IGNOU BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22- Helpfirst

BEGE 142

Understanding Drama

BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

Q 1 Write short notes on the following

a. Tragedy

Ans. Tragedy, branch of drama that treats in a serious and dignified style the sorrowful or terrible events encountered or caused by a heroic individual. By Extension the term may be applied to other literary works, such as the novel.

Although the word tragedy is often used loosely to describe any sort of disaster or misfortune, it more precisely refers to a work of art that probes with high seriousness questions concerning the role of man in the universe.

The Greeks of Attica, the ancient state whose chief city was Athens, first used the word in the 5th century BCE to describe a specific kind of play, which was presented at festivals in Greece.

Sponsored by the local governments, these plays were attended by the entire community, a small admission fee being provided by the state for those who could not afford it themselves.

The atmosphere surrounding the performances was more like that of a religious ceremony than entertainment. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

There were altars to the gods, with priests in attendance and the subjects of the tragedies were the misfortunes of the heroes of legend, religious myth, and history.

Most of the material was derived from the works of Homer and was common knowledge in the Greek communities.

So powerful were the achievements of the three greatest Greek dramatists-Aeschylus (525456 BCE), Sophocles (c. 496–406 BCE), and Euripides (c. 480-406 BCE)—that the word they first used for their plays survived and came to describe a literary genre that, in spite of many transformations and lapses, has proved its viability through 25 centuries.

Historically, the tragedy of a high order has been created in only four periods and locales: Attica, in Greece, in the 5th century BCE; England in the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I,from 1558 to 1625; 17th-century France; and Europe and America during the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th.

Each period saw the development of a special orientation and emphasis, a characteristic style of theatre. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

In the modern period, roughly from the middle of the 19th century, the idea of tragedy found embodiment in the collateral form of the novel.

b. Epic Theatre

Ans. Epic theatre, German episches Theater, form of didactic drama presenting a series of loosely connected scenes that avoid illusion and often interrupt the story line to address the audience directly with analysis, argument, or documentation.

Epic theatre is now most often associated with the dramatic theory and practice evolved by the playwright-director Bertolt Brecht in Germany from the 1920s onward.

Its dramatic antecedents include the episodic structure and didactic nature of the pre Expressionist drama of the German playwright Frank Wedekind and the Expressionist theatre of the German directors Erwin Piscator (with whom Brecht collaborated in 1927) and Leopold Jessner, both of whom made exuberant use of the technical effects that came to characterize epic theatre. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Brecht’s perspective was Marxian, and his intention was to appeal to his audience’s intellect in presenting moral problems and reflecting contemporary social realities on the stage.

He wished to block their emotional responses and to hinder their tendency to empathize with the characters and become caught up in the action.

To this end, he used “alienating,” or “distancing,” effects to cause the audience to think objectively about the play, to reflect on its argument, to understand it, and to draw conclusions

BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment
BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Brecht’s epic theatre was in direct contrast to that encouraged by the Russian director Konstantin Stanislavsky, in which the audience was persuaded-by staging methods and naturalistic acting-to believe that the action onstage was “real.”

Influenced by conventions of Chinese theatre, Brecht instructed his actors to keep a distance between themselves and the characters they portrayed.

They were to disregard inner life and emotions while emphasizing stylized external actions as signs of social relationships. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Gesture, intonation, facial expression, and grouping were all calculated to reveal overall attitudes of one character toward another.

Section B

a) “You are a woman’s son? I have a mind to wring your neck. Running about and fighting like that when screeners and army jeeps are all over Nyeri”

Ans. A lot of people will try and tell you that a woman should watch how she dresses so she doesn’t tempt you to look at her wrongly.

Here is what I will tell you. It is a woman’s responsibility to dress herself in the morning. It is your responsibility to look at her like a human being regardless of what she is wearing.

You will feel the temptation to blame her for your wandering eyes because of what she is wearing – or not wearing. But don’t. Don’t play the victim.

You are not a helpless victim when it comes to your eyes. You have full control over them. Exercise that control. Train them to look her in the eyes.

Discipline yourself to see her, not her clothes or her body. The moment you play the victim, you fall into the lie that you have simply embodied reaction to external stimuli unable to determine right from wrong, human from flesh.

Born for the battlefield, the first Jeeps rolled off assembly lines in 1941 and headed straight to active duty for the United States Army. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

They would “forever be known for helping win a world war,” according to a history of the brand, which had bold plans early on, according to one imperial slogan: “The Sun Never Sets on the Mighty Jeep.”

After the war, Jeep came home to the farm with an off-roader available to the public. The Willys-Overland “jeep,” which had won the government contract for the Army vehicles, was converted into a civilian Jeep, or CJ, and hit showrooms in 1945.

It was the world’s first light-duty four-wheel-drive vehicle. Celebrating its 80th birthday on Thursday, Jeep has been held by a steady succession of owners over the years.

It is now part of Stellantis and has held a firm grip on the off-road market ever since. It has a fervent fan base, and with an electric focus for its future, is intent on maintaining its status as a king of the off-road.

The goal, according to Christian Meunier, the Jeep brand’s chief executive, is ambitious: “to make Jeep the greenest S.U.V. brand in the world.”BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment
BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

b) “For me! I was dying everyday and you were killing my boys and you did it for me? What the hell do you think I was thinking of, the god dam business?………”

Ans. All My Sons, Arthur Miller’s first commercially successful play, opened at the Coronet Theatre in New York on January 29, 1947.

It ran for 328 performances and garnered important critical acclaim for the dramatist, winning the prestigious New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award. Miller’s earlier play,

The Man Who Had All the Luck (1944), had not done well and had quickly closed; therefore, at the time All My Sons opened, Miller’s reputation as a writer was based almost solely on Focus (1945), his lauded novel about anti-Semitism.

All My Sons is now regarded as the first of Miller’s major plays.

The work also greatly helped the career of Elia Kazan, who had first won accolades for his direction of Thornton Wilder’s The Skin of Our Teeth in 1942 and after directing All My Sons would continue to work with the plays of both Miller and Tennessee Williams to produce both legendary stage productions and important films.

Most of the reviews appearing in the major newspapers and magazines on All My Sons
vividly depicts the psychological aspects of the United States during and immediately after the Second World War in a realistic setting.BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

In fact, it is impossible to understand the problems Joe and Chris Keller, the father and the son, get involved in without the background of the war.

The moral or ethical issue the play presents through the conflict between Joe, a practical-minded realist and Chris, a militant idealist, or even Larry, another son not appearing on the stage, becomes apparent with the very background of the war, per se.

Chris: Everything was being destroyed, se but it seemed to me that one new thing was made. A kind of… responsibility.

Man for man. Do you understand me? – To show that, to bring that on to the earth again like some kind of monument and everyone would feel it standing there, behind him, and it would make a difference to him.

Before Chris can give himself fully to Ann, he needs her to understand the conflict he feels between the idealism of the war and the practicality of daily life back home.

c) “But every other year you’ve tried to free yourself by looking around for another man! In the beginning I was one of these men. You say you respected me then.

Ans. Some people have no trouble getting to know others. You might even have a friend like that.

Ten minutes with someone new, and they’re chatting away as if they’ve known each other for years. But not everyone has such an easy time connecting with new people.

When trying to find out more about a new acquaintance, you might be tempted to run through a long list of questions. While asking questions is certainly a good starting point, it’s only part of the equation. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Here’s a look at how to get to know someone on a deeper level without a ton of smallSay you just met someone who seems really great.

You can definitely see yourself becoming friends, maybe even something more. Once you feel that initial spark of interest, you want to know more about them ASAP.

But rattling off a lot of questions may not be the best move. Sure, you’ll find out key facts about the person, such as where they grew up and how many siblings they have.

But one thoughtful question might give you even more information.

For example if you want to ask about family you could say “Do you spend a lot of time with your family?” This will likely get you a better answer than simply asking if they have siblings.

People often default to rapid, superficial questioning when they sense a lull in the conversation. But this initial awkwardness is totally normal.

A 2018 study found it usually takes about a month for conversation patterns to settle into a comfortable rhythm.

In the meantime, try not to be too put off by any moments of silence or awkwardness that might come up. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

You can learn a lot from how someone physically responds to a question. Do they lean in to reply? Gesture or seem otherwise animated as they answer?

If they seem excited, you’ve probably landed on a good topic. If they turn their body or head away, shrug off the question, or give a brief answer, they may not have much interest.

Learning to recognize someone’s level of interest can help you have more success with communication.

Someone may have less interest in talking to you if they think you’ll continue asking questions about things they don’t really care about.

Section C

Q 1 Comment on the broad movements in the structure of The Trial of Dedan Kimathi.

Ans. On 19 november 1956, Mau Mau rebel field marshal Dedan Kimathi stood or, more accurately, sat in front of Her Majesty’s Supreme Court of Kenya at Nyeri and asserted a “plea of not guilty.”

After eight days of trial, Chief Justice Kenneth Kennedy O’Connor found Kimathi guilty of unlawful possession of a firearm and ammunition and sentenced him to be “hanged by the neck until he is dead.”BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Early on the morning of 18 February 1957, Dedan Kimathi was hanged to death and
buried in an unmarked grave in the grounds of Kamiti prison.

This book centers on the trial of Dedan Kimathi-a piece of the colonial archive long thought lost, hidden, or destroyed.

Dedan Kimathi remains a powerful symbol of resistance in Kenyan history.

His dreadlocked visage, captured while he sat in the defendant’s chair on trial for his life, can be seen on T-shirts, in graffiti art on the sides of Nairobi buildings, and on the sides of matatu (minibuses) throughout contemporary Kenya and farther afield.

His name has often been considered synonymous with the anticolonial rebellion that engulfed colonial Kenya in the 1950s.

He was the self-fashioned Field Marshal of the Mau Mau, a movement that had many names, many faces, and even more interpretations.

The Mau Mau rebellion, which emerged predominantly among the Gikuyu, Embu, and Meru populations of Central Kenya, was a radical response both to colonial settler policies of land appropriation and squatter labor restrictions on the one hand, and to the repressive local African governing apparatus in the reserves and the slow-moving constitutional nationalists of the anticolonial movement in Kenya on the other.

Kimathi rose to prominence in the early 1950s out of relative obscurity, first as an administrator of the oaths of loyalty sworn by “Mau Mau” adherents and then as leader of the fighters who moved into the forests after the colonial declaration of a State of Emergency in October 1952. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

His charisma, flair for oration, and ability to evade British forces became legendary. For the British, Kimathi was a fearsome adversary.

Special Branch superintendent lan Henderson, the man in charge of the “hunt” for Dedan Kimathi, compared him to Hitler.

In his memoir, The Hunt for Dedan Kimathi, Henderson pictured Kimathi as both a formidable intellect and a cowardly criminal. In 1953 the East African Standard compared him to Mussolini.

For many in Kenya, however, Kimathi conjured other historical comparisons. William R. Ochieng’ argued Kimathi had been “elevated to the ranks of Mao, Lenin and Guevera.”6 Ali A.

Mazrui placed Kimathi among the top candidates in Kenyan history to be anointed a national martyr, akin to other global anticolonial heroes the likes of Gandhi. 7 While the Emergency and counterinsurgency operations would officially last until 1960,

the capture and execution of Kimathi, in 1956 and 1957 respectively, allowed the British to claim victory over Mau Mau and solidified Kimathi’s position among the martyred leaders of a failed rebellion. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

But Kimathi’s legacy was never a simple exemplar of patriotic martyrdom, and his place in the postcolonial imagination reflected the complicated legacy of the Mau Mau rebellion: at times suppressed or downplayed, at others lauded and filled with mythic importance,

but always contested.8 When Nelson Mandela visited Kenya for the first time, in July 1990, he invoked Kimathi’s name in a speech at Kasarani Stadium: “In my 27 years of imprisonment, I always saw the image of fighters such as Kimathi, (General) China, and others as candles in my long and hard war against injustice.”

He lamented the absence of Kimathi’s widow, Eloise Mukami, at the festivities and the lack of a proper burial site for Kimathi: speaking of his desire to pay homage to the fallen heroes of Kenya’s independence struggle,

Mandela lamented “it is an honor for any freedom fighter to pay respect to such heroes.” Mandela’s speech provided a pointed, if implied, critique of Kenya’s second president, Daniel arap Moi, and his government’s treatment of former “freedom fighters.”

Moi’s stolid expression during the speech revealed the more problematic aspects of the choice of Kimathi as hero in postcolonial Kenya.

As Marshall Clough observed in his important study of Mau Mau memoirs, those who exalted Kimathi often failed to “address the incongruence between Gikuyu revolt and Kenyan nation, … between guerrillamartyr Kimathi, champion of the fighting Mau Mau and enemy of loyalism, and living statesman [first president Jomo] Kenyatta, representative of the Gikuyu elders and the constitutional politicians and apostle of peace, reconciliation, and (the policy of] forgive and forget.” BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

10 Clough pointed to the “irony” of elevating Kimathi as a national hero, with many of his contemporaries questioning his revolutionary credentials and pointing to his loss of support due to his notoriously strict disciplinary ethos and his legendary antagonism with the more populist General Stanley Mathenge.

11 Kahinga Wachanga, an early follower but later rival for leadership in the forest, described Kimathi as a great leader who fell from grace, turning jealous and power hungry in his later years.

12 Wachanga was quick to remind his public that Mau Mau was not one man but a movement: “we had no one leader or commander except the oath. The oath was our leader.”

13 In memoirs and popular Kenyan literature, Kimathi could be a tragic folk hero, a misunderstood rebel commander, a power-hungry despot, a prophetic patriot, a reminder of the lost dreams of revolution, or a dangerous precedent for future dissidents against the postcolonial order

Q 2 Comment on the ending of Halfway House.

Ans. The play Halfway House is divided into three parts: Prologue; Act 1; and Act II. The Prologue is an important part of the play which begins with it and also receives a specific direction from it. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Let us see the role it plays in the structuring of Halfway House.

We note that Mohan Rakesh’s Halfway House is a play about a family going through difficult times and raises a number of issues relevant to the socio-cultural ethos of the time. The Prologue introduces the subject of the play:

“a particular family and its particular circumstances”. In the Prologue we meet “the man in a black suit” talking directly to the reader/spectator in the first person and making general observations on life.

At this point, the man wearing a black suit is both an actor and a character who talks about the various roles he is going to play in the unfolding drama.

In fact, he comes across first as an actor and then as a character of the play.

He creates a link between the performers, the performance and the audience and for this reason is a figure similar to that of a sutradhar, the introducer of a play in traditional Indian drama.

Apart from this role that this actor assumes in the prologue, he also enacts the characters Halfway House: A Reading of Mahendranath, Singhania, Jagmohan and Juneja in the text.

Indeed it is an innovative method in drama where one man plays four different roles: nevertheless, it is not a mere technical point. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

In fact, Rakesh seems to make a comment here on human nature in that all men essentially are the same behind the different masks they wear.

The man in a black suit informs the reader/spectator that he does not have a welldefined role in this play.

According to him the same is the case with other characters in the play.

Clearly, he makes a statement here shunning the expectations of the audience who would hope to see a play that is well-formed with a predetermined structure. The man further suggests that the play itself is “undefined”.

He goes on to ask the existential question: “who am I?” To this, his answer is: “I am the man you bump into by chance in the street.”

Commenting on the nature of the play he clearly tells us that “it is because of me that it (the play) does or does not evolve” and that he is responsible for all the happenings in the play.

He explores alternative situations when: the woman in the play could have had a different set of values, but later concludes that in any case the play would have remained as “undefined” than as it exists ill the present state.

Finally, he encourages the reader/spectator to give her/his suggestions on the problems raised in the play. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Don’t you think that had the playwright offered a solution to the problems projected in the play, the plot and characters would have been appropriately defined?

In answer, one may say that Rakesh consciously leaves, characters; complex situations and issues midway / ‘halfway’ as it were, without probing them further.

This offers us some clue about the title of the play-Halfway House. This aspect is going to haunt us throughout this unit.

Let us see how we confront it in the following discussion. First, we take up’Act One’ of the play and comprehend it from the point of view of marriage, family etc.

There are several different types of halfway houses. Some are state sponsored, while others (mainly addiction recovery homes and mental illness homes) are run by “for profit” entities.

In criminology the purpose of a halfway house is generally considered to be that of allowing people to begin the process of reintegration with society, while still providing monitoring and support.

This type of living arrangement is often believed to reduce the risk of recidivism or relapse when compared to a straight release directly into society.

Some halfway houses are meant solely for the reintegration of persons who have been recently released from prison or jail; some are meant for people with chronic mental health disorders; others are for people with substance abuse issues, generally called sober living houses BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

The state-placement of ex-criminal offenders to a “halfway house” after a prison sentence may either be decided upon as part of the judge’s sentence or by a prison official’s recommendation.

A direct sentence to a halfway house can be decided upon by a judge or prosecutor in lieu of prison time.

There is often opposition from neighborhoods in which halfway houses attempt to locate. Social justice literature observes the relationships between halfway house siting and the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon.

Some communities/neighborhoods may have the ability to affect political legislation through political solidarity while others may not.

Some research stresses that community residents simply feel nervous when halfway houses are sited near them.

Others point out that the presence of transitional residences may pose real hazards to community safety.]

In NIMBY research, it has been suggested that a neighborhood’s resistance to placement might be linked to class-based prejudices about ex-offenders and drug addicts.

Kraft & Clary (1991) argue that NIMBY responses are sometimes associated with a distrust for government sponsors. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Q 3 Evaluate the character of Chris Keller.

Ans. Chris is Joe Keller’s surviving son. Miller describes him as “thirty-two; like his father, solidly built, a listener. A man capable of immense affection and loyalty” (1.102).

While Joe reads the want ads in the newspaper, however, Chris reads the book section. Even before the big fight in Act 2, Chris fancies himself a slight cut above his father the materialist.

He doesn’t want his name put on the business, and professes to dislike it. “The business doesn’t inspire me,” he tells his dad; that’s why he wants to marry Ann.

“If I have to grub for money all day long at least at evening I want it beautiful” When Ann says yes to his proposal, Chris tells her he’ll make her a fortune.

What does this sound like? That’s right, Joe at the end of the play – though Joe despairs and speaks in past tense. He accuses Kate:

“You wanted money, so I made money… I could live on a quarter a day myself, but I got a family so ….” Chris, like Joe, truly puts family first.

Chris also shares his friendly, nonconfrontational approach with his father. He likes to glide over things to avoid conflict. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Chris misleads Ann into thinking no one in the neighborhood remembers the old crime, and tries (with less success) to buddy up to her hostile brother George.

He sounds just like Joe with his condescending, brotherly reasoning: “That’s been your trouble all your life, George, you dive into things… You’re a big boy now” “Chris would never know how to live with a thing like that.

It takes a certain talent… for lying Sue considers Chris a dangerous influence on her husband because of his belief in doing good. And Joe bemoans the ethical sensitivity of his son: “everything bothers him.

You make a deal, overcharge two cents, and his hair falls out”. But, Chris seems to recognize and be proud of this vision of himself.

After proposing to Ann, he tells her about the self-sacrifice of men in the war, and the lack of meaning that sacrifice seems to hold for people at home. He doesn’t count himself among these thoughtless people.

Yet for all his talk about social responsibility is Chris really such a force of moral rectitude? As he admits at the end of the play, he’s also a bit of a coward.

He’s afraid of his mother and won’t be honest about his intentions with Ann. Perhaps part of him knows that telling her will unleash some fury he wants no part of.

He attacks his father savagely when Joe’s guilt is revealed, calling him lower than an animal. But after a night of thinking about it, Chris still can’t bring his father to justice: “I know what you’re thinking, Annie. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

It’s true. I’m yellow. I was made yellow in this house because I suspected my father and I did nothing about it… Now if I look at him, all I’m able to do is cry… I could jail him if I were human any more.

But I’m like everybody else now. I’m practical now. You made me practical.”

And listen to that guilt-evading language: “I was made yellow” and “you made me practical.” Far from a paragon of moral responsibility, Chris is like a little boy blaming a broken teacup on the wind.

He’s the first person we see on stage, and all the action happens in his backyard. He undergoes a big change throughout the play, first publicly denying his involvement in the machine shop scandal,

then admitting yet excusing his actions, and finally accepting full responsibility for the deaths he caused.

Chris was called Mother McKeller in his battalion because he cared for everyone and was kind and sympathetic towards all of them. Returning from the war as a hero, Chris works for his father.

chris Keller, a middle-aged factory owner of working-class background. He is a plain, inarticulate man with a certain peasant shrewdness.

His values are simple: work and family. His purpose in life is to pass on his business to his surviving son, Chris. His moral simplicity, however, is his…

“Christopher says he loved her like he has never loved anyone else before,” Cadle
continued. BEGE 142 Free Solved Assignment

“At the same time, he loves Shanann although he knows that she was not his soulmate and not the person he was supposed to be with.”

Watts received five life sentences in November 2018 for murdering his expectant spouse and their toddlers in August 2018.

BEGE 143 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

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