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BEGC 108

British Literature: 18th Century

BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment 2021 July & 2022 Jan session

BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment 2021

Q. 1. Write short notes in about 200 words each/ answer with reference to the context: (i) Whigs and the Tories

Ans. Whig and Tory, members of two opposing political parties or factions in

England, particularly during the 18th century. Originally Whig” and “Tory were

termspfbbuse introduced in 1679 during the heated struggle over the bill to exclude

James, duke of York (afterward James II), from the succession. Whig-whatever its

origin in Scottish Gaelic-was a term applied to horse thieves and later, to

Scottish Presbyterians; it connoted nonconformity and rebellion and was applied to

those who claimed the power of excluding the heir fronthe throne Topy was an Irish

term suggesting a papist outlaw and was applied to those who supported the

hereditary right of James despite his Roman Catholic faithW
The Glorious Revolution (1688-89) greatly modified the division in principle

between the two parties, for it had been a joint achievement. Thereafter most

Tories accepted something of the Whig doctrines of limited constitutional monarchy

rather than divine-right absolutism. Under Queen Anne, the Tories represented the

resistance, mainly by the country gentry, to religious toleration and foreign

entanglements. Toryism became identified with Anglicanism and the squirearchy and

Whiggism with the aristocratic, landowning families and the financial interests of

the wealthy middle classes.BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment

BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment

(ii) A Tale of A Tub

Ans. A Tale of a Tub written for the Universal Improvement of Mankind. was the

first major work written by Jonathan Swift, arguably his most difficult satire and

perhaps his most masterly. The Tale is a prose parody divided into sections each

delving into the morals and ethics of the English. Composed between 1694 and 1697,

it was BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
eventually published in 1704. A satire on the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches

and English Dissenters, it was famously attacked for its profanity and irreligion,

starting with William Wotton, who wrote that the Tale had made a game of God and

Religion, Truth and Moral Honesty. Learning and Industry” to show at the bottom

(the author’s] contemptible Opinion of every Thing which is called Christianity.”

The work continued to be regarded as an attack on religion well into the nineteenth

century. BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
The Tale was enormously popular, presenting both a satire of religious excess and a

parody of contemporary writing in literature, politics, theology, Biblical

exegesis, and medicine through its comically excessive front matter and series of

digressions throughout. The overarching parody is of enthusiasm, pride, and

credulity. At the time it was written, polities and religion were still closely

linked in England, and the religious and political aspects of the satire can often

hardly be separated. The work made Swift notorious, and was widely misunderstood,

especially by Queen Anne herself who mistook its purpose for profanity.” It

effectively disbarred its author from proper preferment” in the Church of England,

but is considered one of Swift’s best allegories, even by himself.

(iii) The Neo-Classical Age

Ans. Neo-classicism was a Western cultural movement in the decorative and visual

arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that drew inspiration from the

art and culture of classical antiquity. Neo-classicism was born in Rome largely

thanks to the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, at the time of the

rediscovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum, but its popularity spread all over Europe

as a generation of European art students finished their Grand Tour and returned

from Italy to their home countries with newly rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals. The

main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment,

and continued into the early 19th century. laterally competing with Romanticism.

architegture, thestyle continued throughout the 19th. 20th and up to the 21st

century BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
European Neoclassicism in the visual arts began c. 96. ppposition to the then

dominant Rococo style. Rococo architecture emphasizes grace, ornamentation and

asymmetry: Neoclassical architecture is based on the principles of simplicity and

symmetry, which were seen as virtues of the arts of Romeand Ancient Greece, and

were more immediately drawn trong lóth-century Renaissance Classicist

Eachineolassicism seleets some models among the range of possible classics that are

available to it, and ignores others. The Neoclassical writers and talkers. patrons

and collectors, artists and sculptors of 1765-1830 paid homage to an idea of the

generation of Phidias, but the sculpture examples they actually embraced were more

likely to be Roman copies of Hellenistic sculptures, They ignored both Archaic

Greek art and the works of Late Antiquity. The “Rococo” art of ancient Palmyra came

as a revelation through engravings in Wood’s The Ruins of Palmyra. Even Greece was

all-but-unvisited, a rough backwater of the Othman Empire, dangerous to explore, so

Neoclassicists’ appreciation of Greek architecture was mediated through drawings

and engravings, which subtly smoothed and regularized, “corrected and restored the

monuments of Greece, not always consciously.

(iv) The Graveyard School of Poetry

Ans. Graveyard school. genre of 18th-century British poetry that focused on death

and bereavement. The graveyard school consisted largely of imitations of Robert

Blair’s popular long poem of morbid appeal, The Grave
(1743), and of Edward Young’s celebrated blank-verse dramatic rhapsody Night

Thoughts (1742-45). These poems express the sorrow and pain of bereavement, evoke

the horror of death’s physical manifestations, and suggest the transitory nature of

human life. The meditative, philosophical tendencies of graveyard poetry found

their fullest expression in Thomas Gray’s “An Elegy Written in a Country Church

Yard” (1751). The poem is a dignified, gently melancholy elegy celebrating the

graves of humble and unknown villagers and suggesting that the lives of rich and

poor alike “lead but to the grave.” The works of the graveyard school were

significant as early precursors of the Romantic Movement.
It was not until “An Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard,” a poem long in the

making, was published in 1751 that Gray was recognized. Its success was

instantaneous and overwhelming. A dignified elegy in eloquent classical diction

celebrating the graves of humble and unknown villagers was, in itself, a novelty.

Its theme that the lives of the rich and poor alike “lead but to the grave was

already familiar, but Gray’s treatment which had the effect of suggesting that it

was not only the “rude forefathers of the village” he was mourning but the death of

all men and of the poet himself gave the poem its universal appeal. Gray’s newfound

celebrity did not make the slightest difference in his habits. He remained at

Peterhouse until 1756, when, outraged by a prank played on him by students, he

moved to Pembroke College. He wrote two Pindaric odes. “The Progress of Poesy” and

“The Bard,” published in 1757 by Walpole’s private Strawberry Hill Press. They were

criticized, not without reason, for obscurity, and in disappointment, Gray

virtually ceased to write. He was offered the laureateship in 1757 but declined it.

He buried himself in his studies of Celtic and Scandinavian antiquities and became

increasingly retiring and hypochondriacal. In his last years his peace was

disrupted by his friendship with a young Swiss nobleman, Charles Victor de

Bonstetten, for whom he conceived a romantic devotion, the most profound emotional

experience of his life. BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 1. Examine the theme of paternal disobedience plays in the plot of Robinson Crusoe?

Ans. Human Societies are Structured and organized according to eodesantnom Paleh

actor thus a specific duty and a role to play. Parents have the obligation to teach

and educate children. Children in their turn should respect and obey not only their

parents but also elders the society. I sometimes happens that for some reasons

children disobey their parents and consequently face some lise problems afterwards.

The main objective of this paper is the draw the attention of young men on the

importance of obedience and the necessity to obey and respect elders in generand

parents in particular. The study put a particular stress on disobedience through

the character of Robinson Crusoe in Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe.
At a time when relativism is rife and tends to dominate the universal understanding

on the issue of parental disobedience, the urgency would be to awaken dormant

consciences. We subscribe to it without much trouble. Because this phenomenon seems

to be passed over in silence while it is not without drawbacks. It is therefore

enough to examine various opinions especially that of writers to be convinced of

its numerous controversies. The issue of parental disobedience is so important to

reconsider and locate it in time. Because, to tell the truth, it seems to be

worrying than it has been. Because it has reached proportions more or less

frightening. What is parental BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
disobedience? What are the consequences of parental disobedience? The main aim of

the paper is to stress on of parental disobedience and its consequences with a

focus on Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe.
According to the dictionary disobeying means not to obey, to refuse to obey

someone, either by doing what is forbidden or by not doing what is ordered. In one

word, it is refusing to submit to parental authority. When we apply this word to

children, adolescents, and young men, we can see the refusal to comply with the

will of the parents and to override a council that is dear to them. Disobedience is

considered as a reprehensible behaviour that can create problems between parents

and children, Disobedience is forbidden even by religion confessions.

BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 2. What do you understand by the Restoration Period? Highlight some of the characteristics of the age.

Ans. The Restoration refers to the restoration of the monarchy when Charles II was

restored to the throne of England following an eleven-year Commonwealth period

during which the country was governed by Parliament under the direction of the

Puritan General Oliver Cromwell. This political event coincides with (and to some

extent is responsible for changes in the literary, scientific, and cultural life of

Britain. BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
During this time, a premium was placed on the importance of human reason and on an

empirical philosophy that held that knowledge about the world was through the

senses and by applying reason to what we take in through our senses. Reason was an

unchanging, uniquely human characteristic that served as a guide for man. Thus this

time is often also called the Age of Reason or Enlightenment. Characteristics of

this period included observing human nature and nature itself which were considered

unchanging and constant. BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
The age is also known as the Neo-classical period. Writers of the time placed great

emphasis on the original writings produced by classical Greek and Roman literature.

The literature of this period imitated that of the age of Caesar Augustus, writers

such as: Horaceand Virginip lassical inuenica a pearing prevalent in poetry with

the use of rhyming, and in prose with its satirical form. The Augustans deemed

classical literature as natural, that these works were the idealized models for

waiting The Neoclassical ideals of order, logicutestraint accueilly correctness,

decorum…. would enable the practitioners of various arts to imitate or reproduce

the structures or themes of Greek or Roman originals” (Victorian Web). Alexander

Pope furthers this idea as he says “Learn hence for ancient rules a just esteem: To

copy Nature is in copy them sayon Criticism. The way to stardy nature is to study

the ancients: the styles and rules of classical literature. Closely allied with the

emphasis placed on the classics and the unchanging rules of nature was the belief

that reason was an unchanging and unique human quality that served as a guide for

man. BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 3. What purpose do the epigraph and the prologue serve in the play The Way of the World?

Ans. In literature, an epigraph is a phrase, quotation, or poem that is set at the

beginning of a document, monograph or section thereof. The epigraph may serve as a

preface to the work, as a summary, as a counter-example; or as a link from the work

to a wider literary canon, with the purpose of either inviting comparison or

enlisting a conventional context. A book may have an overall epigraphy that is part

of the front matter, or one for each chapter.
Congreve uses two quotes, both from Horace’s second Satire, as epigraphs to The Way

of the World. These read “You who seek retribution against adulterers will be happy

to learn that they are impeded on all sides.” and “She is afraid for the dowry.”

These will be important to the conflict of the play On the next page, the reader

encounters a commendatory verse written by Richard Steele. The verse praises

Congreve’s ability to write for the people, not only for the upper classes, which

was a major concern for Restoration Comedy as it runs the risk in parodying the

upper classes of only being accessible and understandable to those people. Steele

references the skill of Congreve’s prior shows and writings – Ode on Mrs. Arabella

Hunt, Singing.. The Mourning Muse of Alexis, The Mourning Bride, and a eulogy he

wrote for William Ill – and speaks to Congreve’s ability to interweave comedy and

tragedy in a way that is moving and educational to the audience. The writer praises

Congreve hyperbolically, for example writing. “On you from fate a lavish portion

fell/In every way of writing to excel.” which will be contrasted with the humility

Congreve must show in the dedication.
Congreve’s dedication is addressed “To the Right Honourable Ralph, Earl of

Montague, Etc.” The passage is highly flattering, which was the style of the time,

but is well-written and seems heartfelt. Between his obsequious praise of the

Earl’s ability to add to the respectability of a piece. Congreve goes into the

trials and tribulations of RestoNtion Comedy and its audiences. He writes of his

show’s characters, which are designed to appear ridiculous through false wit rather

than through “natural folly.” but he challenges that audiences who come in with a

mind to immediately criticize will mistake these two things. He also challenges the

existence of other authors who get laughs but base their characters on those in

other plays. Dramatis Personae refers to the (onstage) characters in the play, and

is a useful reference throughout reading the play to remind oneself of the

characters’ relationships with one another.

Q. 4. What was the changed nature of poetry in the mid-18th century? Discuss why this age seems to be a “transitional period’?

Ans. The function of poetry for 18th century poets was only didactic as they talked

about civilization culture and improvement of present world. They took inspiration

from external reality-steation and also from the works of ancient classics

(Humphreys, 1970, 71). The role of poet was as a reflector of external reality. He

was a critic, a teacher, a moralist and somebody who can uphold the morals and

norms of a society, Poetry was meant for upholding certain ideals. Standards and

Values (Humplireys. 1970, 86). With the passage of time, 48th century poetry

started changing as some of its poets started moving towards some aspects that were

previously ignored by pioneers of the age such as village lite, simplicity,

closeness to nature and natural landscapes
Although Oliver Goldsmith and Cowper differed in some aspects from their

contemporaries but nature was for them not what it was for Romantics. For

Romantics, nature was the inspiration for the imagination. They wrote poetry not for the

purpose of didacticism but for themselves. The poetry of Romantics contained their

own passion and obsession of writing poetry but the poetry of 18th-century poets

was a rational activity, which was done with proper thinking process without any

imagination (Humphreys, 1970, 89).
The second half of the 18th century is known as a transitional period. It was an

era of change from pseudoclassicism to romanticism. The decline of party spirit and

the democratic upsurge exercised great influence both on life and literature.
The rivalry between the Whigs and Tories still continued but it had lost its

previous bitterness. This naturally led to a considerable decline of the activity

in political pamphleteering. The poets and satirists ceased to be statesmen.

The institution of literary patronage gradually crumbled during this period. Men of

letters learnt to depend entirely on their public.
During the second half of the eighteenth century new ideas were germinating and new

forces were gathering strength. The French Revolution of 1789 was only the climax

of a long and deeply diffused unrest. Revolutionary ideas gave birth to democratic

and humanitarian feelings. And it influenced literature greatly
Q. Comment on the rise of the genre of the novel with respect to Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe.

Ans. The publication of Robinson Crusoe in 1719 was an extraordinary event in the

history of literature. There had been prose narratives before this book, but never

so sustained a fictional account of one individual’s experiences. This man’s story

was singular and new. What distinguished Robinson Crusoe were elements that now

seem essential to the novel as a genre. It told of an ordinary individual, even if

his ordeals were extraordinary. It placed great emphasis on his inner life, though

understood mostly in spiritual terms. And, above all, in the very manner of its

narration, it asked the reader to believe in its “probability. In the first decades

of the English novel, this was the most common word for what made a narrative

believable. In the case of Robinson Crusoe, it involved the narrator’s unwavering

commitment to minute, objective description and circumstantial detail, Daniel

Defoe’s brilliantly unliterary prose doing justice to the facts of one particular

person’s experience.BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
So the novel begins as if it were a true story. Yet Defoe’s fiction was not noticed

by contemporary literary critics, and not included in discussions of the best

literature of the age. From the number of editions that were published we know that

his fiction was popular, but it was not regarded as properly literary. Many of his

novels were lumped together in the public imagination with this published accounts

of criminal lives that were popular in the period. Readers were not yet aware that

a new genre was with them. The preface to Robinson Crusoe has many words for the

narratiyetsStocil Adventures Account Slited History Cact – but none of them is that

word novel’. It is significant that readers did not yet use this word to describe

this new genre. The noun existed, but it referred to what we might call a short

story or novellara genre of brief tales often or forbidden romantic entanglements,

usually published in collections Many of the leasing writers on these were women of

whom Deinrivière Manley and Eliza Haywood were the most famous. Defoe’s last novel

Roxana, the fictional memoir of a Restoration courtesan, owes something to this

briefly dominant sub-genre of prose fiction, featuring as it does the scandalous

affairs of courtly men and women.BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 2. What do you understand by the term Enlightenment? Does swift question the Enlightenment and modernity ?

Ans. The Enlightenment’s emphasis on reason shaped philosophical political and

scientific discourse from the late 17th to the early 19th century. Matthew White

traces the Enlightenment back to its roots in the aftermath of the Civil War, and

forward to its effects on the present day,
The Enlightenment – the great ‘Age of Reason – is defined as the period of rigorous

scientific, political and philosophical discourse that characterised European

society during the long 18th century: from the late 17th century
to the ending of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. This was a period of huge change in

thought and reason, which in the words w historian Roy Porter) was decisive in the

making of modernity. Centuries of custom and tradition were brushed aside in favour

of exploration, individualism, tolerance and scientific endeavour, which in tandem

with developments in industry and politics, witnessed the emergence of the ‘modem

world’.BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
The roots of the Enlightenment can be found in the turmoil of the English Civil

Wars. With the re-establishment of a largely unchanged autocratic monarchy, first

with the restoration of Charles II in 1660 and then the ascendancy of James II in

  1. leading political thinkers began to reappraise how society and politics could

(and should be better structured. Movements for political change resulted in the

Glorious Revolution of 1688/89, when William and Mary were installed on the throne

as part of the new Protestant settlement.
The ancient civilisations of Greece and Rome were revered by enlightened thinkers,

who viewed these communities as potential models for how modern society could be

organised. Many commentators of the late 17th century were eager to achieve a clean

break from what they saw as centuries of political tyranny, in favour of personal

freedoms and happiness centred on the individual. Chief among these thinkers was

philosopher and physician John Locke, whose Two Treatises of Government (published

in 1689) advocated a separation of church and state, religious toleration, the

right to property ownership and a contractual obligation on governments to

recognise the innate “rights of the people.
Locke believed that reason and human consciousness were the gateways to contentment

and liberty, and he demolished the notion that human knowledge was somehow pre-

programmed and mystical. Locke’s ideas reflected the earlier but equally

influential works of Thomas Hobbes, which similarly advocated new social contracts

between the state and civil society as the key to unlocking personal happiness for

all.BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 3. Examine the politico-historical circumstances of 17th and 8th Century England critically.

Ans. The 17th century was a period of huge political and social upheaval. From an

age characterised by the Crown’s tight control of thestate the degrees witnessed

bears of war terror and bloodshed enveloped the kingdom, as well as the execution

of Charles I and the introduction of a republie. Yet all this was again to be

overthrown with the restoration of Charles Ila short-lived return to autocratie

royal influence finally swept away with the installation of William and

Maryasruling monarchis the origins of the finglish Civil Wars are firmly rooted in

the actions of one man: King Charles I. As a child, Charles was never destined to

succeed to the throne. The weak and sickly second son of James 1, Charles had lived

in the shadow of his elder brother Henry, who was educated in the ways of kingship

by his father. All this changed when, in 1612, Henry contracted smallpox and died,

suddenly placing Charles as heir to the throne, eventually to be crowned in his own

right in 1625BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
Conflict between Crown and Parliament arose for a number of reasons. In matters of

religion Charles appeared to disregard the Protestant settlement secured by Henry

VIII, favouring instead the Catholic mass and, in 1625, marrying a Catholic member

of the French nobility, Henrietta Maria. Charles also continued to act unilaterally

in matters of foreign policy and, in the face of criticism levelled by his chief

advisers, dissolved Parliament in 1629. Parliament would not meet again for another

11 years.

Without Parliament to sanction his financial needs, Charles found himself in

increasingly difficult circumstances. Rebellion in Scotland (provoked by Charles’s

insensitive imposition of a new prayer book) required that additional revenues be

raised in order to finance a military response. Reluctantly, the king convened a

new Parliament in 1640.BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
The new Parliament that met that year was at once openly hostile to the Crown. MPs

complained bitterly about the imposition of taxes and the blatant disregard of

religious toleration in the north. (The Scots had rejected Charles’s prayer book

and drafted a National Covenant in defiance of the king, resisting his religious

reforms in favour of a simpler form of Protestant worship.) Sensing weakness in

Charles’s position, key concessions were demanded from the king, and personal

attacks were launched against his key ministers. Among them. Thomas Wentworth, Earl

of Strafford, was to suffer the death penalty for what Parliament labelled acts of

treason against the Scottish nation. A botched attempt to arrest five MPs for

treason set the king directly in conflict with his people. The scene was set for

civil war.BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
Though England experienced a relative period of peace during the Commonwealth,

forces still loyal to the deposed monarchy continued to wage war in both Ireland

and Scotland. Ireland in particular was the scene of much brutal violence, as

Parliament attempted to quash a Catholic rebellion. In 1649 Oliver Cromwell laid

siege to the town of Drogheda, resulting in the massacre of 3,500 people, both

Royalists and ordinary civilians alike.
That same year Prince Charles (son of the dead king) landed in Scotland, where he

was declared titular Scottish monarch. After commanding armies during several

skirmishes north of the border. Charles was forced to flee England in disguise in

1651, following defeat at the Battle of Worcester.
In 1653 Oliver Cromwell dissolved Parliament and assumed power in his own right.

For eight years the country was run as a military dictatorship, divided into 11

regions which were controlled by major-generals. Cromwell made many concessions to

his Army Council-Heimplementeda decisive roreign Policy and ensured that the

tyranny of royal absolutism would never again exist. Yet history also remembers

Cromwell for his sheer brutality: for pitching the country into years of warfars

for his retentless persecution of Catholics for dissolving several parliaments.
On 3 September, 1658 bliver Cromwell died as a result of pneumonia, and was

succeeded by his son Richard. As second Lord Protector, Richard was a weak,

indecisive and ineffective leader who failed to win support of the Army.

With buoyant trade creating relatively healthy revenues, the newly crowned king

felt less compelled to consult with Parliament than his brother once had,

particularly when it came to formulating foreign policy. During the early years of

his reign the Army increased in strength by some 20.000 men (largely as a measure

required to crush two significant rebellions), creating unease among MPs about

James’s wilfulness in disregarding their views.
It was matters of religion, however, that were to prove James II’s undoing. As a

committed Roman Catholic the new king sought to remove laws barring Catholics from

office and to reverse the laws of religious toleration previously established by

Charles II. By attempting to pack Parliament and local government with Catholics,

he further hoped that more of his subjects would flock to his own faith. Most

parliamentarians, however a large proportion of whom were dissenting Presbyterian

Protestants), were not prepared to tolerate such steps. Further alarm was created

in June 1688, when a Catholic line of succession appeared to be confirmed with the

birth of a new son to James.BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 4. How is The Way of the World a quintessential comedy of manners?

Ans. A genre of comedy that flourished during the Restoration period is the Comedy

of Manners. It is a play to entertain audience but not to educate or to modify

them. It is typically set in the upper class to reflect their life style and it

satirically presents London Aristocratic Society’s follies and foibles. It

spectacularly presents Aristocratic society’s fashions, manners, infidelity,

avaricious lifestyle, love of wit, etc.
The Way of the World’ is a seamless illustration of comedy of manners written in

Restoration period by William Congreve. The play is considered by critics as a pure

comedy of manners and William Congreve as the finest writer of comedy of manners.

The very title of the play, The Way of the World points to the way the central

characters of the playdopted in order to surmount obstacles created by their rivals

to attain their wishes. Congreve makes fun of marriage and love in this play.
The play deals with the love intrigues in upper class society. Sex is treated with

absolute bluntness in the play. The play is a faithful reflection of upper-class

society. Its prose is lucid and characters are well drawn. In comedy of manners we

find gorgeous young girls, licentious women, jealous and greedy husbands, fops and

gallants around charming young girls. All these characters are found in the play

The way of the world. Mirabella, the Protagonist of the play, has an illicit relation

with Arabella but he convinces her to marry Fainall. Fainall marries Arabella only

for her property and he maintains an affair with Mrs. Marwood. Mirabell loves

Millamant but Millamant has soft corner for Petulant and Witwoud. To achieve his

desire Millamant butterflies Lady Wishfort to please her as she is the guardian of

Millamant’s property. Lady Wishfort makes her up with cosmetics to hide her

wrinkles of old age. She wants marry a young man. She even years for Mirabell’s

love. Lady Wishfort’s son-in-law Mr.Fainall contrives to grab her property. All

these characters’ effort to accomplish their desires create wit in the play. All

these love intrigues make the play a perfect comedy of manners vate Limited

Q. 5. Write a detailed note on Gray’s “pastoral representations of the city versus the country.

Ans. The pastoral elegy is a poem about both death and idyllic rural life Often,

the pastoral elegy features shepherds. The genre is actually a subgroup of pastoral

poetry, as the elegy takes the pastoral elements and relates them to expressing the

poet’s grief at a loss. This form of poetry has several key features, including the

invocation of the Muse, expression of the shepherd’s, or poeus grief praise of the

deceased. Ibirade against death a detailing of the effects of this specific death

upon nature, and evermally, the poet’s simultaneous acceptance of death’s

inevitability and hope for immortality. Additional features sometimes found within

pastoral elegies include a procession of mourners, satirical digressions about

different topics stemming from the death, and symbolism through flowers, refrains,

and rhetorical questions. The pastoral elegy is typically incredibly moving and in

its most classic form, it concerns itself with simple, country figures.
Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard is an elegy in name but not in form. The

essential characteristics of the elegy, which are invoking the Muse, expressing the

shepherd’s (or poet’s) grief. praising the dead, inveighing against death, telling

the affects of death on a personified nature, accepting death and acknowledge a

hope of immortality, are missing or modified in Thomas Gray’s elegy.

However, the poem does just what an elegy is intended to do. It mourns for the dead

and recognizes the loss of life. The poem begins set in a rural landscape and the

somber tone begins as the bell rings in the first line. With its mention of the

herd, the opening stanza also positions itself in the pastoral tradition the line

of poetry based on songs sung byahepherds, Pastoral poetry often involves nostalgia

for a past, but that past doesn’t necessarily exist. Instead, pastoral poems often

look back longingly on an idealized time where purity and virtue supposedly ruled.

The movement of the day, from afternoon to dusk to dark, is just one of the

movements the “Elegy” will address. Day and night foreshadow life and death, along

with labour and the end of labour, and the building and destroying of personal

history. The plowman is progressing on his journey as day turns into evening. And

soon, he reaches the churchyard, where beneath “rugged elms” and the “yew-tree’s

shade,” the “rude Forefathers of the hamlet sleep.” The poet then details the

sounds of the countryside-the cock in the morning, the swallow, the echoing horn-

which are not heard by the dead. While the opening stanza may have detailed a still

silence, the dead and buried know an even stiller silence.
It continues to describe the landscape until the fourth stanza when death is first

addressed. As the poem goes on, Gray elaborates the fact that it does not matter

how highly ranked a man was or what he accomplished, for everyone will eventually

die. He goes on to focus on mourning the loss of the common man, rather than that

of a noble or someone well known. He makes the point that nothing can bring you

back from the dead, therefore it does not matter the riches one possesses in life.

This is seen when he states that even when once in an um, going back to
its mansion,” will not save someone. The wealth of someone will not bring a person

back to life. These possessions will be of no advantage once one is dead.
As the poem proceeds, the reader is cautioned never to look down upon the poor

because wealthy or not. everyone will end up dead. In the ninth stanza Gray says. “

gave. (Awaits alike th inevitable hour). The paths of glory lead but to the grave.”

The reader can see that the group Gray is mourning is not famous, wealthy or

powerful.aistelegy is written for file ordinary pebple buried in the curely . He

wonders of what they could have become and praises their simple and virtuous

lifestyle. At the end of the poem. Gray begins to ponder upon how he wants to be

remembered. He finally concludes that he wants the same as the common ordinary

people he has written about. Thomas Gray, in this elegy praises the ordinary man

and the work he has done.BEGC 108 Free Solved Assignment
Gray’s elegy is highly innovative as it laments the many who are dead, doesn’t have

a shepherd speaker and in the end turns out to be an anticipatory lament of his own

death.

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