British Poetry & Drama: 17th and 18th Centuries
BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment july 2021 & jan 2022
(i) “Duchess I have got well by you; you have yielded me A million of loss: I am like to inherit The people’………………………………..Till I had sign’d your quietus”;
Ans. The above lines are taken from The Duchess of Malfi. n the Duchess of Malfi’s chamber, the Duchess and Antonio Bologna playfully discuss whether he will spend the night with her.
After the lovers exchange kisses, Cariola asks Antonio about her love life, and Antonio answers her with an elegant allusion to ancient Greek mythology and human traits. After some more jesting, Antonio draws Cariola aside, and they leave the Duchess to herself.
While the Duchess muses on signs of age in her appearance and on the threat to Antonio from her brothers, Ferdinand enters, brandishing a dagger. In fearsome language, he denounces the Duchess, calling her a “vile woman.”
Ferdinand harangues her with a rant on reputation, and then bids farewell, saying he will never see her again. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
He leaves the dagger with her, presumably so she can use it to commit suicide. Antonio, carrying a pistol, and Cariola reenter, having witnessed the heated exchange between the Duchess and Ferdinand.
But knocking suddenly interrupts the dialogue. When Cariola reports the visitor is Daniel de Bosola, the Duchess orders Antonio to flee, and he exits.
Bosola tells the Duchess that Ferdinand has ridden in haste to Rome. The Duchess fabricates a story to explain her distress: Antonio, she says, has cheated in his accounts, and certain sums of money are missing or in default.
The Duchess asks Bosola to summon the palace officers.
When Bosola leaves, Antonio re-appears. The Duchess bids him urgently to flee to Ancona, where he should await her arrival, together with her precious possessions.
When Bosola returns, the Duchess and Antonio play-act a scene in which she reproaches him for embezzlement, confiscates his property, and banishes him from Malfi.
After some brief dialogue with the officers, the Duchess asks Bosola for his opinion of Antonio.BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
When Bosola praises him as virtuous, the Duchess impulsively declares Antonio is her husband and father of her three children.
She further avows Antonio is leaving for Ancona, where she means to follow him. Bosola, who now possesses all the information he has been striving to obtain, suggests the Duchess pretend publicly to be leaving Malfi to make a pilgrimage to Loreto, located very near Ancona.
Despite an objection from Cariola, the Duchess agrees, entrusting all her money and jewelry to Bosola. Alone on stage at the end of the scene, Bosola muses on his own debasement as a spy.
(ii) “Yet once more, O ye Laurels, and once more Ye Myrtles brown, with Ivy never-sear, I com to pluck your…………………………….. leaves before the mellowing year“.
Ans. Context: John Milton wrote Lycidas as a tribute to his Cambridge University acquaintance Edward King (1612-1637), who was drowned in the Irish Sea, but it has long been realized that Milton felt only little grief for King.
The poem, which was written for a volume of elegies on King, is in the pastoral tradition, and Milton pictures King and himself as companion “shepherds”-or poets.
Actually, King was a very mediocre versifier, being the author of nothing more than a few inconsequential Latin poems. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Besides being a lament for King, Lycidas is also a satire on the clergy, it being Milton’s contention that England was betrayed by her intellectuals.
Lycidas is also about Milton himself, his poetical failures and his premonitions of the greater things to come.
He begins the poem by saying that he is going to pluck berries of the laurel, the myrtle, and the ivy-all symbols for the composition of poetry.
When he calls the berries “crude,” or unripe, he is admitting his artistic immaturity, a subject that worried him in his sonnet “How soon hath Time, the subtle thief of youth.”
(iii) Shatter your leaves before the mellowing year”“This aged Prince now flourishing in Peace, ………………………………………… did at length debate To settle the succession of the State”
Ans. The above lines are taken from the poem Mac Flecknoe written by John Dryden.
The end of our king’s life is near, however, and it is time now for him to declare his successor to the throne.
He has been blessed with a “large increase” (a.k.a. an ample brood of offspring), and he must choose which one of his children will inherit the kingdom.
So how will he make this decision? He will choose the heir who is most like the king himself, in wit and poetic ability (or, as Dryden implies, lack thereof). Something tells us we aren’t exactly going to get Shakespeare as the next king.
(iv) one speaks…………………………………………And one describes a charming Indian screen; A third interprets motions, looks, and eyes; At every word a reputation dies”.
Ans. The Rape of the Lock (1714) had its origins in an actual incident that occurred in 1711. Robert, Lord Petre surreptitiously cut a lock of hair from Arabella Fermor, who he had been courting at the time. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The Fermors took offense, and a schism developed between the two families. John Caryll, a friend of both families and of Pope’s who had been present,
suggested that Pope write a humorous poem about the event which would demonstrate to both families that the affair had been blown out of proportion, thereby effecting a reconciliation between them. Pope accordingly composed The Rape of the Lock.
The last ten lines of this second foreground the silliness of the social network of nobles and gentrys who hang around the Queen’s court partying, flirting, eating, and generally making intrigue. This is Belinda’s crowd, and as you’re about to see-they’re a pretty mean clique.
Q1. What is the role of Bosola in The Duchess of Malfi?
Ans. Bosola is the spy planted by Duke Ferdinand as the stable master at the Duchess’ estate. He is a man who is used to doing the dirty work for others: before the events of the play he spent time in jail for murdering a man on the orders of the Cardinal.
He is also aware that the men who do the dirty work seldom actually get the rewards promised them, as the Cardinal refuses to speak or be seen with him.
Even so, though he feels guilty for all of his actions – and does not even want to become a spy when Duke Ferdinand offers him the payment to become one – he feels that it is his duty to obey the Duke and accepts that to follow orders he must become corrupt.
After he participates in the dows torture of the Duchess, though, his guilt becomes so great, and Ferdinand’s refusal to pay him for his a services so outrageous, that he switches sides and plans to help Antonio and kill both Ferdinand and the Cardinal.
That his plans go awry and he accidentally kills Antonio may suggest that it is not so simple to suddenly become good and moral, but he does willingly sacrifice himself and badly wound the Cardinal and kill Ferdinand.BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Q2. Write a note on the socio cultural environment of 17th Century England.
Ans. In the early 17th century, the rich people of London, built houses along the Thames between the two cities of Westminster and London particularly in the west of London while the working class built their houses to the east of the city.
Soon London came to be divided into the affluent west end and the poor east end.
Shortly after, piped water was available to the individual houses on the west side of London as the rich could afford to pay for this luxury – a connection to the main water supply line.
Furniture was also plain and heavy but towards the late 17th century, more comfortable and finely decorated furniture began to be made of walnut (1680s onwards) or mahogany.
Furniture was veneered, inlaid, lacquered, and also carved out and inlaid with mother of pearl.BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Furthermore new types of furniture were introduced during this period, and in the mid 17th century chests of drawers became common, as did Grandfather clocks.
The bookcase was to make an appearance later in the century, and chairs too were modified and made more comfortable as upholstered (padded and covered) chairs became common in the homes of the wealthy people.
The first real armchair appeared in the 1680s.
Horse drawn carriages were available in London, and the streets were lit with oil lamp street lights from the 1680s onwards, and gradually towns became larger as employment was more readily available.
But the movement from the rural areas and villages to the towns and cities caused overcrowding and that doubled with poor hygiene amongst the poor in London, lead to the breaking out of Plague in 1603, 1636 and in 1665.
The three onslaughts of Plague killed a large number of people, but there were always many poor ones who would come and take their place in towns.
Banking developed then, as England became a more commercial country. The Bank of England was founded in 1694. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
In the early years of the 17th century people began eating using forks for the first time and never foods such as bananas and pineannles as soll as chocolate tea and coffee were introduced into England for the rich.
However, the poor ate the normal plain and monotonous food, subsisting on bread, cheese, onions, and pottage a kind of porridge with some vegetables and (if you could afford it) pieces of meat or fish.
The rampant belief in witchcraft and magic also declined gradually as a scientific basis and understanding began to gain ground and the last known person to be executed as a witch in England was in 1684.
Women accused and convicted of practicing witchcraft were hanged in England and not burned like in America.
These were some of the socio cultural changes taking place in England but at the same time as mentioned before, it was also the age of reason and we shall look at the scientific revolutions that were taking place during 17th century England next.
Q3. Satire as used in Mac Flecknoe.
Ans. “Mac Flecknoe” by John Dryden is a satire in verse about a fellow poet and contemporary of Dryden’s named Thomas Shadwell.
This poem can be considered a personal satire because it highlights and attacks the shortcomings of a specific individual, namely, Thomas Shadwell.
A satire is a literary form that shines a light on the flaws of an individual person or a society in the hopes that such problems will become known by the public.
Here, Dryden’s subject, a poet named Shadwell, is satirized by the speaker of the poem from the beginning of the first stanza, in which Shadwell is identified as the son of a king of prose and verse who rules over “the realms of Non sense.” BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The king must select one of his sons to take his place, and he chooses Shadwell, who is described in satirically diabolical terms.
He is described as “mature in dullness from his tender years,” he is known to be “confirm’d in full stupidity,” and he is a person who “never deviates into sense.”
Just from the very first stanza, the reader can identify some serious insults being levelled against Shadwell.
Throughout the lengthy poem, Dryden does not miss any opportunities to make fun of Shadwell and his poetic style.
Dryden uses a humorous, ironically elevated diction and tone throughout the poem, which emphasizes the satire even more pointedly; a poet this bad hardly deserves the heroic treatment Dryden offers, unless of course the heroic language is mock-heroic and ironic (which, of course, it is).
By the end of the poem, Dryden even satirizes Shadwell’s own attempts at writing satire: “Thy inoffensive satires never bite.” BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The last line of the poem delivers a death blow to Shadwell.
By accusing Shadwell of having more than his share of his invented father’s gift for terrible poetry, Dryden leaves the reader with no doubt regarding his scorn for Shadwell and his writing.
Q4. Delineate the difference between Classicism and Romanticism.
Ans. Romanticism emerged as a response to Classicism. Classicism stressed on reason. Romanticism on imagination.
Classicism follows the three unities of time, place and action. Romanticism only follows the unityof action, but does not follow the unities of time, place.
Romanticism uses simple diction of common men from their everyday life. Classicism uses strict,rigid and logical diction and theme.
Classicists thought about the world as having a rigid and stern structure, the romanticists thought dows about the world as a place to express their ideas and believes.
Classicism was based on the idea that nature and human nature could be understood by reasonand thought. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Classicist believed that nature was, a self-contained machine, like a watch, whoselaws of operation could be rationally understood.
Romanticists viewed nature as mysterious andever changing. Romantic writes believed that nature is an ever changing living organism, whoselaws we will never fully understand.
Classicists thought that it was literature’s function to show the everyday values of humanity and the laws of human existence.
Their idea was that classicism upheld tradition, often to the point of resisting change, because tradition seemed a reliable testing ground for those laws.
As for the Romantics, they wrote about how man has no boundaries and endless possibilities.
The Romantics stressed the human potential for social progress and spiritual growth. The primary difference is one of basic orientation: the Classicists looked to the past, the Romanticists to the future.
The Classicist is the type of man who reveres the established, unquestioned values and institutions which all men take for granted. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The Romantic is a rebel who questions values and institutions, who takes nothing for granted, and reveres nothing higher than his own potential.
These differences can be seen in the subject matter of the respective schools. To take the field of painting as an example, the Classicists took legends, biblical stories and myths and made grand scale illustrations of them.
The meaning of the painting was to be known in advance by the viewer, since they knew the story it was based on, and their reaction to it was based on how well the painter suggests the story.
The Classicists also had a canonized view of a “hierarchy” of subject matter. Their illustrations, or “history” paintings as they called them, were the grandest; portraits, landscapes and still-lifes were considered lesser and undignified.
Romanticism threw out the history books of the Classicists and each artist was called upon to present his own unique vision of life. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The Romantic painting created its own subject matter as an independent projection of the artist’s values, not the ossified traditions of the past.
Perhaps the first toast unadulterated, pure painting of the Romantic orientation was Caspar David Friedrich’s “Cross in the Mountains,” and this painting was attacked violently by the Classicists precisely because it did not present its religious subject in the form of a “history,” but in the form of a landscape.
Q1. What is John Webster’s concept of tragedy and his contribution to the tradition of ‘revenge plays?
Ans. John Webster’s concept of tragedy was styled by various factors, conditions and influences. By his talent and temperament, he was essentially a tragic artist.
The decline of the drama and the renaissance spirit (during his times, i. e., Jacobean period), the pessimism of the age, and the shattering of old beliefs and ideals intensified the morbidity of his temperament, all these things better a tragic artist of worldwide prominence and recognition. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The credit of his success as a dramatist goes to his two great tragedies, The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi. His comedy, The Devil’s Law Case, could bring him neither success nor fame.
Seneca, the Italian philosopher and dramatist, the Elizabethan revenge playwrights, and Machiavelli, the author of The Prince, were among those who greatly influenced Webster as a tragic artist.
However, all these influences could not mark his originality. In traditional revenge plays, we find too much of horror, terror, murder and bloodshed, and also, we sympathize with the avenger, not with the victim.
But in Webster’s plays, particularly The Duchess of Malfi, we feel sympathetic towards the victim, the Duchess, instead of the avengers, Ferdinand and the Cardinal.
The melodramatic element is also closely related to the central theme. It will not be an overstatement to say that his Duchess remains the greatest tragic figure in Elizabethan drama, excluding, of course, Shakespeare. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
In Webster’s tragedies, there is no divine power to bring ruin and death to the hero.
It is some social circumstances and the Machiavellian villains, like Ferdinand and the Cardinal, who in order to satisfy their feeling of revenge and to serve their personal ends, bring the virtuous and innocent to brink of end.
How Webster took the world and the affairs of man has been summarized by Bogard in the following manner “Man’s world, as Webster sees it, is a deep pit of darkness, and mankind is ‘womanish and fearful’, in the shadow of the pit.
The causes of the fear are many but chief among them are oppression and mortality.
Oppression is a social cause; man’s inhumanity to man, the destruction of the individual by society, represented in the tragedies by a corrupt court of law, perhaps, or the vicious social system where able men are forced to sycophancy to obtain rewards from their Prince.
Mortality is the natural cause. It too means destruction, the decay of the living body of disease and the destruction of the dead flesh by worms and the festering rot of the churchyard.”
Like Chapman’s, the characters portrayed by Webster cannot be designated as good and evil ones. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Their characters are the blend of both the Machiavellian and the Senecan qualities; and therefore, they are more complicated figures than those of Chapman or any other of his contemporaries.
In this regard Bogard observes: “The intermingling of good and the evil in the central dows
figures undeniably gives to Webster’s characters a complexity that suggests the profound studies of good and evil of Shakespearean tragedy, but Webster’s method of creating character is not that of Shakespeare.”
Unlike Shakespeare, Webster studies mankind as a whole instead of the individuals.
Comparing the tragedies of Shakespeare and Webster, Bogard writes “Shakespearean tragedy is individual with a suggested generality of application.
Websterian tragedy is broadly social, with individuals serving as normative examples of Webster’s conception of life.”
John Webster’s tragedy has no tragic hero in the real sense of the term.
In The White Devil or The Duchess of Malfi there is no such character that may deserve the title of the tragic hero.
Differentiating between Webster’s and Shakespeare’s tragedies Bogard says: “Webster’s tragedy is strikingly different from Shakespeare’s because in the large view no one character stands out as spiritually most significant; BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
it might almost be said that Websterian tragedy has no tragic hero.
For Webster, a character is important not in terms of the well-being of his thoughts and actions but in terms of his relationships, the effects of his thoughts and actions on his fellowmen.
Shakespeare’s tragedies were born of splendid, unwavering acceptance of humanity. Chapman’s characters offer an austere yet noble pattern of conduct to an ignoble world. Webster’s characters are didactic, satiric, harshly critical of man’s society.
Their core is the condition of that society, not the growth of the human spirit, and character is important not in itself but with respect to the relationships which are a formative part of an excoriate world.”
As a tragic artist, the chief concern of John Webster is with the action rather than the characters of the play.
It means that he is more and more interested in the development of the plot. Whatever methods and means he uses in his plays; he does in order to reveal the story rather than to expose the inner qualities of his characters. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Shakespeare uses soliloquy with a view to reveal the inner being of a tragic hero, while Webster makes a use of this device to assist the development of plot by clarifying certain obscurities.
It may be said that in spite of his paying too much attention to his plots, Webster’s handling of his plots is generally imperfect.
Both in The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi there are structural weaknesses which marks the greatness of these plays.
In this regard, H. J. C. Grierson remarks, “his plots are so clumsy that Lamb himself could not have made tales from Webster, and his construction is so defective that Vittoria, The White Devil, she almost fades out of the play after the third act.”
Of his greatest work The Duchess of Malfi, Clifford Leach says that there are several structural weaknesses in this play.
Also, he is of the view that it is the weaknesses of the plot construction that are responsible for Webster’s inferior place as a dramatist in comparison to Shakespeare.
The fifth act in this play ‘has been regarded as superfluous’ by critics like George Addington Symonds; who observes: “After the murder of the Duchess, the fate of Antonio, the miserable end of the persecutors and their accomplices are of little interest.
Had the play ended with the fourth act, the tragic impression would have been yet deeper and more harmonious than it is.BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
i admit that the fifth act deepens the gloom of the atmosphere still further and we see nemesis overtaking cruel avengers, yet we must admit that the dramatic art is badly managed in the last act.”
With all his originality and genius, Webster as a tragic artist is much inferior to the Colossus of the Elizabethan and the whole of the English drama Shakespeare.
John Webster’s best and greatest creation, The Duchess of Malfi is reminiscent of Shakespeare and his works.
In this connection, Emile Legouis’s remark is worth quoting; “The tragedy is full of Shakespearian reminiscences; the Duchess recalls Desdemona, and Cariola, her woman, Emilia in Othello. Bosola, the master, the tool of the two brothers is modelled on Iago.
The anger of Ferdinand, the criminal brother, against Bosola, after the murder he himself has ordered is like that of King John against Hubert vazhen he believes him to have put Arthur to death. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The remorse of the other brother, the Cardinal, who can no longer pray, is a parallel to that of Claudius in Hamlet.
Every such comparison would merely show “Webster’s extreme inferiority, were it not that he substitutes for the psychology, at which Shakespeare principally aims, a search for the pathos inherent in situations and even in material effects”.
Q2. Examine the biblical references in ‘Sonnet XIX’.
Ans. The Bible is the sacred book of the Christians. It is the Gospel of Jesus Christ. In a simple and elegant style, it narrates the life and teachings of Christ with the help of a number of parables.
The Bible, often referred to as the New Testament of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, also includes Psalms and proverbs that direct men through the right path to attain the kingdom of Heaven.
There are four versions of the Gospel by St. Matthew, St. John, St. Luke and St. Mark.
Milton in his sonnet XIX ‘On His Blindness’ has employed the Biblical phrases to restate the task of the Christian – to stand and wait, in acceptance and acknowledgment of God’s gifts, in abiding faith in his providence with no concession to despair even in one’s darkest moments.BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
(i) Service to God through the usage of God-given talent is the essential focus of this sonnet. This theme cambe traced to Christ’s parable of the talents in Matthew XXV: 14-15.
A man called his servants and gave them talents (faculty) according to their ability. To one of them, he gave five, to another, two.
But he that had received one, dug the earth and hid the money. When ffie master asks them as to what they had done with the talents given to them, he was pleased with the first two who had used them profitably to multiply and increase.
But when he discovers that the thirds had remained slothful and had not put to use the ‘one ralent given to him, he takes away his gift saying.
For unto everyone that hath shall be given. ‘ and he shall have abundance; but for him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath. (Matt. XXV: 29).
You can now understand why Milton is distressed that his blindness may Hamner him in the discharge of his service to the Lord and he may not put to use the talent in his case, the literary talent to sing his Lord’s praise. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
The unprofitable, slothful servant in Christ’s parable suffers spiritual death in losing the kingdom of Heaven. Milton expresses anxiety that he may also be forcedto hide his talent on account of the impending blindness. “To hide it” is “death”.
A Poet can gain immorklity through the use of his literary talent. To keep it unused will amount to spiritual death., I (ref. lines 3-4)
(ii) The second Biblical reference is related to line 6, where Milton speaks of presenting “my true account”.
The word “account” is possibly from Matthew XVIII. 23 : “Therefore is the kingdom of Heaven likened unto a certain king, which would take account of his servants ……”
“Account” means reckon with service. Milton uses the term “account” in the sense of an account of his services.
Milton in many of his writings has acknowledged gratefully the gifts of God, but there has also been an undercurrent of anxiety lest he should account for fewer of the gifts and thereby incur God’s displeasure for not utilising all that had been given to him.
Q3. ‘The Rape of the Lock’ is an excellent example of 18th century neo-classical poetry. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans. Alexander Pope’s The Rape of the Lock is an outstanding example of the neoclassic genre of mock epic. Pope uses the mock epic to satirize the triviality of 18th-century high society through exaggeration and parody. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Basing his poem on an actual incident that occurred among some of his acquaintances, Pope intended his story to put the episode into humorous perspective and encourage his friends to laugh at their own actions.
A mock epic is a poem dealing with petty subject matter in the exalted style of the great literary epics. This genre is a form of parody for satirical purposes.
The poem uses the trivial story of the stolen lock of hair as a vehicle for making judgments on society and on men and women in general.
Characteristics of the ILLIAD and the ODYSSEY that the Rape of the Lock mocks include: the statement of the theme, invocation of the muse,
description of the great battles, supernatural beings taking part in the affairs of men and the hero becoming immortalized in a star or constellation (Long, “Pope” 1) In the opening lines “What dire offense from amorous causes springs, / What almighty contests rise from trivial things” (Canto I, lines 1-2), BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
Pope states the theme of the poem: that trivial matters should remain just that- trivial. In the lines following the invocation of an unlikely muse is clearly stated “I sing.
This Verse to Caryll, Muse! Is due” (Canto 1, 3). The entire poem is divided into five cantos and is written in heroic couplet verse. The use of the heroic couplet is typically neoclassic because it exhibits the ideals of the time.
Q4. Discuss Mac Flecknoe as a mock epic with appropriate references.
Ans. Dryden was the greatest master of his time in the art of the mock-heroic poem. These follow the form of classical heroic poems written by early masters,
specifically by Homer as Illiad and Odyssey are the standards from which mock-heroics are constructed: The elements remain the same though they are employed to mock with satire and parody rather than to praise.
The form, in imitation of the heroic standard, begins with a tribute to the Muse inspiring the poet to write.
In Dryden’s mocks, the muse may be the human who inspired him to wax satirical, like Carlyle for The Rape of the Lock. BEGC 107 Free Solved Assignment
However, for Mac Flecknoe, Dryden’s inspiration seems to have been the contemplation of “Fate”: All humane things are subject to decay, And, when Fate summons, Monarchs must obey: In mock-heroics, other formulaic standards are followed,
such as the ritual dressing for battle, processions of valor, calling upon the aid of gods, and victory celebrations.
In Flecknoe, the ritual dressing, such as Achilles (Homer) and Belinda (Dryden) were privileged to, seems to have been substituted by a ritual undressing as Flecknoe’s successor to “Emperor of … Prose and Verse” has his demerits categorized and satirized:
Sh– alone, of all my Sons, is he Who stands confirm’d in full stupidity.
In imitation of Homer, Dryden includes references to Greek gods and mythology as in his reference to Arion, the mythological Greek poet who was borne across seas by dolphins.
Dryden concludes his mock-heroic with a celebratory calling of the Homeric-like champion to arms where Flecknoe passes the mantle and departs–actually, in a Biblical allusion to Elijah, he departs and then the mantle falls upon Sh—
And down they sent the yet declaiming Bard. Sinking he left his Drugget robe behind, Born upwards by a subterranean wind.  The Mantle fell to the young Prophet's part, With double portion of his Father's Art.
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