PUBLIC HEALTH AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Assignment - 1
A. What is Public Health? Briefly discuss its importance in the management of COVID 19.
Ans: Public Health:
Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities.
This work is achieved by promoting healthy lifestyles, researching disease and injury prevention, and detecting, preventing and responding to infectious diseases.
Overall, public health is concerned with protecting the health of entire populations. These populations can be as small as a local neighborhood, or as big as an entire country or region of the world.
Public health professionals try to prevent problems from happening or recurring through implementing educational programs, recommending policies, administering services and conducting research-in contrast to clinical professionals like doctors and nurses, who focus primarily on treating individuals after they become sick or injured.
Public health also works to limit health disparities. A large part of public health is promoting health care equity, quality and accessibility.
Public health works to track disease outbreaks, prevent injuries and shed light on why some of us are more likely to suffer from poor health than others.
The many facets of public health include speaking out for laws that promote smoke-free indoor air and seatbelts, spreading the word about ways to stay healthy and giving science-based solutions to problems. BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
Public health importance in the management of COVID 19:
Community health centers play an important role in rural and remote areas and form one of the largest systems of care available to rural populations.
Today, community health centers serve 1 in 6 rural residents, so they have a critical role in the response strategy to COVID-19 in rural communities.
Because health centers are in virtually every community in our country, they are in a unique position to respond to COVID-19. They can help increase access and availability of COVID-19 testing for the community.
However, despite ramping up testing and virtual visits, health centers are reporting steep declines inpatient visits, and many staff members are unable to work because of COVID-19 related issues.
These issues include having to juggle work obligations and parenting obligations as a result of school closings and not being able to find appropriate child care as a result of day care closings.
Another challenge is the temporary closure of health centers as a result of the pandemic. Although health care centers received $1.98 billion in rapid response grants from the federal government, more financial support may be needed to sustain services.
Health centers also have issues related to the availability of personal protective equipment and testing supplies. Staffing to assist with contact tracing for COVID-19-positive people is also necessary. BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
Public Health studies play a major role in fighting off the biggest killers of humans. Public Health professionals, who have either studied a Public Health degree or Health Studies related course, are constantly battling against diabetes, cancer, heart disease and dementia to maintain the health and wellbeing of the population.
A fundamental quality of Public Health is its preventative nature. Prevention is far more effective and far less expensive than cure.
It is important because you are constantly building new skills and expanding as a person. This is due to the nature of the work promoting growth through day-to-day activities and taking part in major projects and campaigns.
Public Health is important because you become the voice for individuals who have no voice and simply put,your influence on the improvement of someone’s health can be a great satisfaction.
B. Define environmental health. Discuss the effects of Biological, Chemical and Physical Agents in water on human health.
Ans: Environmental health:
The environment can, directly and indirectly, impact on our health and wellbeing. Environmental health examines the interaction between the environment and our health. We use the following definitions: BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
Environmental health refers to aspects of human health (including quality of life) that are determined by physical, chemical, biological, social and psychosocial factors in the environment.
Environment broadly includes everything external to ourselves, including the physical, natural, social, and behavioral environments.
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing, and is not merely the absence of disease or illness.
Having learned the two terms independently, now let us try to understand the concept of environmental health.
In 1989, the WHO defined it ‘as comprising of those aspects of human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment.
It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can potentially effect health’.
We need safe, healthy and supportive environments for good health. The environment in which we live is a major determinant of our health and wellbeing.
We depend on the environment for energy and the materials needed to sustain life, such as:
ii. Safe drinking water.
iii. Nutritious food.
iv. Safe places to live.
Effects of Biological, Chemical and Physical agents in water on human health:
The environment, as discussed, can be divided into three components:
Biological composed of plants, animals, rodents, viruses and other life forms; Physical made of non-living things like air, water, soil, housing, waste, radiation etc. and social environment that include customs, culture, habits, income, religion, occupation, education, lifestyle etc. BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
There are various agents (biological, chemical and physical) in the environment that influence human health through the physical environment that is discussed below.
1 Occurrence of pesticides in water adversely affects human health and research reveals its strong linkages with cancer (leukemia, lymphoma, brain, kidney, breast, prostate, pancreas, liver, lung and skin cancers), neurological disorders, birth defects, fetal death and altered fetal growth.
2 Thermal pollution results in excessive heat production, which are detrimental for human health and aquatic organisms.
3 Marine pollution that is caused by oil spill, waste disposal, esp. plastic is extremely damaging for marine and human life. Tons of plastic wastes are found in stomach of dead whales, asbestos and other animals.
4 Radioactive waste is produced for harnessing nuclear energy or defense purposes and the leftover waste from the experiments conducted are dumped into oceans.
This waste has an extremely long life and has an effect on the health of the ecosystem.
5 Pollutants like zinc cause vomiting, renal damage, cramps; copper hypertension, sporadic fever, uremia, coma; barium excessive salivation, colic, vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, paralysis of muscles or nervous system, damage to heart and blood vessels;
cadmium vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pains, softening of bones, fractures, skeletal deformations, damage of kidney, hypertension, tumor formation, heart disease,impaired reproductive function, BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
genetic mutation; mercury impairment of vision and muscles, paralysis; lead high rate of miscarriages, affects skin, and respiratory system, damages kidney,
liver and brain cells; arsenic cancer of skin, lungs and liver, chromosomal aberration and damage, gangrene, loss of hearing, injury to nerve tissue, liver and kidney damage.
Assignment - II
A. Give an account of globalization and its impact on health.
Ans: Globalization: Globalization is the word used to describe the growing interdependence of the world’s economies, cultures, and populations, brought about by cross-border trade in goods and services, technology, and flows of investment, people, and information.
Countries have built economic partnerships to facilitate these movements over many centuries.
But the term gained popularity after the Cold War in the early 1990s, as these cooperative arrangements shaped modern everyday life.
This guide uses the term more narrowly to refer to international trade and some of the investment flows among advanced economies, mostly focusing on the United States.
The wide-ranging effects of globalization are complex and politically charged. As with major technological advances, globalization benefits society as a whole, while harming certain groups. BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
Understanding the relative costs and benefits can pave the way for alleviating problems while sustaining the wider payoffs.
Globalization impact on health:
1 Increasing trade in foods, medicines and drugs, as well as in health-damaging substances, such as tobacco and alcohol, toxic waste and products containing hazardous or potentially hazardous substances.
2 Many countries have limited capacity to regulate food and drugs.
3 Increased trade in hazardous waste, most of it illegal.
4 Most of the world’s toxic waste is generated in OECD countries and exported to countries that lack environmental standards or inspection capacity.
1 The health sector has benefited from the ubiquitous use of the Internet and e-mail 4 greatly accelerated the speed of communication.
2 Internet information and knowledge flow, including on health issues, are more freely available and facilitate telehealth and telemedicine.
B. Briefly discuss the role of Non Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) in health sector of India.
Ans: Role of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) in health sector of India: BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
Apart from the federal and state governments, there are other stakeholders who are working in improving the health status of people.
Non-Governmental Organisations play an important role in reaching out to the most underprivileged sections of society.
NGOs have a long history of active involvement in the promotion of human well-being.
In particular, NGOs provide important links between the community and government They possess certain strengths and characteristics that enable them to function as effective and dynamic agents in this process.
Their programs ranging from research to community-based projects cover the wide spectrum of human concerns and often pioneer in the fields of health and development.
Functions of NGOs in the Health System:
The primary focus of NGOs in the health sector can be listed as follows: Establishing health care institutions; Fulfilling health and social needs of groups like women, elderly and vulnerable local communities;
Dealing with specific health issues such as AIDS, alcoholism; Promoting Health Rights; Performing preventive health programs; and Managing health finance/ funding and administration. BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
Some NGOs operate internationally and are concerned with global health issues. Some NGOs in India also play an important role in providing health care at the time of emergencies/ natural disasters.
The Health Activities of NGOs in India:
NGO-run hospitals are heterogeneous and vary in terms of ownership, financing and costs.
In the recent past in about ten health-oriented projects of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, NGOs have actively taken part as health service providers.
All these NGO schemes are now under the provision of fiexi pools of National Health Mission.
Besides, some NGOs (especially the national counterparts of International NGOs) have their own health financing schemes.
In India, the majority of these NGOs are covered under the Societies Registration Act or Indian Trusts Act.
In addition, there are the number of informal associations working at grassroots level without being registered in the legal level.
C. What is epidemiology? Discuss randomized studies.
Ans:Epidemiology: Epidemiology is the method used to find the causes of health outcomes and diseases in populations.
In epidemiology, the patient is the community and individuals are viewed collectively. By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).
It is also the application of this study to the control of health problems.
Randomized studies are classified into randomized clinical trials, field trials and community trials. BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
1 Randomized Clinical Trials: In randomized clinical trials, the efficacy of medications/new treatments/new devices are investigated. This kind of study design is useful to study the effect of the single intervention on multiple outcomes.
2 Field Trials: This type of trials is conducted in the field i.e. general population and involves healthy subjects or groups. The effect of intervention on the multiple outcomes can be studied in this study design.
3 Community Trials: The unit of these trials are communities. In the selected communities, some communities are assigned to exposure and others not.
4 Non-randomized Trials: Epidemiology Ethical, financial and administrative constraints, the requirement of large manpower, larger sample size and applicability of some interventions to groups than individual limits the use of RCTs and necessitates the employing of non-randomized studies (trials).
5 Uncontrolled Trials: These are useful to know the effect of the intervention, dose of the therapeutic agent, and adverse reactions.
6 Natural Trials: When observations mimic the experiment those can be used to test the hypothesis of a relation between exposure and outcome.
7 Pre and Post Interventional Trials: A clinical variable of interest is chosen for this study and measured before and after the intervention in the same group.
Assignment - III
A. Gender and Health
Ans: Gender and Health: As seen earlier, gender differences and gender inequalities between women and men reflect in all aspects of life of women and place them in a disadvantageous position. BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
It reflects on women’s health too. Once you will come to know about the health status of women, you will realize the importance of taking significant measures to address their health needs.
The health needs of women based on their age, ethnicity, religion and socio-economic status may also differ.
For example, as a socio-cultural constraint, women cannot travel a long distances to hospitals/clinics alone.
This makes them at the disadvantageous position by not addressing the same. Likewise, family and community do not allow women to decide their health on their own.
Ans:Vaccination: Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from disease.
Vaccines contain a microorganism or virus in a weakened, live or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism.
In stimulating the body’s adaptive immunity, they help prevent sickness from an infectious disease. BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results.
Herd immunity protects those who may be immunocompromised and cannot get a vaccine because even a weakened version would harm them.
The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio and tetanus from much of the world.
However, some diseases, such as measles outbreaks in America, have seen rising cases due to relatively low vaccination rates in the 2010s attributed, in part, to vaccine hesitancy.
C. Random sampling
Ans: Random sampling: Theoretically, this is a method of selecting ‘n’ units from N units in such a way that everyone in the population of N units, has an equal chance of being selected.
This can be done through the following steps:
i. Defining population by specifying its various limits.
ii. Preparing the sampling frame.
iii. Incorporating the names or serial numbers of individual units in the sampling frame (every unit is to be listed, the order does not make any difference).
It is important to note that a random sample is not necessarily an identical representation of the population. BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
After this, to get the required ‘n’ units different techniques are available. Let us get acquainted with these techniques one by one.
D. Chronic diseases
Ans: Chronic diseases: Chronic disease is a disease that persists over a long period of time. Chronic disease can hinder independence and the health of people with disabilities, as it may create additional activity limitations.
People with chronic disease often think that they are free from the disease when they have no symptoms.
Having no symptoms, however, does not necessarily mean that chronic disease has disappeared. The good news is that chronic disease can be prevented or controlled through
1) regular participation in physical activity,
2) eating healthy,
3) not smoking, and
4) avoiding excessive alcohol consumption. Listed below are examples of common chronic diseases and their early signs.
Chronic diseases are defined broadly as conditions that last 1 year or more and require ongoing medical attention or limit activities of daily living or both.
Chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes are the leading causes of death and disability in the United States.
They are also leading drivers of the nation’s $3.8 trillion in annual health care costs.
E. Chi-square (x2) test
Ans: Chi-square (x2) test: This is one of the most important non-parametric statistics. As we see further that chi-square is used for several purposes.
The term chi’ (is the Greek letter, it is pronounced ki). The chi-square
the test was originally developed by Kart-Peason in 1900 and is sometimes called the Peason Chi-square. BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
According to Garecte (1981). The difference between observed and expected frequencies are squared and divided by the expected number in each case and the sum of these quotients is chi-square.
According to Guilford (1973). By definition an x 2 is the sum of ratio (any number can be summed), each ratio is that between a squared discrepancy of difference and an expected frequency.
On the basis of the above definitions, it can be said that the discrepancy between observed and expected frequencies is expressed in terms of a statistic named chi-square (x2).
Ans:SPSS: SPSS is one of the leading desktop statistical packages. It is an ideal companion to the database and spreadsheet, combining many of their features as well as adding its own specialized functions.
SPSS for windows is available, as a base module and a number of optional add-on enhancements are also available.
Some versions present SPSS as an integrated package including the base and some important add-on modules. BANS 184 Free Solved Assignment
SPSS Professional Statistics provides techniques to examine similarities and dissimilarities in data and to classify. data, identify underlying dimensions in a data set.
It includes procedures for the cluster, k-cluster, discriminating factor, multidimensional scaling, and proximity and reliability analysis.
SPSS Advanced Statistics includes procedures for logistic regression, log-linear analysis, multivariate analysis, and analysis of variance.
This module also includes procedures for constrained nonlinear regression, probit, Cox, and actuarial survival analysis.
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