Reading the Novel
BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment july 2021 & jan 2022
Section – A
Q. 1. Write short notes in about 200 words each:
(i) Origins of the English Novel
Ans. Origins and Rise of The Novell Western Traditions on the modem novel reach back into the field of verse epics, though again not in an unbroken tradition.
The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (1300-1000 BC), Indian epies such as the Bc and 200 AD and Manardimanchth 14th century BC WERE AS unknown in early modern Europe as the Anglo-Saxon epic of Beowulf (e. 750-1000 rediscovered in the late 18th and early 19th centuries).
At the beginning of the 18th century, modern French prose translations brought Homer to a wider public, who accepted them as forerunners of the modern novel.
The word roman or romance had become a stable generic term by the beginning of the 13th century, as in the Roman de la Rose (c. 1230), famous today in English through Geoffrey Chaucer’s late 14th-century translation.
The term linked fiction back to the histories that had appeared in the Romance language of 11th and 12th-century southern France.
The central subject matter was initially derived from Roman and Greek historians. Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde (1380-87) is a late example of this European fashion.
The term novel refers back to the production of short stories that remained part of a European oral culture of storytelling into the late 19th century.
Fairy tales, jokes, little funny stories designed to make a point in a conversation, the exemplum a priest would insert in a sermon belong into this tradition.
The early modern genre conflict between “novels” and “romances” can be traced back to the 14th-century cycles. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
(ii) Form and Content
Ans. Post-colonial literary critics re-examine classical literature with a particular focus on the social discourse” that shaped it.
Edward Said in his popular work Orientalism analyzes the writings of Honoré de Balzac, Charles Baudelaire and Lautréamont, exploring how they were influenced, and how they helped to shape a societal fantasy of European racial superiority,
Post-colonial fiction writers might interact with the traditional colonial discourse by attempts to modify or subvert it.
For example, In Things Fall Apart and Paraja, the post-colonial perspective is visible in the depiction of tribal life where outsiders come and various changes take place.
(iii) Plot and Types of Plots
Ans. Plot: Plot concerns the organization of the main events of a work of fiction. Plot differs from story in that plot is concerned with how events are related, how they are structured, and how they enact change in the major characters.
Most plots will trace some process of change in which characters are caught up in a conflict that is eventually resolved. Plots may be fully integrated or tightly knit,” or episodic in natures BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
According to Aristotle’s Poetics, a plot in literature is the arrangement of incidents” that (ideally) each follow plausibly from the other.
The plot is like the chalk outline that guides the painter’s brush.
An example of the type of plot which follows these sorts of lines is the linear plot of development to be discerned within the pages of a bildungsroman novel.
The concept of plot and the associated concept of construction of plot, emplotment, has of course developed considerably since Aristotle made these insightful observations.
The episodic narrative tradition which Aristotle indicates has systematically been subverted over the intervening years the attent that the concept of beginning, middle, end are merely regarded as a conventional device when no other is to hand.
It is important note here that Aristotle never differentiated between plot and story,
Edward Morgan Forster in his Aspects of the Nove draws a distinction between the two and defines a story as a narrative of events arranged in their time-sequence while a “plot is also a narrative of events, the emphasis falling on causality.
The important word in describing plot is thus causality for example the king died, and then the Queen died is a sequence of a story while “The King died, the Queen died of grief 100 is a plot. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
The second assertion has established a link of cause between the two events. And this, the making of connections, or designs, is the essence of storytelling.
Types of Plots
There may be many ways to order/sequence/arrange a plot which gives rise to different types of plots.
According to Hudson, a plot may be loose where the story is composed of a number of detached incidents with very little necessary or logical connection among themselves.
For example, Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe or W. M. Thackeray’s Vanity Fair has loose plot.
The second type of plot is an organic plot where separate incidents are knitted together and form an integral component of a definite plot pattern told and in the complex plot multiple stories go hand in hand.
Thus, Thackeray’s Vanity Fair is said to have a simple plot since its stories are not properly amalgamated while Dickens’s the Bleak House has a complex plot as all the three threads of Esther Summerson’s story,
the story of Lady Delock’s sin and the story of the great Chancery Suit by Jarndyce V. Jarndyce are dexterously linked together.
The American author of The Scarlet Letter, Nathaniel hawthorne of the 19th century identifies discusses four types of plots: tragic, comic, satiric or romantic according to the subject matter or content of the novel but leaves out other types of novels, for example, political, psychological, historical and crime novels.
Thus, typologies of either novels or plots have a limited relevance no one cover all.
However, the discussion about the typologies helps us understand the construction of plots varies from one novel to another and finally in understanding a novel.
(iv) First Person Narrative
Ans. First-Person Narrative Mode: The first-person narrative mode is expressed through the narrator referring to the focal character as “I”, if singular, and “we” if plural.
In most first-person narratives, there is usually some third-person voice as well. First-person always uses “I” or “we.” BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
The first-person point of view sacrifices omniscience and omnipresence for a greater intimacy with one character in particular: the narrator him/herself.
In this case, the narrator is also a character who is part of the story, sometimes even the main character.
First-person allows the audience to see what this one focal character is thinking: it also allows that character to be further developed through his/her own style in telling the story.
First-person narrations may be told like third person ones on the other hand, the narrator may be conscious of telling the story to a given audience, perhaps at a given place and time for a giyen reason.
In extreme cases, the first-person narration may be told as a story within a story, with the narrator appearing as a theater in the story.
First-person narration is used somewhat frequently.
Q. 1. Discuss briefly the two planes on which the action of a novel moves?
Ans. The two planes on which the action of a novel time and place. Every story lakes place at same point or points in space and in time. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
It is incumbent upon the writer of fiction to “place” his story in space and time, as early as possible in his narrative, so that you will begin making the proper associations with the setting.
The setting also presents a share of technical difficulties, but most novelists embrace them gladly.
The novel is a prose form and emphasizes realism: its style ought to be, for the most part, terse and transparently plain.
Whatever poetic impulse the novelist may have is likely to be frustrated: only the setting provides him an outlet for it; for in his descriptive writing he is allowed to express his feeling for beauty and create a scene in lavish hues, if he wishes.
No, a novelist does not always use time and place categories in a realistic manner. With a setting that is remote from most readers not only in space but also in time, a different problem arises.
A writer may safely assume that contemporary London will be much more familiar to most of his readers than Elizabethan or 18th-century London.
If his story takes place in either earlier period, the writer will have to build up his setting out of appropriate details. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
such a treatment involves information concerning the houses, the costumes, the manners, and the types of work and play characteristic of the period.
Since the development of literary realism, readers become increasingly critical of the accuracy of historic settings, and the contemporary writer runs the risk of annoying his readers if he indulges in such conspicuous anachronism as the Elizabethan audience allowed its dramatist when they used settings remote in time and place.
In the use of settings much less familiar than New York or London-such as ancient Persia or medieval India–the contemporary writer may content himself with a minimum of specific details-so long as the details he chooses and emphasizes are appropriate-since every few of his readers are in a position to challenge the historical accuracy of such details as he offers.
Q. 2. Write a short note on the novel of the Diaspora.
Ans. Novels of the Diaspora: The term diaspora refers to the movement of any population sharing common ethnic idet hity who were either forced to leave or voluntarily left their settled territory, and became residents in areas often far remote from the former.
It is converse to the nomadic culture, and more appropriately linked with the creation of a group of refugees. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
However, while refugees may or may not ultimately settle in a new geographic location, the term diaspora refers to a permanently displaced and relocated collective.
Diasporic cultural development often assumes a different course from that of the population in the original place of settlement.
It tends to vary in culture, traditions and other factors between remotely separated communities.
The last vestiges of cultural affiliation in a diaspora are often found in community resistance to language change and in the maintenance of traditional religious practice.
Diaspora Literature involves an idea of a homeland, a place from where the displacement occurs and narratives of harsh journeys undertaken on account of economic compulsions.
The “Jews living dispersed among the gentiles after the captivity” and The Jewish Christians residing outside Palestine the dispersal (initially) signifies the location of a fluid human autonomous space involving a complex set of negotiation and exchange between the nostalgia and desire for the Homeland and the making of achay bore,
adapting to the power, relationships between the minority and majority, being spokespersons for minority rights and their people back home and significantly transacting the Contact Zone -a space changed with the possibility of multiple challenges.
Q. 3. Do you think the novel has a future! Comment
Ans. The Future of the Novel: The 19th and the 20th century’s have witnessed an unprecedented spread of education.
Industrialization speeded the production of paper and subsequently improved printing technologies which helped in the publication of books that were essential for education.
For the urban middle class, education was a necessary step towards achieving higher social status. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
With the opening of schools and colleges, education which had been the privilege of only the rich upper aristocratic class now was available to anyone who could afford it.
Industrialization and education spread in Europe simultaneously and as the European powers colonized various regions of the world in search of their markets they introduced education as a strategy to achieve rapid modernisation and to create a mass of literates who would form the base of a local administration that would be responsible for governing the colonies.
Thus, England which colonised nearly the whole world by the middle of the 19th century, established educational systems and methods which are still followed by the countries which were once its colonies. India would be a good example.
In the very first decade of the twenty-first century, however, what has been witnessed is an anti-novel current
This means that the twenty-first century seems in some ways to be departing from the literary traditions followed in the last three centuries. V. S. Naipaul, the famous novelist of the post-World War Il era, had said that the new millennium calls for a kind of writing that deals with things head-on, without softening their edges.
Tagore (Bangla) and Premchand (Hindi) in India could hardly be accused of writing crisis novels in which the humans stood marginalized and indifferent in a capitalist world, victims of a fate over which they had no control.
The Russian novelist Mikhail Sholokhov truly underscored the dynamic nature of human behaviour, the gritty character of Russia’s men and women against all odds in the wake of World War II. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
Within 20th century writing, a major concern has been nationalism. The idea of nationhood emerged strongly in the middle of the century.
Such nationalist struggles have brought in their wake social identities of a different kind rather restricted and narrow as compared with the broad human identity.
In the formation of such identities, religious faiths, cults, rituals, whole cultural notions of peculiar celebratory activities have been emphasised to demarcate one community from other.
Whereas there is a demand to modernize minds and attitudes, there is the counter-demand to preserve ethnicities and specific ways of life.
The novel as an overall genre and form has entered new problematic areas defying comprehension, the women’s part of fiction writing has unraveled hitherto, unknown aspects of the suppressed self.
Important examples of this are the writings of Maria Campbell, Nadine Gordimer, Margaret Atwood, etc. who in their different ways have underlined the need to oppose audacious male behaviour vis-à-vis women.
Q. 4. Attempt a psychological reading of The Awakening,
Ans. Psychoanalytical Approach to the Awakening: In his work. Freud proposed that the psyche could be divided into three parts: ego, super-ego, and id.
Freud discussed this model in the 1920. essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle, and fully elaborated upon it th The mean the in which is developed it as an alternative to his previous topographic schema (i.e. conscious, unconscious, and preconscious).
The super-ego is the moral component of the psyche, which takes into account no special circumstances in which the morally right thing pay not be right forgiven situation
Wolff approaches the text tromiolinical psychological perspective She argues that all throughout the novel. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
Edna cannot move beyond the oral infantile stage, and therefore, she can never be satisfied. Further, Wolff argues that Adele experiences unity with her unborn child, which makes her complete in the Freudian sense.
Wolf further posits that Edna’s deep attachment to Adele and Edna’s return to the sea at the end of the novel are examples of her ever-increasing regression to return to Freud’s Oceanic state.
Wolfr’s approach, here, is interesting because she employs Freud’s theories, but as with many early psychoanalytic approaches, she does so to figure out what is wrong with Edna.
In a manner of speaking, Edna becomes her patient. More recent psychoanalytic approaches move beyond this limitation.
Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and continued by others.
It is primarily devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behaviour, although it also can be applied to Psychoanalysis has three applications:
a method of investigation of the mind; a systematized set of theories about human behaviour, a method of treatment of psychological or emotional illness.
Under the broad umbrella of psychoanalysis, there are at least twenty-two different theoretical orientations regarding the underlying theory of understanding of human mentation and human development. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
The various approaches in a treatment called “psychoanalytic” vary as much as the different theories do. In addition, the term refers to a method of studying child development.
Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a specific type of treatment in which the “analysand” (analytic patient) verbalizes thoughts, including free associations,
fantasies, and dreams, from which the analyst formulates the unconscious conflicts causing the patient’s symptoms and character problems, and interprets them for the patient to create insight for resolution of the problems.
The specifics of the analysts interventions typically include confronting and clarifying the patient’s pathological defenses, wishes and guilt.
Through the analysis of conflicts, including those contributing to resistance and those involving transference onto the analyst of distorted reactions, psychoanalytic treatment can clarify how patients unconsciously are their own worst enemies:
how unconscious, symbolic reactions that have been stimulated by experience are causing symptoms.
Q. 1. How does Kate Chopin use symbolism in The Awakening to illustrate her point of view?
Ans. Symbolism in The Awakening: Art becomes a symbol of both freedom and failure. It is through the process of trying to become an artist that Edna reaches the highest point of her awakening.
Edna sees art as a way of self-expression and of self-assertion Birds are major symbolic images in the narrative. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
They symbolize the ability to communicate (the mockingbird and parrot) and entrapment of women the two birds in cages; the desire for flight; the pigeon houses Flight is another symbol associated with birds and acts as a stand-in for an awakening.
The ability to spread your wings and fly is a symbolic theme that occurs often in the novel. Edna escapes her home, her husband, her life, by leaving for the pigeon-house.
Edna is fully dressed when first introduced slowly over the course of the novel she removes her clothes.
This symbolizes the shedding of the societal rules in her life and her growing awakening and stresses her physical and external self.
As she disrobes, the reader is presented with an internal voyeuristic view.
When she commits suicide she is finally naked, she has shed everything she has in her quest for selfhood.
But it is not only Edna who is symbolized in clothes, Adele is more “care full of her face in the seventh chapter and wears a veil.
Both she and Madame Leburn constantly make clothes to cover the body, and the woman in black and Mlle. Reisz never changes their clothes, symbolizing their distance from any physical attachment. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
There are several symbolic meals in the text and each stress mythic aspects in the text.
The meal on Cheniere Caminada occurs after she awakens from a fairy tale sleep: the dinner party in chapter thirty is viewed by some as a re-creation of the Last Supper.
There are many houses in the novel: the one on Grand Isle, the one in New Orleans, the pigeon house, the house in which Edna falls asleep on Cheniere Caminada. The first two of these houses serve as cages for Edna.
She is expected to be a “mother-woman” on Grand Isle and to be the perfect social hostess in New Orleans. The other two are places of supposed freedom.
On the island she can sleep and dream, and in the pigeon-house she can create a world of her own. In the same way, places have a similar significance.
Edna struggled all summer to learn to swim. She has been coached by the men, women, and children on Grand Isle In chapter ten.
Chopin uses the concept of learning to swim as a symbol of empowerment. It provides Edna with strength and joy. Also attached to the concept of swimming are the ideas of staying afloat and getting in over one’s head. Edna manages to do both.
The moon has many symbolic meanings in The Awakening. It is used as a symbol of mythic power and connects Edna with the Goddess Selene and the associated implications.
She is strong and commanding, the goddess of the hunt. She is sexually aware of Robert for the first time, the fertility aspect of Artemis.
Moonlight also symbolizes the struggle Edna has with the concepts of sexual love and romantic love. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
At the end of chapter ten, delicate images of “strips of moonlight,” are interposed with strong sexual feelings, the first-felt throbbings of desire.”
Joyce Dyer suggests that this juxtaposition “symbolically anticipates the problems Edna will have determining the relationship between sex and romance”.
Music is an important symbol in text, both Adele and Mlle. Reisz play the piano. Each woman functions to underscore a different aspect of the narrative.
Adele is considered a musician by Leonce, but she does not play for art, instead she does so to keep her husband and children cheerful and to set time for parties.
Mlle. Reisz, on the other hand, is disliked by all, but is granted status as a musician by only Robert and Edna.
The issue of the piano playing echoes the issue of placement in society. If you follow the rules and norms whatever you accomplish is considered great,
if you defy those rules you are shunned and disparaged. Thus, the piano playing becomes a symbol of societal rules and regulations.BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
Sleep is an important symbolic motif running through the novel. Edna’s moments of awakening are often preceded by sleep and she does a great deal of it.
Robert Sevine calls it the sleepiest novel in the American literary canon and sees Edna’s sleep patterns as a rebellion against natural rhythms.
Sleep is also a means of escape and of repairing her differed emotions in fairy tales sleep is a key ingredient
Q. 2. How are social and political structures reflected in Paraja?
Ans. The Socio-political Structure in the Novel: The modern society found this society as primitive, backward, isolated.
Therefore those comunides which and found: Primitive in traits / Distinctive culture of Shyness of contact with the public at large Geographically isolated, and Socially and economically backward are sanctioned as scheduled tribes by the President of India.
As there is no specific definition in our constitution, it is an administrative and political decision.
It means that a community could be de-scheduled when it is found that they are no more primitive and so on.
What will be social status of this community? Will they be Brahmin …… or Scheduled caste? Their problem has been primarily considered a problem of low-level technology,
stark poverty, illiteracy, ill-health, behavior pattern conditioned by ignorance and superstition, lack of motivation to take advantage of the benefits of modern science and technology and so on. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
Hence, until the eight Five Year Plan (1992-1997), the tribal social formation has been considered to represent a stage in the evolutionary scheme of human social organisation.
The Ninth Five Year Plan shifted its focus from a traditional welfare approach to rights approach through a process of empowerment viz:
(ii) Economic Empowerment;
(iii) Social Justice.
The political structure of Sarsupadar has been described clearly in the novel. On the one hand, are the village and the government officials, the feudal masters like money-lenders.
On the other hand, are the poor tribals. The power nexus between the rich and the powerful is well-knit while the poor people at the margins.
The rich and the clever people of the village are part and parcel of the exploitation system but the poor tribals are not aware of the fact that their own people are part of the exploitative nexus.
The Naika collects revenue for the Raja and delivers it to the Ribini, the Revenue Inspector.
The Forest Guard collects tax and feudal lords such as the Sahukar lend money and enjoy services of the tribal folk as bonded laborers and finally usurp their lands.
The religious matter is dealt by the priests while the elders sort out the social problems.
Social structures are meant to empower people with education, better health facilities, job opportunities, but these rarely happen. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
Social structure is a term frequently used in anthropology, sociology and social theory to refer to enduring relationships or bonds between individuals or groups of individuals.
In a general sense, the term can refer to:
• Entities or groups in definite relation to each other,
• Relatively enduring patterns of behavior and relationship within a society, or
• Social institutions and norms becoming embedded into social systems in such a way that they shape the behavior of actors within those social systems.
The notion of social structure as relationships between different entities or groups or as enduring and relatively stable patterns of relationship emphasises the idea that society is grouped into structurally related groups or sets of roles, with different functions, meanings or purposes.
One example of social structure is the idea of Social Stratification”, which refers to the idea that society is separated into different strata, according to social distinctions such as a race, class, disability or gender,
Social treatment of persons within various social structures can be understood as related to their background.BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
The notion of structure-embedded institutions or pochis that shape the actions of social agents is important, as structural determination may occur as the actions of people and organizations are guided partially by the underlying structures in the social system.
This approach has been important in the academic literature with the rise of various forms of structuralism and is important in the contemporary organizational contexts organization structure may determine an organization’s flexibility,
capacity to change and many other factors, and is, therefore, an important issue to management.
Social structure may be seen to inform important social systems including the economic system, legal system, political system, cultural system, and others.
Family, religion, law, economy and class are all social structures. The social system is the parent system of those various systems that are embedded in the social system.
The notion of social structure may mask systematic biases, as it is comprised of many identifiable sub variables, for example, gender.
Some argue that men and women who have otherwise equal qualifications receive different treatment in the workplace because of their gender, which would be term a “Social Structural” bias, BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
but other variables (such as time on the job or hours worked) might be masked.
The modern social structural analysis takes this into account through multivariate analysis and other techniques, but the analytic problem of how to combine various aspects of social life into a whole remains.
Q. 3. Comment on the universality of Things Fall Apart.
Ans. Universality: When Things Fall Apart was first published, Achebe announced that one of his purposes was to present a complex, dynamic society to a Western audience who perceived African society as primitive, simple, and backward.
Unless Africans could tell their side of their story, Achebe believed that the African experience would forever be “mistold, even by such well-meaning authors as Joyce Cary in Mister Johnson.
Cary worked in Nigeria as a colonial administrator and was sympathetic to the Nigerian people.
Yet Achebe feels that Cary, along with other Western writers such as Joseph Conrad, misunderstood Africa. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
Many European writers have presented the continent as a dark place inhabited by people with impenetrable, primitive minds, Achebe considers this reductionist portrayal of Africa racist.
He points to Conrad, who wrote against imperialism but reduced Africans to mysterious, animalistic, and exotic “others.”
In an interview published in 1994. Achebe explains that his anger about the inaccurate portrayal of African culture by white colonial writers does not imply that students should not read works by Conrad or Cary.
On the contrary, Achebe urges students to read such works in order to better understand the racism of the colonial era.
Achebe also kept in mind his own Nigerian people as an audience.
Things Fall Apart is viewed as both specific and universal in character because while dealing with a specific character in a specific society at a specific point of time Achebe portrays the very predicament of man.
The novel, thus, transcends the boundaries of a single person or a specific society is applicable to any time and place.BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
Achebe deals with African society with the intention of ‘correcting the distortions which were deliberately introduced by the Europeans into the history and culture of Ibo people in order to create an inferiority complex in their minds and other Africans.
In this way, Things Fall Apart is a novel about a specific society with the specific aim of restoring their self-confidence.
However, it is partially true since the tells the story of individuals or societies who grow rigid in their outlook with the passage of time and refuse to recognize changes in their circumstances, let alone coming to terms with them.
the Ibo society of the late 19th century but also of any other society at any other time. For example, it is true for our ancient Indian society or Chinese and Greek or Egyptian civilisations.
Thus the novel is about the human predicament itself and is universal in appet is not that Achube is unaware of this dimension of his novel or that this universal element has crept into the text unintentionally.BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
We may recall that Achebe chose the title of the novel from a poem the second coming by W. B. Yeats talks about the cyclic movement of history in terms of order and anarchy.
Q. 4. Trace the development of the literary history of Literature from Africa.
Ans. Before the coming of the Europeans, the oldest forms of literary form, i.e., telling stories and singing songs orally, was the most prevalent form in Africa.
Like any other society, these stories and songs had got accumulated and became a part of the cultural heritage of African society.
This oral literature played a functional role and was used on social occasions like birth, initiation wedding and death.
In the absence of formal script, this literature was preserved and passed on to succeeding generations through professional singers and narrators.
In one part of Africa, these were called prior and in another, they were known as Babalawo.
However, it may be noted here that some of the African languages did have the tradition of written literature though most of the written literature started with the coming of Europeans in the continent. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
The novel was not included in the popular genres of literature in Africa at that time because most of the literary activities were performance and community-based.
For instance, while poems could be read aloud, plays could be performed and stories narrated before a large audience on special occasions,
it was not possible to do so in the case of novels that needed just a single individual in isolated conditions of the four walls of a reader’s room.
Moreover, these forms were also easy to memorize which helped in passing the literature from one generation to another in the absence of a script.
The reasons which the beginnings of written literature in Africa, were made in the Southern region were a number of languages of this region had a developed script in they could be written.
Out of seven hundred major African languages, only 49 have a writing system which include a major chunk of 18 Southern African languages.
The missionary initiatives and printing press also gave a thrust to written literature in this region BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
The history of Africa begins with the first emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa, continuing into its modern present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation-states.
Africa’s written history starts with the rise of Egyptian civilisation in the 4th millennium BC, and in succeeding centuries follows the development of the many diverse societies beyond the Nile Valley.
From an early date this has involved critical interactions with non-African civilisations.
These ranged from the Phoenicians, who established the merchant empire of Carthage, to the Romans, who colonized all of North Africa in the first century BC. Christianity began its spread through large areas of northern Africa at this time,
reaching as far south as Kush and Ethiopia. In the late 7th century, North and East Africa were heavily influenced by the spread of Islam,
which eventually led to the appearance of new cultures such as those of the Swahili people in fast Africa and powerful kingdoms including the Songhai Empire in the sub-Saharan west.
This presaged the forced transport of African people and cultures to the New World in the Atlantic slave trade, BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
and the beginning of the European scramble for Africa. Africa’s colonial period lasted from the late 1800s an if the advent of African independence movements in 1951 where that became the first former colony to become independent.
Modern African history has been rife with revolutions and wars as well as the growth of modern African economies and democratisation across the continent.
African history has been a challenge for researchers in the field of African studies due to the scarcity of written sources in large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Scholarly techniques such as the recording of oral history, historical linguistics, archeology, and genetics have been crucial. BEGC 134 Free Solved Assignment
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