British Romantic Literature
BEGC 109 Free Solved Assignment
BEGC 109 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q. 2. Explain the basic difference between the Neo-classical and Romantic theories of poetry.
Ans. Neo-classicism is a movement in literature that drew inspiration from the classical age. The writers of this period trielto imitate the style of Greeks and Romans. This movement, which was a reaction against the renaissance, lasted from about 1660 and 1798.
John Milton, Alexander Pope, Voltaire, John Dryden, Jonathan Swift and Daniel Defoe are some well-known neoclassic writers.
Parody, essays, satire, novels and poetry are some popular genres in this movernent. Neoclassicism was based on classical themes and forms.
Structure, restraint, simplicity, decorum, order, logic, and objectivity were the main features of neoclassical literature.
Romanticism is a literary movement that lasted from about 1789 to 1832. This carr be described as a reaction against industrial revolution and neo-classicism.
The main feature of this movement is its emphasis on imagination, subjectivity, and emotion. BEGC 109 Free Solved Assignment
William Wordsworth words in his preface to Lyrical ballads describes this emphasis on imagination and emotion as follows:
“For all good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: and though this be true.
Poems to which any value can be attached were never produced on any variety of subjects but by a man who, being possessed of more than usual organic sensibility, had also thought long and deeply.”
William Wordsworth, John Keats, Lord Byron, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Walter Scott, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelly, and William Blake are some famous writers in the Romantic Movement.
This movement drew inspiration from Medieval and Baroque eras and its main themes were nature, legends, pastoral life, and supernatural elements.
The main difference between neoclassicism and romanticism is that neoclassicism emphasized on objectivity, order, and restraint whereas romanticism emphasized on imagination and emotion.
The Romantics, by contrast, were keen to establish a poetic voice based on simple language.
Neoclassicism is also known as the “Age of Enlightenment.” It is also known as the predominant movement in European art and architecture during the late 18th century and early 19th century. BEGC 109 Free Solved Assignment
Romanticism is a term that describes changes within the art from about 1760-1870. These changes can be seen as a direct reaction against the values of Neoclassicism.
The visual arts of neoclassicism were serious, unemotional and heroic. There is a use of somber colors to convey a moral narrative defined by self-sacrifice and self-denial. In the visual arts of Romanticism, nature was a dominant theme.
However, nature was regarded as an uncontrollable unpredictable power, which can result in cataclysmic extremes Often in British and French paintings of this age, there is a recurrence of the images that depict shipwrecks.
This depiction symbolizes men struggle against nature, Neoclassicism, often referred to as Augustan age, resulted from a self-conscious imitation of the Augustan writers.
The main contributors to this movement are Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, and Daniel Defoe. The view of these writers and poets on Nature was a revival of classical theory.
They regard nature as “a rational and comprehensible moral order in the universe, demonstrating God’s providential design.”
Romanticism had wild and spiritual view on nature. The romanticism movement cover so many themes, styles, and content in literature.
In general, Romanticism in the literature concerns the individual and the individual’s imagination rather than society as a whole.
The art of neoclassicism pays homage to classical Greece and Roman art. The art of Romanticism emphasized encapsulating emotions like fear and horror in visual form.
Q. 3. What are the three stages in the development of Wordsworth’s attitude to nature in “Tinern Abbey?
Ans. Tintern Abbey shows the three stages of development in Wordsworth’s attitude to Nature. BEGC 109 Free Solved Assignment
The first stage in the development of Wordsworth’s attitude to-Nature was marked by a souple delight, in freedom and the open air, at the first stage. Wordsworth found pleasure in roaming about in the midst of Nature.
Like a deer, he leaped about over the mountains, by the side of the deep rivers, and along the lonely streams. He wandered about wherever Nature led him.
He felt more like one who flees from something that he dreads than like one who seeks the thing he loves.
His wanderings in the midst of Nature are described by him as “glad animal movements! and the pleasure he enjoyed in the midst of nature is called a coarse pleasure.
At the second stage, Wordsworth’s love for nature was purely physical. Nature now appealed chiefly to his senses.
He felt pleasure in seeing the colours of nature in smelling the fragrance of nature, in touching the objects of Nature and in hearing the sweet sounds of nature.
The colours and shapes of mountains and wood to him were an appetite. The noisy waterfall haunted him like a passion. Thus he loved nature with an unreflecting, or thoughtless passion.
He experienced aching joys and dizzy raptures in his contact with nature.’ It was the external, outward sensuous beauty of nature that delighted and gladdened him.
Ultimately, at the third stage, Wordsworth’s love for nature became spiritual and intellectual. He had now seen the sufferings of mankind and heard the still, sad music of humanity.” BEGC 109 Free Solved Assignment
He now became thoughtful. Therefore, when he looked at nature, he was filled with deep thoughts.
He now found an inner meaning and a hidden significance in Nature. The external beauty of Nature he still appreciated: but it was the inner or hidden significance of Nature which chiefly attracted him and quickened him into thought.
He now found a living presence, or a divine spirit, in all the objects of Nature. He found that living presence in the light of the setting sun, in the round ocean, in the blue sky, and in a things.
At this stage, he also realised the educative influence of Nature, and the power of Nature to mould the human personality and human characters.
He looked upon Nature as the nurse, the guide, the guardian of his heart, and the soul of his moral being.
Thus, at the third stage. Wordsworth was a “pantheist” and a believer in a spiritual communication between man and Nature.
Q. 4. Comment on Blake’s portrayal of children and childhood in his Songs of Innocence and Experience.
Ans. Children embody the very essence of innocence. They see the world through virgin eyes, hear life with fresh ears and create the world with a simple mind and pure heart.
It is about the only time in a person’s life when the weight of sin, corruption, egotism, and hatred are not blurring their vision and thoughts.
It is the only time a person is completely free. But this state of innocence becomes separated and exiled once experience has tainted the soul.
William Blake conveys this theory in his work, Songs of Innocence and of Experience Shewing the Two Contrary States of the Human Soul.
In Songs of Innocence, a childlike vision is conveyed through William Blake’s clever use of speakers with their varying perspectives and questions.
In this first set of poems, Blake often uses a child as the speaker, questioning the ways of the world. The atmosphere is bright and cheerful.
For all of the purity that is conveyed through out the poems, there is an underlying current of indignation at the way the corrupt institutions are tainting the souls of the children.
Even though the children see the realities of the world they live in their innocence does not allow them to feel or express their resentment.
On the other hand, Blake could be describing the Children as ‘innocent to make them seem like angels, bringing the idea of religion back in.
This also relates to the last line of the poem Then cherish pity, lest you drive an angel from your door’ which is a quote from the bible. Blake used this quote as it relates to the wardens attitudes towards the children and charity schools.
What Blake is trying to say is if the wardens are so religious ten why are they soeruel to the children, as they could be hidden angels. BEGC 109 Free Solved Assignment
The illuminated version of the poem backs up my Point of Blake portraying the children as too organised and having no real happy childhood.
The picture shows the children walking two and two behind the wardens. But again backing up another pint, the children don’t look like children, it’s like Blake has imitated them as soldiers, which is the effect of the organised religion.
The children may look smarty dressed and cheerful, but all the organised religion does not have a positive effect on the children.
The main mood in Holy Thursday (SOE) is very negative ‘usurous’ and dull bleak’. The poem has quite the opposite mood of songs of innocence because in this poem the children are cold and starving in London.
Blake metaphorically describes it as a land of poverty though London is a rich ‘fruitful city. So Blake is saying ‘poverty’ as in the emotion.
The poor people are sad as if they experienced poverty, Blake seems to be describing their emotions but symbolising it as something else.
Q. 5. Give an account of the punishment suffered by the Ancient Mariner. Attempt to show the various stages and the different kinds of suffering he undergoes.
Ans. The mariner admits to have committed a “hellish” thing. He was accused to have slew the bird which made the breeze to blow. Thus, he was punished by his co-mariners to hang an albatross around his neck. BEGC 109 Free Solved Assignment
Thus, bearing this guilt in mind, he stops every stranger he meets to narrate his story. Also, what does The Rime of the Ancient Mariner tell you about guilt?
In Part II of “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” several different symbols represent the Mariner s guilt and loneliness after he has killed the albatross.
The first stanza of Part II describes the sun, saying that it “hid in mist,” which foreshadows the mist and fog to come that obscures the way of the ship in Part II.
After the Mariner shoots and kills the alboss, the rest of the crew hang the albatross around the Mariner’s neck to symbolize and punish the sailor for his crime, which they believe is responsible for their declining fortunes on the windless sea.
“The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” reflects Wordsworth’s suggestions, but the poem is more complex than a tale of crime and punishment.
The Mariner’s crime is committed against God, not man, and the narrative develops as an examination of sin, penance and redemption.
But the Mariner escapes his curse by unconsciously blessing the hideous snakes, and the albatross drops off his neck into the ocean.
The Mariner falls into a sweet sleep, and it finally rains when he wakes up. A storm strikes up in the distance, and all the dead sailors rise like zombies to pilot the ship.
The alliteration of the bands sounds emphasizes the ship’s gentle movement. In “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” why does only the ancient mariner survive among the crew?
As punishment for killing the albatross, he is condemned to live to tell the tale. A wind comes up and the crew is able to sail home at last.
Suffering is sometimes the only way to change someone’s habits for good, and it takes a whole lot of this painful medicine in The Rime of the Ancient Mariner to make the Mariner realize that all of nature’s creations are worthy of love and respect.
The entire poem, but especially the middle section concerning the drought, contains enough suffering to last several lifetimes. BEGC 109 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 6. Write a note on Lamb’s characteristic humour and pathos with reference to the essay you studied.
Ans. Mary Shelley wrote about “The Skylark”: “In the Spring we spent a week or two near Leghorn…
It was on a beautiful summer ev oing while wandering among the lanes whose myrtle hedges were the bowers of the fireflies, that we heard the earfling of the skylark.”
Like the “Ode to the West Wind,” **The Skylark” was inspired by a specific experience, but Shelley’s interest in the skylark is not that of the bird lover or the bird watcher.
What he is fascinated by is the happiness that, for him, is present in the song of the bird. He doesn’t say that he sees the bird, but it would seem that he has watched it leave the ground and disappear into the bright clouds above the setting sun, for he says that the pale purple even/Melts around thy flight.”
The color of the bird, its flight pattern, the quality of sound which distinguishes its song from that of other birds – in short, the individuality of the bird – the reader learns nothing about from reading “To a Skylark.” BEGC 109 Free Solved Assignment
Shelley has converted the bird or, specifically, the bird’s song into a symbol of happiness. The poem, then, is not so much about a skylark as it is about happiness.
The singing bird is personified as a “blithe” or happy spirit in the first line of the poem.
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