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BEGC 105

American Literature

BEGC 105 Free Solved Assignment 2022 Jan Session

BEGC 105 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 1. Answer with reference to the context:

They added ridge to valley brook topione Limited And signed for all that bounded their domain: This suitsme for the pasture that’simy park We must have clay, lime, gravel, granite-ledge,

Ans. Context: These lines are taken from Hamari composed by Ralph Waldo Emerson

Explanation: The poem amatreyali was published 1819. From Vishnuprana and it is a

shortened form of “Hail Maitraya. BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

It is a celebration of the greatness and glory of

mother earth. Mother earth or nature is all powerful. None can posses her but all

are ultimately possessed by her.

In the original passage, Maitreya is engaged in a dialogue with the deity Vishnu

(who was, to his devotees, the centran deity, of whom all the other deities

represented aspects).

Vishnu tells Maitreya about the Hindu kings who mistakenly

believed themselves possessors of the Earth. But the kings have disappeared, while

the Earth endures. BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

Vishnu recites the chant of the Earth, who laughs at and pities

the egotistical kings and their blindness to their mortality. He tells Maitreya

that the Earth’s song will cause proud ambition to melt away.

(ii) The Past!. the past! the past!
The Past-the dark unfathom’d retrospect!
The teeming gulf-the sleepers and the shadows!
The past-the infinite greatness of the part!
For what is the present after all but a growth
out of the past?

Ans. Context: These lines are taken from The Passage to India from Whitman,

Explanation: Whitman was greatly impressed by three great engineering achievements:

the opening of the Suez Canal (1869). the laying of the Transatlantic Undersea

Cable (1866), and the joining of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads at

Utah to produce the nation’s First Transcontinental Railway (1869). These events

resulted in improved communication and travel, thus making possible a shorter

passage to India. But in Whitman’s poem, the completion of the physical journey to

India is only a prelude to the spiritual pathway to India, the East, and.

ultimately, to God.BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

He wrote as follows:
“The past-the dark unfathomed retrospect!
The seeming gulf-the sleepers and the shadows!
The past-the infinite greatness of the past!
For what is the present after all but a growth out of the past”.

To know the history of people, they should get the knowledge of contribution of

Asia in general and of India in particular. The poet wanted other people to know

the myths and fables of old, Asia’s Africa’s fables. Poet had asked all his

fellowmen to admire the beauty of the temples fairer than lilies’ etc.

BEGC 105 Free Solved Assignment
BEGC 105 Free Solved Assignment

(iii) Because I could not stop for Death
He kindly stopped for ME
The carriage held just ourselves
And Immortality.

Ans. Context: These lines are taken from Bourse I Could NorStop for Death by Emily


Explanation: A Critical Appreciation: According to Allen Tate, Because I could not

stop for Death” is one of the perfect poems in English is The Chariot, and it

exemplifies better than anything else. If the word great means anythg in poetry

this poemsan.allthe greatest in the Englik layguage itis flawlessthellast detail.

The poem deals with Death and Immortality, two recurring themes in Emily

Dickinson’s poetry. The content of death in the poem eludes forever any

explicitdefinition. He is a gentleman taking in lady out for a drive. But not the

restraint that keeps the poet frem carrying this so far this ludicrous and

meredible, and note the sebely interfeised erotic motive, which the idea of death

has presented to every romantic poet, love being a symbol interchangeable with

death. The terror of death is objectified through this figure of the genteel

driver, who is made ironically to serve the end of immortality. This is the heart

of the poem: she has presented a typical Christian theme in all its final

irresolution, without making any final statement about it.

Death is personified, and the words used to describe him are kindly’ and ‘For his

Civility therefore presenting him as a polite and courteous gentleman who stops to

take her for a ride in his carriage.

(iv)Exult O shores, and ring O bells!
But I with mournful tread.
Walk the deck my captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

Ans. Context: These lines are taken from Captain, My Captain by Walt Whitman.

Explanation: The poem is written in a form of an elegy and is aimed to honour the

sixteenth president of the United States. The entire poem itself provides an

extended metaphor that implies comparisons between seemingly dissimilar things, for

the U.S. after the Civil War and the killing of the President Lincoln. The civil

war fought under Lincoln’s leadership is called a dangerous voyage. As the captain

is brave and skilful, he brings the ship home after the successful completion of

the voyage. The speaker in the narrative is a sailor on a ship that is just coming

into a harbour and he can hear bells ringing and see crowds cheering on the road

for their safe return. The sailor has just realized that the ship’s captain is

lying on the ship’s deck bleeding and appears to be dead.

BEGC 105 Free Solved Assignment
BEGC 105 Free Solved Assignment


Q. 1. What aspect of death does the poet Emily Dickinson highlight in her poems?

Ans. In Emily Dickinson’s “Because I Could Not Stop for Death.” the author meets

Death personified in the form of a gentleman. He arrives in a carriage with

Immortality to take the author to her grave. Like any gentleman caller of the time,

Death is formal and polite, with the author noting “his civility.” The calm

lyricism of the poem and the personification of Death allude to Dickinson’s comfort

with the subject; she seems to regard death as a shift in perspective, rather than

a total departure. Indeed, the very last stanza demonstrates that Dickinson regards

death as eternity, rather than a final end. Overall, Death in this poem is not

something to be feared, but should be greeted like a familiar face.

“Our Casuarina Tree” by Toru Dutt describes an imposing tree with a creeper vine

encircling it; the tree stands strong and tall despite the python-like grip of the

creeper. The poet reflects on the happy memories shared under the tree with “sweet

companions that are no longer with fiecare dingeke humor of the tree that she

describes can be likened to her own inner conflict regarding the tree; she happily

reflects on the joy it brought her, but it also reminds her of the paintof losing

ber siblings, Both the tree and the creeper are allegory for life and death. The

strong, magnificent tree has continued to grow and live despite the creeper’s grip,

but eventually it will succumb, just as humans do, to an inevitable death. In the

end, however, Dutt treats death, both her own and the tree’s, similarly to Dickins,

as something to be Accepted and go gently into rather than fear

The poet has employed various symbols in the poem as follows:

Death: Death is not a new concept to us but Dickinson does a good job making it

fresh and strange by having death take the form of a man. Dickinson’s Death is a

real smooth operator. He’s the kind of guy who would hold the door open for his

date and offer her his coat on a chilly night. Dickinson uses the character of

Death as an extended metaphor to examine what real death might be like.

Lines 1-2: Death is introduced right away as the leading character and focus of the

poem. performing a human action-stopping for someone on his way. If this were a

play he’d be cast as the leading male role who gets a lot of lines. Substitute

Death for any guy’s name: “Because I could not stop for Tom/He kindly stopped for

me.” Now, the beginning of this poem seems like the first meeting of two lovers.

This personification of death as a male suitor continues throughout the poem. What

does that say about the speaker’s thoughts and feelings about death?

Line 5: Now that we’ve established Death as a human character who represents actual

death, let’s start making those connections every time he reappears in the poem. In

this line we know that the character Death is driving along slowly. What might this

action mean when we apply it to thinking about real death? Well, it’s definitely

not a quick death, like from a gunshot wound or a glory decapitation. Perhaps this

could be something more similar to death from a long illness, or slowly dying of

old age in one’s sleep. Dickinson doesn’t really say, but we can look at the

evidence she does give us to make educated guesses.

Line 8: Further character development shows us that Death is polite and

courteous. So if we were going to continue to relate this to the real thing, we’d

probably come to the conclusion that this end wasn’t too painful and that the

speaker (the one dying) didn’t put up any struggle.

Line 9: The “He” (referring to Death) has now changed to “We.” This might be a

hint that the two have joined and that the speaker is actually dying.

Line 17: This marks the end of their journey, where Death has brought her home.

This might, in more literal terms, mean that the speaker is no longer dying but is

in fact dead, and laid to rest in her grave.BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

The Carriage The carriage in which Death and the speaker ride is a metaphor for the

way in which we make our final passage to death. If you want to be literary about

it you might think of Dante’s Inferno where the souls are ferried by boat into

hell. Or, on a more familiar level, it’s pretty common for a hearse to carry a

coffin to its grave, The carriage in this poem is the mode of transportation to the

afterlife. We have to get where we’re going somehow.

Lines 3-4: In line 3 we see that the carriage holds Death and the speaker. But

the hint that the carriage is more significant than plain old transportation comes

in the next line, where we discover the carriage also holds “Immort-ality,” another

example of personification. This should really tip us off that the carriage is a
pretty special vehicle that will carry the speaker to the next world.


Private Limited … And the cold to follow. This might be the most obvious symbol

in the poem. Dickinson is certainly not the first to use sunset a symbol and

foreshadowing of death Sshe’s ini cheesy teritos, but luckily Dickinson’s a master

and avoids cliché.

Lines 12-13: The surpasses them, leaving the riders in spooky cold Dickinson

doesn’L write it, but we can sume it’s gotten dark too Dark and cold

certaindysekthe scene for deathi Whold you thinkites like under the ground? So, we

have to give Dickinson credit for using an age-old literary device – the sunset –

and chucking the pastel-hued beach scene for something a little more original, and

more chilling.

The House

The speaker’s last stop and final resting place. The house is a metaphor for the

grave. Dickinson wants to enforce the idea that the speaker accepts and is

comfortable with dying. She could have described the claustrophobic coffin, but she

didn’t. She chose a metaphor familiar to the readers to illustrate the calmness of


Lines 17-20: The speaker can barely make out the house, since it’s just a small

rise in the ground. Maybe because she is just starting to understand that this

house is going to be her grave. We tend to comprehend things better when they have

personal significance. The description of the house is pretty limited and seems
normal except for the fact that it’s underground, Dickinson might keep the

description vague on purpose.

The Horses

…Or, rather, their heads! The horses’ heads are the 9th inning symbols, but they

really hit a home run. OK. forgive the baseball comparison, but these horse heads

do heavy-duty work as the closing symbol of the poem. But what exactly do they


Lines 23-24: The speaker says the first hint that she was going to die was seeing

the horses’ heads (maybe even before she got in the carriage with Death). So what

would make her feel that way? Well, first of all, there’s a lot of room for I had a

feeling” in poetry. It’s built on gut feelings, especially in Dickinson’s poetry,

but let’s also think about what the image of a horse head looks like. Their heads

are long and angled forward.perhaps like an arrow pushing through the barrier from

life to death.

Q. 2. Examine and clucidate the three pillory scenes in The Scarlet Letter.

Ans. The three scaffold scenes in The Scarlet Letter are integral to the structure

and unity of the narrative, They are the most dramatic scenes at the beginning, in

the middle and at the end of the novel. Artistically and dramatically, these scenes

are at the very core of Hawthorne’s tale of crime and punishment.

The scaffold played an important part in identifying the characters of the Scarlet

Letter thro-ughout the novel. At each scene, the reader comes to understand

something of the main characters and glimpses how that sin represented by the

scarlet “A” has affected them. BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

Hester Prynne, clutching both the living and the imposed of her sin to her breast,

is seen atop the scaffold, sternly looked on by all, but without her lover. She

stood there in quiet defiance, refusing to reveal to the multitude before her who

the father of her child was, and in this the reader ses a picture of a woman

scorned and fearing for the life of herself and her child, but bearing the scrutiny

of all with a calm defiance. Nearby, stood Arthur Dimmesdale, asking his secret

lover to reveal the namepithe fatherlibat whild He did notant that time, buvezbe

strongshor the will to do so himself, and was begging Hester to reveal him for what

he was. Among the crowd, Roger Chillingworth. Hester’s wronged husband adds his

voice to the multitude in demanding that Hester reveal her secret. He seems an old,

disappointed man finding that tbeonchc hall waited three years to joinha during

that time. left him for another. Thereafter, he would pledge to avenge himself of

the man that had partnered in wronging him.

Late one night, Dimmesdale could have been seen on the scaffold, looking for some

peace from the guilt tormenting his mind. His penitence, however, lacked an

audience. Here, the reader sees a nearly mad man, too weak to reveal himself for

what he really was, but too pious to otherwise ignore it. Hester and Pearl discover

him there and join himacknowledging the bond between the three before none other

than themselves. Hester comes to realize the poor state in which Dimmesdale has

bome his guilt, and resolves to lend him her strength, which has served to uphold

her throughout the years of her public shame. Pearl questions the minister as to

whether he would stand with them there noon the next day, but he refuses.

Chillingworth discovers the trio atop the scaffold, and any suspicions he

Tarboretorttelemrityur Teart Tatters but confirmed. minister dies, along with

Hester’s dreams of throwing of her public shame. Before his death, however, Pearl

acknowledges him as her father with a final kiss and gains her humanity in the

sight of the townspeople. His prey having escaped him and lacking another purpose

for which to live, Chillingworth shrivels and dies, a mere shell of the man he once


In each of those scenes revolving around the scaffold, Nathaniel Hawthorne revealed

to the reader the state and mentality of the main characters, along with the

effects of guilt, bitter revenge, and an attempt at human penitence rather than


Q. 3. Write a critical appreciation of the poem because I could not stop for death.

Ans. A Critical Appreciation: According to Allen Tate, “Because I could not stop

for Death” is one of the perfect poems in English is The Chariot, and it

exemplifies better than anything else. If the word great means anything in poetry,

this poem is one of the greatest in the English language, it is flawless to the

last detail. The poem deals with Death and Immortality, two recurring themes in

Emily Dickinson’s poetry. The content of death in the poem eludes forever any

explicit definition. He is a gentleman taking a lady out for a drive. But note the

restraint that keeps the poet from carrying this so far that it is ludicrous and

incredible; and note the subtly interfused erotic motive, which the idea of death

has presented to every romantic poet. love being a symbol interchangeable with

death. The terror of death is objectified through this figure of the genteel

driver, who is made ironically to serve the end of immortality. This is the heart

of the poem: she has presented a typical Christian theme in all its final

irresolution, without making any final statement about it.

Death is personified, and the words used to describe him are kindly’ and ‘For his

Civility therefore presenting him as a polite and courteous gentleman who stops to

take her for a ride in his carriage. BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

In the second stanza, the fact that she had to put away My Jabour and my leisure

too suggest that death is not a hurried, unexpected and dramatic experience as we

may think. The third stand takes us away from the immediate environment in which

she lives and is familiar with. The deseription of the view could be taken

literally as merely an observation of the situspussing her by the leginning of the

nextstana the rhythm glanges The first line of every other stanza is written in

iambic tetrameter which has the effect of giving the poem a pleasant soothing,

peaceful and regular chythm. The line The Dews drew quivering and chill gives a

sense of damp and cold and is the only suggestion of discomfort in the entire poem.

The speaker goes intonaco detail about the delicacy of her fabrics. In the next

stanza, the regular rhythm returns, but the tranquil and casual tone is gone.

During stanzas one to five, the reader is encouraged to think that Dickinson is

talking about a journey as it happens, but in the final stanza, we learn that it is

in fact in reverse; it is a poem written in the continuum of the journey, which has

lasted centuries, through eternity, in the company of Immortality

Q. 4. How did Henrik Ibsen contribute to the growth of modern American Drama?

Ans. He is the creator of the modern and realistic prose drama. One of the first

writers to make drama a vehicle for social comment and also one of the only 19th

century dramatists to explore topics that were considered socially unacceptable.

Ibsen is regarded as the greatest and most influential dramatist of the 19th

century. Born in Skein. Norway in the mid 1830’s. His father, a once successful

merchant, went bankrupt. Ibsen, uncomfortable in new surroundings and stung by

poverty and social rejection, he turned to writing poetry in his spare time.

Having already written two plays, in the following years, his talent as a

playwright continued to blossom. A Doll’s House (1879) aroused controversy because

it portrayed a woman whose actions were not considered acceptable at the time. As

the 19th century wound to a close, Ibsen continued to write prolifically. In 1900.

Ibsen suffered the first of a series of strokes that almost completely

incapacitated him. When Ibsen died in 1906, it was already clear that he had made a

major impact on the theatre. However, the tremendous extent of his impact did not

become apparent until later in the 20th century, when it became obvious that Ibsen

had completely altered the direction of the theatre.

Ibsen sought to depict life accurately by delving into the types of conflicts and

dilemmas that he viewed to be characteristic of the time:

• He focused on situations that could happen in real life.

• He patterned his dialogue after real-life conversations.

• His characters sometimes speak in incomplete sentences, express incomplete

thoughts, change their train of thought in mid-sentence, and interrupt one another.

Ibsen revolutionized the way in which plays were staged by introducing elaborate,

detailed sets that often changed from act to act. In his stage directions, he

offers a precise description of how the set should appear, as well as how the

lighting should be used. Not only does he use scenery, props, and lighting to

contribute to the realistic quality of his plays. He also frequently uses these

elements as symbols. Ibsen uses stage directions to instruct actors about how they

should interpret certain lines of dialogue.

He wrote two plays, Catiline, a tragedy, which reflected the atmosphere of the

revolutionary year of 1848, and The Burial Mound, written under the pseudonym of

Brynjolf Bjarme. Ibsen staged more than 150 plays, becoming thoroughly acquainted

with the techniques of professional theatrical performances. In addition to his

managerial work he also wrote four plays based on Norwegian folklore and history,

notably Lady inger of Ostrat (1855). dealing with the liberation of medieval

Norway. In 1852 his theatre sent him on a study tour to Denmark and Germany. Ibsen

himself considered The Emperor and the Galilean (1873) his most important play.

Ibsen’s dramatic conventions have been widely adopted by a number bfdramatists in

European world countridsming BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

BEGC 105 Free Solved Assignment
BEGC 105 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 1. Examine the growth of American drama during the seventeen. Eighteen and Nineteenth centuries

Ans. American literature, the body of written works produced in the English

language in the United States. Because settlement was sparse and living conditions

were arduous in the American colonies, little theatrical activity took place before

the mid-18th century. The first-known English-language play from the colonies, Ye

Bare and Ye Cubb (1665), is lost. The play’s existence is known as a result of the

controversy it aroused in the Virginia Colony, where a wsuit was filed to prevent

the play from opening. Several colonies had passed anti-theatre laws based on a

Puritan belief that the seventh of the Ten Commandments prohibited dancing and

stage plays.

The oldest surviving American play is Androborus by Robert Hunter (1714). Hunter,

the New York Colony’s governor, published the cartoonish play as an attack on his

political enemies, despite New York’s anti-theatre law. Intended for a reading

public rather than a viewing audience, it established a tradition of political

satire that became common fare in American drama of the 1700s.

Some of the other popular plays of the period were The Paxton Boys (1732). The

Trial of Amicus (1771) whose authorship is not known and Robert Munford’s The

Candidates of the Humours of a Virginia Election (1770).

Before more American plays had appeared, a company of British professional actors

established a touring circuit in the 1750s with an all-British repertory. By the

early 1760s this group was known as The American Company and American writers

occasionally submitted plays to the actors, though few were produced. But in 1767

the American Company staged The Prince of Parthia, a tragedy by Thomas Godfrey, in

Philadelphia. This is usually considered the first professional production of a

play written by an American. The play itself is indistinguishable from imitations

of the works of English dramatist William Shakespeare that abounded in Britain in

the late 1700s and early 1800s. BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

During the American Revolution (1775-1783), most professional actors moved to

Jamaica. Satirical plays were written as propaganda during the war, either

supporting British control of the colonies or attacking it. British soldiers

presented some of the pro-British plays. Few other plays were performed during the

war years, although they were widely read and recited. The Battle of Brooklyn

(1776), which was pro-British and written anonymously, presented rebel generals,

including George Washington, as drunks, lechers, and cowards. The Blockade (1775).

written by British General John Burgoyne, was performed in British-occupied Boston.

The play’s ridicule of American soldiers was subsequently burlesqued in The

Blockheads or the Affrighted Officers (1776), written by an anonymous playwright

identified only as a patriot. The Blockheads depicts British soldiers as so

terrified of the Americans that they soil themselves rather than go outside to use

the latrine. Meroy Otis Warren, who created several biting satires of the British,

may have written The Blockheads as well. She remained the strongest American

dramatic voice of the Revolution and championed the rebel cause in The Group

(1775). a play that describes Britain, called Blunderland, as a mother who eats her

own children. The Patriots (1775), a play by Robert Munford, was unusual in its

appeal for a neutral stance and its attacks on both silla lorther intoldrantemited
American Drama in 18th Century: Melodrama was introduced by William Dunlopin his

plays, the most accepted dramatic form in the 19th centurywhich the most

intiportant characteristic dramatic conflict. Most of his plays were adaptations or

translations from the French and German. The Protagonist Major John Andre in

Dunlop’s play Andre (1 798) shows admirable qualities by saving ayoling American

Captain despite George Washington’s usqunlilicdaningonistilowards hun for conspiring

to destroy American garrison BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

The majority of the plays written in America in the 19th century were largely produced

for commercial purposes to benefit the heterogeneous public residing all over

America whose primary interest was seeing the shows and their favourite actors

performing in these plays. Most of the plays were not published but were meant only

to be seen and not to be read; as a result they are now irrevocably lost.

One of Dunlop’s contemporaries James Nelson Barker produced some of the best-known

works Marmion (1812) and Superstition (1824). The latter a romantic tragedy based

on specific American situations, was set in New England and explored the themes of

isolationism, bigotry and intolerance. The Indian Princess (1808) written by him

was the first play to explore native American themes and characters. It told the

story of Pocahontas, a Native American woman who married in English man. The most

well-known of such drama was Metamora (1828) by John Augustus Stone. The popularity

of the Indian plays that began in 1820’s continued through the 1840’s.

In the early 19th Century in American Drama, there is a shift in focus from a

nationalistic cause to the aesthetic values of romanticism. Edwin Forrest, an

immensely popular actor, encouraged the writing of American romantic play. The best

American play of the time was Francesca da Rimini (1855), a romantic verse staged

by George Henry Boker. Brutus: The Fall of Taraquin (1819) by John Howard Payne and

The Gladiator (1831) by Robert Montogomery Bird were other American Romantic

tragedies that merely promoted the aesthetic values of romanticism without

furthering the cause of the American Drama.

In 1828 Edwin Forrest began to offer annual awards for new plays with American

themes, the first to receive the award were Metamora. No one kind of drama appealed

to the play-going masses of America: play-goers were ready to welcome any new type

that the actors could perform well.BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

American Drama in the 19th Century: In the nineteenth century American Drama was

the most widespread dramatic genre called Melodrama which was more like Hindi

movies with one hero who saves the heroine form the villain. Melodrama represented

issues of family, social position and wealth, a pre-occupation of every individual.

Well into the mid-19th century, American theatres continued to be strongly

influenced by London theatre. Many actors and actresses of this period were born

and got their professional start in England. Plays performed tended to follow the

English classical tradition, with Shakespeare’s plays and other Standard English

plays remaining popular. However, American-born playwrights and actors began to

have an influence, and contemporary plays began to be performed regularly as well.

Acting styles in the early 19th century were prone to exaggerated movement,

gestures, grandiose effects, spectacular drama, physical comedy and gags and

outlandish costumes. Popular plays of this genre were Boucicault’s The poor of the

New York (1857), Daly’s Under the Gaslight (1857), and Belasco’s The Girl of the

Golden West and The Heart of Maryland (1857). The popularity of melodramatic form

that had begun in the 18th Century continued through the 19th century. However,

from the mid-1911 century, a more naturalistic acting style came into vogue, and

actors were expected to present a more coherent expression of character. Subject

matter of new plays was preces drawn from contentar socialite subas marriageund

domestic issues and issues of social class and social problems.

Q. 2. Why All My Sons is considered a tragedy

Ans. All My Sons: A Tragedy: Sousplay was to which take the destiny of Joe Keller.

Joe Keller, a successful businessman, lives comfortably with his wife, Kate, and

son, Chris, in a suburban American neighbour-hood. They have only one sadness in

their lives-the loss of their other son, Larry, who went missing in World War II.

After three years, Kate still clings to the hope that her son is alive. Chris would

like her to give up that hop because he wants to marry Ann, an old neighbour and

Larry’s former fiancée. Ann arrives. Kate, sensing the reason for her visit, gets a

little touchy. We learn that Ann’s father is in prison for a crime he committed

while working in Joe’s factory. Faced with a batch of defective machine parts, he

patched them and sent them out. causing the death of 21 pilots during the war.

Turns out that Joe was also accused of this crime and convicted, but he was

exonerated (set free) during the appeal. Steve went to prison; Joe returned home

and made his business bigger and better. Soon after Ann’s arrival, her brother

George follows. Straight from visiting his father in prison. He knows what Chris

has in mind and is totally against him marrying Ann. Joe and Kate do their best to

charm George into submission, but finally it’s Ann who sends him away. She wants to

marry Chris no matter what. The marriage of Chris and Ann is becoming a reality-

and Kate can’t handle it, because it means Larry is truly dead. And if Larry is

dead, she tells Chris, it’s because his own father killed him, since Larry was also

a pilot. Chris finally confronts his father’s guilt in shipping those defective

parts. But Chris won’t do anything about it. He won’t even ask his father to go to

prison. Ann, who turned her back on her own father for the same reason, insists

that Chris take a hard line. Joe Keller goes inside to get his things. A gunshot is

heard. He’s killed himself.BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

In the play All My Sons ‘Chris and Joe Keller’s relationship contribute to the

central tragedies of the play in a massive way. It proves that just because two

people are related and share the same blood, does not mean they are compatible. And

asks the question, do we really know our family? Chris spent years look up to his

hero of a father, however towards the end of the play Chris’s utter disappointment,

aversion and almost hatred for Keller becomes apparent. This consequently leads to

Keller’s revelation. Then what is this if it isn’t telling me? Sure, he was my son.

But I think to him they were all my sons. And I guess they were, I guess they

were.” This then leads to the final tragedy of the play, Keller’s abrupt suicide.
As the chief character of the play ‘All My Sons’ is shown as a tragic and how his

actions lead to several tragic is considered as a Modern tragedy.

Q. 3. Describe Puritan psychology and state how this has left an imprint on the modern American character..

Ans. The ideas put forth by the Puritans are not simply an important starting point

for American culture because they were the first in the country, but because they

offered ways of thinking that are still ingrained in our culture today. Although

many of the thoughts of Puritans have gradually dissipated or become less

meaningful over time, it is important to note that Puritan writers and thinkers

such as John Winthrop and Roger Williams offered ideas that were new at the time

that stayed with the American consciousness-culturally, socially, and politically.
Notions of freedom, liberty, and the role of religion within the state have long

since been at the forefront of national debates. When the Puritans tonsidered Stich

ideas, their thaghts and writings on the matter were never quite forgotten only

shifted and modified to suit the taste of contemporary concerns. In “The Journal of

John Winthrop” and waliahis Treatie. Che Bloody Tendtof Persatution for the

Calsed.Conscience many ideas that are still present in modern American life and

culture are brought forward and explored. By examining these writings, it becomes

more possible to trace the philosophical development of America from the colonial

to the modern period.BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

The idea of government and the coming onlinerty hale bien questions plaguing

Arcticans since the time John Winthrop wrote in his journal in 1648. In many ways,

the issues he addresses, most notably in the section of his journal containing his

speech to the General Court, are the same that are alive in contemporary debates

about the role of the government and what moral liberty means. In the beginning of

his speech he states, “The great questions that have troubled the country are about

the authority of the magistrates and the liberty of the people” and the modern

reader cannot help but think about how such a statement resonates today. This shows

that the Puritans paved the way for constantly questioning the political and moral

foundations from the very beginning.

In addition to this more general notion about Puritan culture in early America,

Winthrop brings forth the question of what true liberty means. While it differs

from more contemporary notions, he does provide a valid starting point for American

culture’s obsession with an ever-broadening and changing definition of liberty and

freedom. For instance, Winthrop writes that there are two types of liberty: natural

and civil. In terms of nature Winthrop writes in one of the important quotes from

The Journal of John Winthrop. “Man, as he stands in relation to man simply hath the

liberty to what he lists: it is a liberty to evil as well as too good. By making

this claim he is building the foundations for later American ideas such as what

freedom is and to what extent personal liberty should be allowed, particularly if

the possibility of evil exists. Aside from this early allusion to more modern

debates in America, Winthrop also puts forth the related idea about how liberty is

something that is God-given.BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

Q. 4. Discuss the major concerns of Hemingway in his short stories and the formal strategies he often adopts in highlighting them.

Ans. Hemingway has been immortalized by the individuality of his style. Short and

solid sentences, delightful dialogues, and a painstaking hunt for an apt word or

phrase to express the exact truth, are the distinguishing features of his style. He

‘evokes an emotional awareness in the reader by a highly selective use of

suggestive pictorial detail, and has done for prose what Eliot has done for

poetry”. In his accurate rendering of sensuous experience, Hemingway is a realik.

As he himself has stated in Death in the Afternoon, his main concern was ‘to put

down what really happened in action; what the actual things were that produced the

emotion you experienced’. This surface realism of his works often tends to obscure

the ultimate aim of his fiction. This has often resulted in the charge that there

is a lack of moral vision in his novels. Leon Edel has attacked Hemingway for his

‘Lack of substance as he called it. According to him, Hemingway’s fiction is

deficient in serious subject matter. It is a world of superficial action and almost

wholly without reflection-such reflection as there is tends to be on a rather crude

and simplified level’.BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

But such a casual dismissal as this, presenting Hemingway as a writer devoid of

‘high seriousness’, is not justified. Though Hemingway is apparently a realist who

has a predilection for physical action, he is essentially a philosophical writer.

His works should be read and interpreted in the light of his famous ‘Iceberg

theory’: ‘The dignity of the movement of an iceberg is due to only one eighth of it

being above theater’. This statement throws light on the symbolic implications of

his art. He makes use of physical action to provide a symbolical interpretation of

the nature of man’s existence, It can be conyincingly proved that while

representing luyan life through fictional forms, he has consistently set man

against the background of his world and universe to examine the human situation

from various points of view.BEGC 105 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

A moral awareness stings from his awareness of the larger life of the universe.

Compared with the larger life of the universe, the individual is a puny thing, a

tragic thing. But in this larger life of the universe, the individual has his place

of glory. This awareness of the futility of human existence led Hemingway to deal

with the themes of violence, darkness and death in his novels. By presenting the

darker side of life, he tries to explore the nature of the individual’s predicament


What attitude should a man take toward a world in which, for reasons of the world’s

own making and not of his own, he is fundamentally out of place? What personal

happiness can he expect to find in a world seething with violence … what values

could one respect when ethical values as a whole seemed university disrespected?
This metaphysical concern about the nature of the individual’s existence in

relation to the world made Hemingway conceive his protagonists as alienated

individuals fighting a losing battle against the odds of life with courage,

endurance and will as their only weapons. The Hemingway hero is a lonely

individual, wounded either physically or emotionally, He exemplifies a code of

courageous behaviour in a world of irrational destruction. “He offers up and

exemplifies certain principles of honour, courage and endurance in a life of

tension and pain which make a man a man’. Violence. struggle, suffering and

hardships do not make him in any way pessimistic. Though the vague unknown’

continues to lure him and frustrate his hopes and purposes, he does not admit

defeat. Death rather than humiliation, stoical endurance rather than servile

submission are the cardinal virtues of the Hemingway hero.

A close examination of Hemingway’s fiction reveals that in his major novels he

enacts the general drama of human pain, and that he has used the novel form in

order to pose symbolic questions about life’. The trials and tribulations undergone

by his protagonists are symbolic of man’s predicament in this world. He views life

as a perpetual struggle in which the individual has to assert the supremacy of his

free will over forces other than himself. In order to assert the dignity of his

existence, the individual has to wage a relentless battle against a world which

refuses him any identity or fulfillment.

To sum up. Hemingway, in his novels and short stories, presents human life as a

perpetual struggle which ends only in death. It is of no avail to fight this

battle, where man is reduced to a pathetic figure by forces both within and

without. However, what matters is the way man faces the crisis and endures the pain

inflicted upon him by the hostile powers that be, be it his own physical limitation

or the hostility of society or the indifference of unfeeling nature. The ultimate

victory depends on the way one faces the struggle. In a world of pain and failure,

the individual also has his own weapon to assert the dignity of his existence. He

has the freedom of will to create his own values and ideals. In order to achieve

this end, he has to carry on an incessant battle against three oppressive forces,

namely, the biological, the social and the environmental barriers of this world.

According to Heming-way, the struggle between the individual and the hostile

deterministic forces takes places at these three different levels. Commenting on

this aspect of the existential struggle found in Hemingway’s fiction, Charles Child

Walcutt has observed that, the conflict between the individual needs and social

demands is matched by the contest between feeling man and unfeeling universe, and

between the spirit of the individual and his biological limitations this

observation is probably the right key to understand Hemingway, the man and the



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