PERSONAL SELLING AND SALESMANSHIP
BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q 1 Define personal selling and discuss its advantages and disadvantages
Ans. Personal selling happens when companies and business firms send out their salesmen to use the sale force and sell the products and services by meeting the consumer face-to-face.
The salesmen aim to inform and encourage the customer to buy, or at least try the product.
Personal Selling Examples :
For example, salesmen go to different societies to sell the products. Another example is found in department stores on the perfume and cosmetic counters, wherein agents of the company try to sell their products.
A customer can get advice on how to apply the product and can try different products.
Products with relatively high prices, or with complex features, are often sold using personal selling.
Great examples include cars, office equipment (e.g. photocopiers) and many products that are sold by businesses to other industrial customers.
Advantages of Personal Selling :BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
It is two-way communication. So the selling agent can get instant feedback from the prospective buyer. If it is not according to plan he can even adjust his approach or sales presentation accordingly.
Since it is an interactive form of selling, it helps build trust with the customer.
When you are selling highvalue products like cars,
it is important that the customer trusts not only the product but the seller also. This is possible in personal selling.
It also is a more persuasive form of marketing. Since the customer is face to face with the salesperson it is not easy to dismiss them. The customer at least makes an effort to listen.
Finally, direct selling helps reach the audience that we cannot reach in any other form. There are sometimes customers that cannot be reached by any other method.
Disadvantages of Personal Selling :
It is a relatively expensive method of selling. There is a requirement of high capital costs.
Also, it is an extremely labour intensive method because a large sales force is required to carry out personal selling successfully.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
The training of the salesperson is also a very time consuming and costly process.
And the method can only reach a limited number of people. Unlike TV or Radio ads it does not cover a huge demographic.
Q 2 What do you understand by buying motives? What are the various types of buying motives?
Ans. Buying motives of a buyer refers to the influences or motivations forces which determine his buying.
In other words, a buying motive is the inner feelings, urge, instinct, drive, desire, stimulus, thoughts, or emotion that makes a buyer buy a certain product or service to satisfy his needs.
For the convenience of the study, the various classifications given by each of them are grouped into, as follows:
(1. Physical, Psychological and Sociological Buying Motives:
The psychological buying motives are related to the satisfaction of basic human needs for subsistence such as satisfaction of the needs for food, shelter and clothes, and security.
The psychological buying motives relates to the need for prestige or self-preservation, etc.
The sociological buying motives are related to the motives that exist at present and is expected in all the social situations.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
(2. Acquired and Inherent Buying Motives:
The acquired buying motives are learned motives and are influenced by the environment factors.
Such motives are related to socio-economic conditions and the level of education, such as economy, information, work efficiency, profit facility, quality, beauty, fashion, social presage, acceptance, etc.
The inherent buying motives are present in a person from his birth. It belongs to basic human instincts whereas the acquired buying motives are concerned with the environment.
They are influenced by hunger, thirsts, sleep, leisure, security, playing entertainment, etc.
(3. Primary and Selective Buying Motives:
The primary buying motives increase the general demands for products and not the specific demands for a specified product/brand.
The demands for radios, TVs, cars, motorcycles, etc. Fall under this category of primary motives.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
The selective buying motives influence for the purchase of specific brands, for instance, the demands for Bajaj’s Chetak Scooter, Onida TV, Philips Radios, etc.
(4. Conscious and Dormant Buying Motives:
The conscious buying motives are such motives, which are identified by the buyer without any help from marketing functions, like advertising, personal selling or promotional tools.
The conscious buying motives influence the satisfaction of presently existing needs of a customer.
Such buying motives take shape within the sub-conscious minds of the customers and are not influenced by the external environmental factors.
The dormant buying motives are silent motives and do not influence the buyers until their attention is invited by the marketing functions.
Thus, dormant buying motives are related with satisfaction of those needs which are created by the marketing functions.
A consumer does not possess the knowledge of such needs without the persuasion of marketing activities.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
(5. Rational and Emotional Buying Motives:
Alfred Gross has classified the buying motives as emotional and rational.
A customer takes rational or economic buying decisions for availing at least a few of the following advantages:
(i) Where the buying is more profitable.
(ii) Where there is saving of time.
(iii) Where there is similarity/uniformity in the products.
(iv) Where the item is simple to operate.
Q 3 Explain with examples the application of Ethics in selling
Ans. Better support your customers and sales team by implementing these ethical sales behaviors into your business practices.
Sales Ethics :
(1. Foster trust and credibility with the customer.
To create a positive experience for both the customer and the company, it is imperative that trust building is at the center of every sales interaction. While yes, it is the job of the sales professional to sell,BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
if that is always the only objective at hand, the sales approach can seem disingenuous for customers who feel as if they are only being sold to, not heard or valued.
Additionally, striving to get the sale by any means can lead to unethical behavior for the sake of hitting the quota.
When interacting with prospects and customers, reps should strive to build trust first and sell second.
If a problem arises and you were at fault, quickly and truthfully take responsibility.
While it may be tempting to defer responsibility to save face, being accountable for your actions and offering a solution to remedy the situation is a more ethical approach.
Share clear, truthful information.
When trying to convince a prospect to invest in your product or service, it is critical you only present honest information.
Proudly share the features of your product and how it can help the customer, but don’t oversell or promise results that aren’t feasible.
Provide fair competitive comparisons.
Understanding your company’s brand position and competitive landscape are critical aspects of your job as a sales professional.
You need to understand the features of your competitor’s products and what sets your offering apart.
Address problems head-on.
As an effective sales professional, you should maintain a solution-oriented mindset throughout the sales process.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Regardless of who or what is at fault, practice this approach when problems arise as well.
Follow through on commitments to the customer.
This point is simple. If a commitment is made to your prospect or customer, it needs to be kept.
Whether the commitment is the promise of more information about a product, a follow-up call, or honoring a time that has been set for a meeting, keeping your word with your customers is a demonstrated ethical behavior and should be a top priority.
Take objections in stride.
Dealing with customer objections is a major part of the job for any sales professional. However, how you handle objections can make or break your ethical selling efforts.
Handling objections in an unethical manner could include reactions such as arguing with a prospect when they voice concerns, or attempting to bully them until they back down
Q 4 Discuss in brief the steps of sales process
Ans. 1. Prospecting
The first of the seven steps in the sales process is prospecting. In this stage, you find potential customers and determine whether they have a need for your product or service-and whether they can afford what you offer.
Evaluating whether the customers need your product or service and can afford it is known as qualifying.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Keep in mind that, in modern sales, it’s not enough to find one prospect at a company: There are an average of 6.8 customer stakeholders involved in a typical purchase,
so you’ll want to practice multithreading, or connecting with multiple decision-makers on the purchasing side.
Account maps are an effective way of identifying these buyers.
(2. Preparation : The second stage has you in preparation for initial contact with a potential customer, researching the market and collecting all relevant information regarding your product or service.
At this point, you develop your sales presentation and tailor it to your potential client’s particular needs.
(3. Approach : In the approach stage, you make first contact with your client. Sometimes this is a face-to-face meeting, sometimes it’s over the phone.
There are three common approach methods.
Premium approach: Presenting your potential client with a gift at the beginning of your interaction
Question approach: Asking a question to get the prospect interested
Product approach: Giving the prospect a sample or a free trial to review and evaluate your service
Dive deeper into the various sales approaches you can use to start a relationship off on the right foot.
(4.Presentation: In the presentation phase, you actively demonstrate how your product or service meets the needs of your potential customer.
The word presentation implies using Power Point and giving a salesy spiel, but it doesn’t always have to be that way-you should actively listen to your customer’s needs and then act and react accordingly.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
(5. Handling objections: Perhaps the most underrated of the seven steps of a sales process is handling objections. This is where you listen to your prospect’s concerns and address them
Q 5 What are the relevant theories of sales force motivation? Discuss them.
Ans. Sales managers can motivate their team by following any of the theories of motivation, namely, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, goal-setting theory, expectancy theory, and job design theories.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy:
Motivation is influenced by the needs of a person. There is a priority of certain needs over others. The importance of needs will influence the level of motivation. A.H. Maslow.
An American social scientist, has given a framework that helps to explain the strength of certain needs. He has categorized human needs into five categories.
He is of the opinion that a person tries to achieve first category first
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory:
The priority of needs characterizes the type of behaviour. The satisfaction of some needs may not have positive effect on motivation but their non-satisfaction may act as a negative factor.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
A question arises as to what types of needs are important for improvising motivation.
Frederick Herzberg and his associates conducted a study of need satisfaction of 200 engineers and accountants employed by firms in and around Pittsburgh.
The persons were asked to describe a few previous job experiences in which they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad about jobs.
The influence of these experiences on job was also studied.
Carrot and Stick Approach Theory:
This approach comes from an old story that the best way to make a donkey move is to put a carrot out in front of him or jab him with a stick from behind.
The carrot is the reward for moving, the stick is the punishment for not moving.
For motivating people to work more some kinds of rewards can be offered. Often this is money in the form of pay or bonuses.
There can be non-monetary rewards too. The punishment can also be used to push the desirable behavior of employees.
These can be in the form of reduction of bonus, demotion, fear of loss of job, loss of income etc.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Mcgregor’s Theory X and Theory Y:
Douglas Mcgregor introduced these two theories i.e., Theory X and Theory Y, based on two distinct views of human beings.
He proposed, at opposite extremes, two pairs of assumptions about human beings which he thought were implied by the actions of the managers.
Theory X deals with one extreme, based on one set of assumptions and Theory Y, deals with another extreme based on another set of assumptions.
These theories are not based on any research, but according to McGregor, these are intuitive deductions.
Q 6 Discuss in brief the communication skills of a salesperson
Ans.In sales, it’s important to know the market and to know the best-practice techniques, but it’s not everything.
At the end of the day, there is no use in knowing the market if you don’t know how to approach a prospect or handle a client.
Effective communication is the link between your skills and knowledge and closing a deal.
It’s as if your know-how is the theoretical part of being a salesperson, and communication is the practical part of it – and you can’t have one without the other.
As you navigate these waters, keep the following skills in mind.
(1. Make sure you’re speaking the same “language”
While you might be both speaking the same literal language, the way you phrase your message might not be the most effective way of doing it.
The way we speak, everything from tone of voice to the idioms in our speech patterns, directly affects our understandability.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
You might be a fast talker, but if your listener prefers a slower cadence, you may come off as hurried or dismissive.
Try to be just the right amount of technical informal, etc. You want to be certain you’re not being too confusing, and that you’re both on the same level of closeness.
You can follow their lead a bit by seeing how they approach you, and how open they might seem when it comes to how formal you must be.
( 2. Watch your body language
You can say a lot by the way you sit, greet, and how you behave as you carry a conversation.
Body language is a way of communicating, it is not a coincidence that it is called a language.
Eye contact, for instance, is very important, as it shows empathy and makes them feel heard.
Playing with the hair too much, on the other hand, is a sign of nervousness or insecurity.
Be mindful of body language, both yours and theirs – you might be telling them something and not even realize it, and they might be showing you something without them knowing it, too.
(3. Know when to listen
A conversation consists of moments where you talk AND where you listen, but most people might forget about the latter.
Listening is part of communicating, and not just so you’ll know what to answer, but how to answer, too.
As a prospect or a client is telling you something, there’s more that you can pick up than only what they’re saying, so make sure you’re actively listening.
In active listening, you must focus on what is being said, paraphrase it back, and withhold judgment. This ensures that you understood them correctly and helps you remember what was said.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
(4. Be as clear as possible
Miscommunication happens when things aren’t as clear as you think they are, leaving room for confusion or misinterpretation.
This is closely related to the first tip about speaking the same language.
Be straightforward and informative, not flowery or prosaic. Ask simple questions and provide unambiguous answers at all times.
You may also keep a checklist or script handy for everything you need to address as you go, ensuring you cover the necessary details with each communication.
( 5. Do not lie!
Remember body language? Even if you try very hard to not show that you’re lying, somehow, you will come off as dishonest to clients. It’s almost like people can sense it,
whether it is in your tone, in how some things might not add up, or just putting two and two together and realizing what you’re promising is far fetched or unlikely.
Lies can be easily detected, and the truth comes out sooner or later since it will be hard to keep track of what you’ve made up and said.
(6. Research constantly BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Research on a client, on the market, on trends, and even on communication skills! It is one of the best ways to be prepared every step of the way.
There is no problem in saying you don’t know something, but it is best not to say that too often since it will make you seem unprepared, and therefore, unreliable.
Being up to date on every trend, technique, and everything else related to sales should be one of your main goals, as it can be quite a differential between you and the competition.
(7. Give them “space”
It might seem like dating advice, but it applies to all relationships, including professional ones. You have to know when to approach people, and most of all, how constantly.
Email them or call them too much and you might wear them out, whether by seeming too desperate or just for being plain annoying.
Nobody wants to do business with someone they feel doesn’t know how to respect their space and their time.
(8. Know how to greet and how to say goodbye
As we have established, communicating is not just about what to say, it’s how you say it.
The way you’ll start an interaction can make or break a deal; the way you’ll end it can either burn a bridge or bring you more opportunities in the future.
Always consider this when deciding how to talk to a prospect or a client, and this might also help with your reputation in the market.
Q 7 Explain the tools and techniques used for sales presentation and demonstration.
Ans.Sales Presentation Techniques :
- Send your buyer the presentation deck before your call
Be honest. Internally, you read that title and said some version of “No way.” Am I right? Well, know this: I only preach what I practice.
Invoke self-discovery : BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
It’s tempting to stick to a positive and linear story during your sales presentation.
That usually involves talking about benefits, outcomes, and desired results. But that approach is a mistake.
Before you discuss solutions and results, you must understand the problem. More importantly, you have to be sure your prospect understands (read: admits to) the problem.
Self-discovery is the ticket that gets you there.
Instead of telling your buyer what the problem is and how you’ll address it, get your buyer to connect with the problem on their own.
Describe your prospect’s problem better than they can describe it
Tell a story in which your buyer is just like the main character.
(2. Talk about Point A. Don’t skip to point B.
This tip is 100% linked to the last one. There’s a problem (Point A) and a desired outcome (Point B). Point A is the status quo.
It’s the problem your buyer will continue to face if they don’t make a change.
Would it surprise you to know that 95% of messaging focuses on Point B (shiny outcomes) instead of Point A (the problem)? BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Here’s how you can stand out.
Switch the focus of your presentation to Point A. Talking about a pain point is shockingly more effective than talking about positive outcomes.
That’s because of one simple principle called loss aversion.
Here’s the quick version: People will work twice as hard to avoid loss as they will to gain benefits.
Focusing on Point A triggers loss aversion, and the natural human reaction to loss aversion is a sense of urgency.
How to give a good sales presentation
Now you’re getting the inside scoop on deal-closing sales presentations. Make your buyer feel the pain that results from the status quo.
Convince them the pain is only going to get worse without your solution – because you know that to be true.
You should only talk about benefits once they’re on board with that line of thinking.
Urgency is what allows benefits to land. Without urgency, benefits are just happy points that hold no real meaning.
( 3. Insight is your #1 lead story BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Buyers are the experts on their company’s circumstances. But they want insights into their situation from you.
You’re most likely to impress a buyer by telling them something new about themselves.
They’re bogged down in their own perspective, and your shiniest offering is new insight into their problems and opportunities.
They can get common information about your product’s benefits from a brochure, thank you very much. But an insight into themselves? That’s worth its weight in gold.
Check out this TaylorMade video. It’s a bang-on example of how to lead a presentation with insight, and then move on to your product’s strengths:
You learned how to get more distance from your golf swing (an insight into what you’re doing). Then you learned how that’s supported by the product’s particular strength.
Insight comes first. It changes how your buyers think about the problem your product solves. Only then benefits can land effectively.
(4. Don’t lead with differentiators, lead to them
Think about what makes your product unique. Nothing you say about differentiators matters, if your buyer doesn’t value that differentiator.
So, how do you get buyers to care about your unique strength? Help your buyer understand a problem or opportunity they’ve missed. Educate them, and be sure the solution relates to your differentiator.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
At Gong.io, we’ve taught our sales reps to speak with buyers about an important problem only we can solve. It’s the delta between top producers and the rest of the team.
Don’t lead with differentiators in your sales presentations
After naming that problem, reps offer insight into it and begin to build urgency:
“The numbers from your top reps are fantastic.”
“The downside is they’re annulled by everyone else who’s missing their quota.”
“Your team goes from outstanding numbers to breaking even or missing quota. Both of those options are unsustainable.”
We only introduce our key differentiator once the backstory is clear and the buyer gets it. Then, our reps say something like this:
“Gong is the only platform that can tell you what your top reps do differently from the rest of your team.
We can tell you which questions they ask, which topics they discuss, when they talk about each one, and more.”
See why we lead to our differentiator, and not with it? It just wouldn’t land the same way if we started with the differentiator. In fact, it might not land at all.
(5. Say it like an exec BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Remember this the next time you open your mouth in a meeting: You get delegated to the person you sound like.
Your language will get you delegated to the person you sound like
Focusing on specs and features is a poor sales strategy that gets you booted from decision makers.
“This is interesting stuff. You know who would really connect with this? Our IT guy.
He’s in charge of these kind of things and I think we’ll hand off to him at this point.” -Every senior executive you bored with features talk
Time for a reframe.
When you talk about your value prop, use language that reflects strategic issues.
That’s what resonates with executives. They want wins for corporate business problems, not tech snippets in the trenches.
They want you to help them tackle strategic opportunities like these:
. The competition
. Market dynamics and market share
. If your solution relates back to those problems, you can sell to the C-suite.
(6. Flip your presentation BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
There’s an incredibly predictable bent to most presentations.
They’re logical and they flow from one point to the next, eventually achieving a shiny, final outcome. This is a great way to set yourself up for failure.
Logic works when we introduce people to new topics. It’s used at all levels of the education system. But it doesn’t work well for presentations.
Here are two presentations for constructing a new city. The first one is logic-based, and the audience is a big-wig politician.
Q 8 What do you mean by sales manual? State its benefits.
Ans.The sales manual is part policy, part procedures, part best practices, part how-to guide.
It explains protocols and processes. It provides standards of performance.
It keeps sales team members on the same page, and enables them to hold each other accountable (to the established standards, etc.). It can provide the foun
This is a living document that has to work. It’s a high-value tool that has to be:
. Accurate and up to date.
. Easily accessed.
. Readily available.
. Readily understood.
. Easy to read and well organized.
. Actively used. BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
A good sales manual informs your sales team on their relevance to the organization, gives them confidence, and binds them to the ways of your organization.
It shows them how they fit in, and their pivotal role-both as individuals and team members.
It should give them a real understanding of the sales function and its influence on organizational success.
Q 9 Describe the changing role of salespeople
Ans. Offering added value now means understanding the customer’s business, their industry and the competition.
It means discovering how the salesperson can play a strategic role in the customer’s business.
Today, successful salespeople are experts in their customers’ businesses and function as consultants, promoting the business objectives of customers and providing innovative ideas and solutions.
They are also strategists, providing opportunities for customers while demonstrating value.
It takes two dimensions of effectiveness for salespeople to achieve the roles of
consultant and strategist:
Personal effectiveness. This requires motivation, self-management, innovation, and the ability to handle stress, assess risks and generate creative solutions.
Technical effectiveness. This requires high levels of product knowledge, applications, business processes and other factors that affect the purchase and use of products and services. BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Q 10 What are the various types of salesperson?
Ans. The Caretaker Salesperson :
The caretaker is one of the most common types of salesperson that you can hire.
Also known as transactional salespeople, these are employees that are often passive and are content to find a comfort zone that they rarely ever leave.
They are often known as order-takers because rather than hunting for a potential sale, they wait for the sale to come to them.
Caretakers are the types of salesman that are riskaverse, which means that they don’t want to take the chance on a prospective customer rejecting their sales pitch.
They will often provide small businesses with competent, steady performance because they are adept at positioning themselves in the right place at the right time to get a sale.
If you run a retail business in which the primary job of your sales staff is to help buyers find the products they are already looking for, you should hire a caretaker.
The Professional Salesperson : BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Another one of the most popular types of salesperson is the professional or the relational sales personality. The professional has strong analytical skills and is able to reason his way through problems.
The professional develops good customer/client relationships by building a rapport and connecting with customers and clients by understanding their wants and needs.
With these types of salesperson, the goal is to establish a bond that is based on fulfilling expectations.
Professional salespeople often get sales because buyers trust them to deliver on what they’ve promised.
Professionals are the types of salesman that excel in advertising companies or any type of sales companies in which servicing existing accounts is important.
The Closer Salesperson :
Closers are the type of salesman that you often see parodied in used car commercials on TV.
They are distinguished by qualities such as persistence, brashness, and a healthy dose of self-confidence.
They are often referred to as “born salespeople,” because their mindset is to always be closing a deal, even if the prospective buyer is reluctant to buy.
Closers are always finding ways to encourage, coerce, or push customers toward the goal of closing a deal.BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
They are not concerned as much about building future relationships as they are about finalizing the deal that’s in front of them.
Closers often have outgoing personalities that can sometimes border on being too aggressive.
They don’t take “no” for an answer and they’re able to offer incentives and enticements in situations in which customers need that final push to close a deal.
The Consultant Salesperson :
Consultants bring the qualities of a closer with the personal connection often found in professionals.
They are well-rounded salespeople who know how to close a deal and build relationships at the same time.
They aren’t afraid to solve problems for their customers and to go the extra mile with incentives in pursuit of a long-term relationship.
Q11. Write short notes on:
Ans. A. Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors.
It is what causes you to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.
Motivation involves the biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that activate behavior. BCOS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Definition of motivation is the following “Powering people to achieve high levels of performance and overcoming barriers in order to change”. Motivation is the driver of guidance, control and persistence in human behavior.
Motivation is defined as the reasons why you are doing something, or the level of desire you have to do something.
If you want to lose weight to get healthier, this is an example of motivation to improve your health.
B. Trial close
Ans. Trial close is a tactic sales professionals use to determine whether customers are ready to close a deal.
To perform a trial close, a sales professional may ask a buyer open-ended questions that suggest the idea of closing
A trial close is used to see how a customer feels about the sale or a particular feature, whereas the close is asking for the business. The trial close asks for the customer’s opinion, not the sale.O
Q 12 Distinguish between:
a. Buyer and consumer
Ans. A. The person who buys the goods or services from a seller is known as the Customer. The person who uses the goods or services is known as a Consumer.
The customer is also known as buyer or client whereas the Consumer is the ultimate user of the goods.
The main difference between Consumer and Buyer is that a Consumer is the end recipient and the user of a product or service.
On the other hand, a Buyer is a person who purchases goods or services in return for money and isn’t necessarily the last recipient of that product.
In simple vocabulary, a consumer is someone who consumes a product. Similarly, a customer is the one who buys or purchases a product.
B. Publicity and advertisement
Ans. Publicity is the public visibility or awareness for any product, service, person or organization (company, charity, etc.).
It may also refer to the movement of information from its source to the general public, often (but not always) via the media.
The subjects of publicity include people of public interest, goods and services, organizations, and works of art or entertainment.
Advertising is to advertise a product or service of a company, for commercial purposes.
Publicity is to publicize a product, service or company to provide information.
Advertising is what a company says about its own product, but Publicity is what others says about a product.
BCOS 183 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
BCOS 184 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022