing a woman who has been slow to respond to his romantic advances.

In the first stanza he describes how he would pay court to her if he were to be unencumbered by the constraints of a normal lifespan.

He could spend centuries admiring each part of her body and her resistance to his advances (i.e.. coyness) would not discourage him. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

In the second stanza, he laments how short human life is. Once life is over, the speaker contends, the opportunity to enjoy another is gone as 10 obe embraces in death.

In the last stanza, the speaker urges the woman to requite his efforts, and argues that in loving one another with passion they will both make the most of the brief time they have to live

Section c

Q.1 Compare and contrast the idea of love in Donne’s “The Canonization and Marvel’s “To His Coy Mistress.”

Ans. Believing in a God comes naturally for some, but for others, it is something that logically seems improbable.

What separates the two groups is that one group is willing to use faith as a tool to justify beliefs, while the other group denies faith as a valid justification.

However, for those who believe in their religion, their faith is a truth to them because they choose to place trust in that faith. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

This is the key aspect in making religion relevant: believing makes the concept true to the individual, whether or not it objectively is so.

In The Canonization” by John Donne, the speaker expresses great love for his beloved.

This love, however, would not be possible if he did not believe in it so deeply, since believing in an idea is what makes it a truth for an individual.

Throughout the poem, Donne uses the word “love” in the beginning and end line of every stanza.

This tactic serves to highlight the belief that love is the start and end of everything the speaker believes, giving the reader insight into what is filling the speaker’s mind.

Furthermore, the word “love” is always used in relation to the “my” or the “our. It is never a floating idea: it is always grounded in a conceptualization of how it exists.

Although love is a concept, the poem wants to talk about it in the context of how it exists in the world rather than construing it as some nebulous ideal.

Thus, the speaker also indicates that the love in question is more special than the kind of love normally discussed. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

By constantly referring to love in relation to “my” or “our.” Donne gives love a unique meaning specific to what he feels.

Apparently, Donne expects the readers to catch on and conceptualize the poem through the lenses of this specific love.

If one misses how love is perceived in this poem, the resulting interpretation could be different from how Donne intends for it to be.

Apart from the word placement, Donne focuses on creating irony within the poem. For instance, the poem’s title is The Canonization.”

but the first line in the first stanza is “For God’s sake hold your tongue, and let me love”.

The definition of canonization is a church declaration that a deceased person has gained sainthood, so that the audience may expect to read something deeply religious.

However, the first line contradicts what the readers are expecting The speaker uses God’s name in vain, which is something that is against the Ten Commandments outlined in the Bible. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

The speaker’s belief also allows him to see his loving as the best quality he owns. He states that “Soldiers find wars, and lawyers find out still Litigious men, which quarrels move.

Though she and I do love”. He conceptualizes his love as his sole function, much as the main function of a lawyer is to quarrel.

This idea that loving is his job also proves how much faith he has in this love.

It would be nonsensical to state that his main purpose is to love his significant other if he does not believe that the love is one to last a lifetime.

Donne is quite direct with this message: he wants the readers to understand that for the speaker, love is not just a pustime but a central goal. Although he is direct in some parts of his composition.

Donne also uses paradoxes in order to further support the ideas within the poem. The speaker states that his love and belarekinelassering that Biglust the phoenic riddle hath more wit/we two being one, are it”.

However, this construct is a paradox because two people physically cannot be one, and also because in order to create the love that he speaks of the speaker must institute back-and-forth between two lovers.

That would be impossible if they were one. Furthermore, this paradoxical train of thought extends to the concept of the phoenix as well.

The phoenix is said to rise from its ashes after being burned, so that the speaker is implying that their love will also rise back up after their death.

However, this idea is paradoxical in the sense that their love cannot actually come back, as when they die, their connection ceases to be.

These contradictions further prove Donne’s point about faith; although what the speaker is saying technically cannot be reality, his faith in what he is saying brings meaning to his words. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

If the speaker were to have no faith in his love for his beloved, then all the paradoxes would simply remain empty contradictions.

By believing in his love, the speaker transforms these paradoxes into actualities.

In the poem “To His Coy Mistress”. Marvell has sexualized love, and in “The Definition of Love”, he has spiritualized love.

These two poems also show how time and fate play an important role in making love. But both poems are dealt with the theme of love.

However, Marvell’s treatment of love in these two poems is given below:

In “To His Coy Mistress”, Marvell presents physical love. This is probably the best known poem of Andrew Marvell.

It is a love poem in which he has sexualized love and the speaker offers a strong plea for the beloved to soften towards him and to relax her rigid attitude of Puritanical reluctance to grand him sexual favours.

The lover, who may be the poet himself, builds up a really strong case and supports it with arguments which no sensible woman can reject.

The poem has thus what is known as a carpe diem theme. Carpe Diem is a Latin phrase meaning: seize the opportunity”. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

The full Latin sentence is “Carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero” which means: “Enjoy the present day, trusting the least possible to the future in the Puritan period, virginity, maidenhood was valued most and the Coy means that the lady is not an easy catch.

From the begining to the end of this poem the poet presents a picture of physical love. Here we see that the poet laments over the short span of life which is too short to make love.

According to the poet, human life is very much transient and within the transient moment of life. pleasures of love should be enjoyed fully.

This is why the soft offers a strong appeal to his beloved to be softened towards him and to grand his sexual favour without any hesitation.

Q. 2. Write a critical appreciation of the poem “The Caves”

Ans. This poem is an example of protest poetry and must be read against the background of Dalit oppression from the Dalit feminist standpoint.

It is the voice of a Dalit woman speaking against the oppression and subjugation Jyoti Lanjewar taking place at multiple levels. The poem questions the atrocities inflicted on Dalits by a society regulated by powerful people.

In the opening lines, the poet speaks of inhuman atrocities that have carved out caves in the poet’s heart. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

The atrocities refer to the violence inflicted on the Dalits and their marginalization. We need to interrogate “their” in the first line.

Who or what does “their” refer to? It refers to the upper caste, the society, in short, the powers that oppress.

Likewise, Inhuman” indicates the brutal manner in which Dalits are treated; it is a sort of behaviour that would not be meted out to a human being in normal circumstances it says a lot about people who inflict violence.

What kind of people are they? Their insensitivity and barbaric nature come to the fore Strangely, a hidden implication about the atrocities inflicted on the Dalit Woman gets stressed.

The poem works at two-level the oppression of Dalits and the exploitation of Dalit women in particular.

It seems as if she is worried about an impending danger. Each step has to be taken with caution. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

One is tempted to ask as to why caution is required. The poet observes “change” around her and looks out for it.

As her gaze remains fixed on the changing currents, it appears that the poet wants to see what change will mean for her in the time to come.

The idea of change is mapped at this juncture. The tide has turned and the shift in the situation is marked as one where the existing system has been toppled.

The oppressed people have found a voice that of protest. The resulting change is that of protest against the inhuman atrocities the oppressed were compelled to bear.

The poet also maps Dalit histories by mentioning how they have been quiet all these years.

They had been fed on what was traditionally thought to be right. Clearly, who decides the right? The answer quite obviously is: it is the people in power.

woman-she is doubly marginalized as compared with the male.

Her oppression as Dalit is coupled with instances of beating and torture both within the family structure and outside of it.

That is why the Dalit feminist standpoint discussed in the previous section needs to be thought over.BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Laniewar considers atrocities inflicted on Dalits as “unpardonable sins.” The treatment meted out to the Dalits will bear testimony to their oppression.

The poem culminates on a note of protest as in the final lines the poet declares her opposition to the oppression.

It is also a moment of the Dalit woman speaking and asserting herself in the social domain. The poem is a mark of protest against the savage treatment meted out to the Dalits.

Q. 3. Critically comment on Sukirtharani’s feminism as reflected in her poetry.

Ans. Sukirtharani has six collections of poetry to her credit: Kaipattri Yen Kanavu Kel. Iravu Mirugam, Kaamatthipoo, Theendapadaatha Muttham, Avalai Mozhipeyarthal and Ippadikku Yeval.

Her awards include Thevamagal Kavithoovi Award, the Puthumaipitthan Memorial Award and the Women’s Achiever Award by the Pengal Munnani (Women’s Front).

Many of her poems are taught in colleges across Tamil Nadu and have been translated into English, Malayalam, Kannada, Hindi and German.

The much appreciated short film Kannadi Meen was based on her poem Appavin Nyabagamaradhi. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

She was featured in the well-received documentary film She Write, which featured three other Tamil poets.

In 2009, she organised a poet protest against the violence against Tamils in Sri Lanka, which saw participation by many poets.

She is currently working on a book on Dalit life.

Having recently returned from a fellowship in Germany şakitsharant did a Canela intensity which she opened up about her childhood, her Dalit identity in poetry and the Dalit woman who are learning to fight back.

Sukirtharani poetry has a strong quality, it that creates a fresh voice of poetry. The tone is direct and unhindered.

Her poetry developed against the normative structures of caste and family and was considered obscene.

As she recounts, Her poetry developed, she says, in an atmosphere of disapproval.

(Hold Me and Hear my Dreams) was published in 2002 and her name was bandied about with that of other women poets and trashed for its so-called obscenity. she received no support from her family…. None of this broke her spirit.

Instead, she says, she was inspired to read the poetry of other women closely: Sri Lankan and other Asian women poets, Kamala Das, the novels of Taslima Nasreen.

‘I realized then, she writes, a woman’s body had become the property of man. I realized that it was my first duty to redeem it. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

So my poetry began to put forward a politics of the body. Despite no support from family and society, she moved on to define her literary pursuits.

The influence of writers like Kamala Das, Taslima Nasreen and closer home, Kutti Revathi helped her develop a unique style of writing.

Sukirtharani is ever conscious of being marginalised both at the level of caste and gender. She captures in her poetry scenes from lived and observed life in which women are controlled and contained as much by patriarchal structures as by caste.

Her realisation that the female body is controlled by a society divided at different levels leads her to speak for equality for women.

Sukirtharani’s poetry expresses a deep consciousness of the body. She writes to bring forth the way in which patriarchal societies contain female bodies and treat them as property.

But in her poetry, there is also a celebration of the female form. The woman’s realisation of her body’s exploitation and the act of reclaiming it as her own is a significant marker of her poetry.

Take a look at “Untitled Poem”-“With handfuls of poems I come to you: You wait for me with countless kisses. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

In a kiss, several poems– In a poem, several kisses/ slip away from us.” In it, the woman is the active doer.

She is not the passive individual whose body is being acted upon. She is the performer.

In poems such as “Night Beast” or “The Smile of Aeons,” beauty and deep sensuality are combined to define the female form in a totally new way.

For instance, in the lines from The Smile of Aeons”–“Broad shoulders adorned/ with drawings of sugarcane and vine glitter from a coat of sandal paste.

Gentle tooth marks sink into a high, nubile breast we see a clear emphasis on the body.

Q. 4. The poem “Chinar” is a fine example of landscape poetry. Discuss.

Ans. Chinar is an exotic tree that is said to have been brought to Kashmir from Persia. It is said to have originated in Greece. Kashmiris call it Boune.

Its present popular name Chinar is a Persian word. It is said that when the Mughal emperor Jahangir first set foot in Kashmir on an autumn day he saw from a distance a number of chinar trees covered with crimson leaves and in the sheer joy he cried out’chi naar”, which in Persian means “What ablaze! BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Legend has it that the chinar tree was first brought into India at the time of Ashoka the Great. It is a very majestic tree growing to the height of 30 meters or more.

The tree has fan-shaped leaves that are green in spring, become yellow in summer and then turn crimson in autumn. The fall of chinar leaves in autumn spreads a crisp.

the crimson carpet around its base. It is a very long living tree and a chinar tree may be many centuries old.

The poem describes a chinar tree. It celebrates the case of nature in Kashmir. The poem opens with the image of a sunset.

As the sun sets, the sky takes on shades of crimson and orange. The chinar leaves too are of the same colour and match the sunset in majesty and beauty.

The poem then focuses on the falling leaves. The soft sound of the filling crinkled leaves can be heard.

You find that this falling of the relatives has been compared to the falling rain but this is ‘dry rain as there is no water.

The tree sheds its leaves as its branches lose their sap. The falling leaves look like dead moths descending slowly to the ground

The poet’s glance then travels away from the chinar. He can see the lake and the running Jhelum.

In the clear water of the lake and the river, the trees are reflected. You are transfixed by its breathtaking beauty. BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment

The use of phrases like the eye of the lake’ and ‘the running eye of Jhelum personifies the lake and river.

It seems as if these water bodies had eyes in which the russet colour of the chinar leaves is reflected.

Why do you think the poet has used the adjective running here? Obviously, it suggests the flowing water of the Jhelum.

But one also feels that the running water represent the flowing tears of joy that the river experiences when it sees such a beautiful sight.

The poem reminds you of the colour of flames. The trees are full of crimson leaves and look as if they were on fire.

You are also reminded of the death of the leaves when you come across the phrase this bonfire death. Then there is another comparison.

The poet feels that these red leaves are like the brown-red rust falling off from the chain mail of a warrior. This can happen when in a battle someone strikes the mail with a sword.

But here there is no such sound and that is why the poet says that here it happens without the clank of metal. The image of a warrior wearing mail continues.

The wind makes the leaves fall and it is happening so fast that the eye cannot follow each leaf it falls to the ground. The tree then becomes a dying giant.

Each scale of his mail seems to be cut off from his armour as it drops to the ground. The small leaf looks like the clenched fist of a child.

The word ‘clenched’ also suggests that the fists of the dying giant are clenched in pain.

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