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BANS 183

TOURISM ANTHROPOLOGY

BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2202

                            Assignment-1

A. Discuss the role of physical, social and archaeological anthropology in studying tourism.

Ans: Role of physical anthropology in studying tourism:

This branch of anthropology apart from studying man as a product of evolutionary process also involves an analysis of human population. Both approaches revolve around a common theme of human variation and adaptation.

This is important because men do not live in a vacuum. They are constantly interacting with the environment.

This field considers such issues as how the environment has affected and continues to affect man’s structure. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

Because this field deals with studying how the human physical form undergoes change this branch of anthropology has had more inputs for the tourism industry than any other.

It is seen from various research conducted that people relatively isolated from others apparently change very slowly in physical form while populations having constant contacts with many structurally diverse people may change rapidly in bodily structure in a relatively short time.

Physical anthropology answers such questions as what happens when people of different varieties interbreed or is there any relationship between a man’s physical type and his temperament, intelligence, special attitudes or behavior in general.

The answers to these questions are the prime concern for tourism policymakers since this plays a significant role in the monitoring of tourism-borne diseases like AIDS.

In many countries like Thailand where sex tourism is practiced these studies contribute towards formulating therapies for educating high-risk groups like sex workers.

Another interesting contribution of physical anthropological studies to tourism is to improve various facilities especially in transportation.

Let us see how. Somatometry a division of anthropology may be defined as systematised technique to measure living body including hand and faces. Different types of instruments have been designed specially to measure different parts of the human body.

Role of social anthropology in studying tourism:

The anthropology of tourism offers an insight into the socio-cultural dimensions of tourism, such as the behaviors of cultures and societies.

International tourists in the second half of the twentieth century started to visit those locations in which many anthropologists had carried out their fieldwork.

The interaction between tourists and local people provided a new source of anthropological inquiry. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

Therefore, traditionally in tourism studies, anthropology tended to deal with the impacts of tourism on the lifestyles, traditions, and cultures of local people, residents or ‘hosts’.

Over the past few decades, anthropologists have started to shift their focus from largely negative ethnographic.

Role of archaeological anthropology in studying tourism:

Archaeological anthropology attempts to trace the origin, growth and development of the culture it the past. It attempts to reconstruct the forms of the past and to trace their growth and development in time.

These studies play the role of detectives in uncovering the past be it pre or post history. The archaeologists in most cases reconstruct the culture of the past from the material remains alone.

Items like buried utensils, weapons, rubber sheets, stone carvings, figures of baked clay, ruins describe something of ancient culture and to relate it to the environment in which it occurred.

We can say that archeologists make a major contribution to our knowledge of cultural history and development. Through many studies archaeologists have decided that cultural evolution has not been equally rapid in different parts of the world.

These records by archaeologists give us many clues as to the ways in which cultures change.

BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment
BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

B. Describe tangible and intangible heritage with suitable examples.

Ans: Tangible Heritage:

Tangible Heritage is everything that we can touch and we can perceive clearly. This refers to the Cultural Heritage including: buildings, historical places, monuments, handicraft, sculpture, painting, etc. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

In this group are included objects from archeological sites, architectural structures, tools from technology and science from the different ancient cultures.

Tangible Heritage is divided in other two kinds of heritage: movable and immovable.

The tangible movable heritage is composed by archeological, historic, ethnographic, religious and artistic objects, for example, artworks, manuscripts, and documents, recordings, photographs, audiovisual documents, etc.

On the other hand, Immovable Tangible Heritage is composed by monuments, groups of buildings and sites.

They are human works that cannot be moved from one place to another, either because they are structures or because they are inseparable from the land, for example archaeological sites.

Intangible Heritage:

The Intangible Cultural Heritage means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills as well as the instruments, objects, artifacts and cultural spaces associated therewith that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity.

Tangible and intangible heritage examples:

Cultural heritage includes tangible culture (such as buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art,and artifacts), intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language, and knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant landscapes, and biodiversity).

The term is often used in connection with issues relating to the protection of Indigenous intellectual property.

“Intangible cultural heritage” consists of non-physical aspects of a particular culture, more often maintained by social customs during a specific period in history.

The concept includes the ways and means of behavior in a society, and the often formal rules for operating in a particular cultural climate.

These include social values and traditions, customs and practices, aesthetic and spiritual beliefs, artistic expression, language and other aspects of human activity.

The significance of physical artifacts can be interpreted as an act against the backdrop of socioeconomic, political, ethnic, religious, and philosophical values of a particular group of people. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

Naturally, intangible cultural heritage is more difficult to preserve than physical objects.

Aspects of the preservation and conservation of cultural intangibles include:

i.Folklore.

ii. Oral history.

iii. Language preservation.

India is a treasure trove of cultural heritage, be it tangible or intangible. The intangible cultural heritage is the one of whose importance, richness is beyond measurement.

It includes dance, art, music, drama etc. On the other hand, tangible heritage are the monuments, excavated sites, etc.

The Government of India has taken the following steps in order to preserve the intangible and tangible heritage of the country.

For intangible heritage:

Lalit Kala Academy: Founded with an aim to propagate understanding of Indian art, inside as well as outside the country and also offers fellowships for the promotion of these arts.

Center for Cultural Resource and Training: Set up as an autonomous organization, it links culture with education, creating understanding and awareness regarding India’s rich cultural heritage. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

For tangible heritage:

Archaeological survey of India: Archaeological survey of India looks after the archaeological remains and excavations, maintenance of sites, conservation of monuments, conducting various expeditions abroad, giving training in archeology etc.

This was established in 1861 under the Department of Culture.

Assignment -II

A. What is authenticity in tourism? Explain with suitable examples.

Ans: Authenticity in tourism:

According to Theobald authenticity means genuine, unadulterated or the real thing.

In modern times tourism is frequently accused of destroying authenticity ((a notion which is problematic in its own term), through the commoditization of cultures, such as festivals, dance rituals and food which is produced for monetary gain.

MacCannell, in The Tourist, portrayed the tourist as being on a pilgrimage, a search for authenticity. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

To define “authentic,” MacCannell drew upon the distinction made by the sociologist Erving Goffman between the “front” and “back” regions of social establishments.

Authenticity is simultaneously the most talked-about trend in travel, and the thing tourism marketers are most nervous and unsure about defining.

The most common opinion from those I’ve spoken to in the industry seems to be that authentic is what you feel is authentic.

Examples of authenticity in tourism:

Below are examples of authenticity in tourism:

1 China Town: Most big cities have a China town. I love a good Chinese meal, don’t you? To me, no Chinese dinner is complete without some prawn crackers to start, chicken chow main and special fried rice, and a good bottle of wine to wash it down.

2 Bagpipes: There is also a popular misconception that everybody in Scotland can play the bagpipes.Reality check they can’t.

3 Flamenco dancing: A proper flamenco dance is well worth watching. Many tourist resorts with cheap evening entertainment, however, will put on shows are that inexplicably inauthentic. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

B. Discuss preservation and conservation of heritage sites with suitable examples.

Ans: Preservation and conservation of heritage sites:

The preservation and conservation of heritage sites is an important undertaking. It is so important that even the United Nations has set up a subsidiary responsible for this purpose called the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

India has a rich heritage that incorporates a storehouse of archaeological fortunes and mind-blowing monuments.

This cultural history typified in heritage monuments originates from a memorable past of old civilization.

The Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri in Agra, the Konark Sun Temple, Khajuraho Temples, Mahabalipuram Monuments, Thanjavur, Hampi Monuments just as the Ajanta,
Ellora and Elephanta Caves are a portion of the monuments announced as World Heritage Monuments.

Each people group and society have an extremely valuable heritage which must be and can be moved to the people to come and it is the obligation of the common society to move that heritage to the people to come.

As per the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958, on the off chance that somebody decimates, evacuates, harms, changes, damages, endangers or abuses a secured landmark s/he will be culpable with detainment which may reach out to a quarter of a year, or with a fine which may stretch out to 5,000 rupees, or with both.

Preservation and conservation of heritage sites examples:

1 Taj Mahal: At present the Taj Mahal listed as a World Heritage site is a National property of India and is being maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India, a department of Culture. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

The preservation and conservation of the monument is being done by the Archaeological Survey of India.

2 Bhimbetka: Conservation and preservation of heritage sites is of paramount importance for the sake of science as academic work.

In India the Bhimbetka rock shelter in Madhya Pradesh were the homes of the early man. The rock shelters through the art and paintings engraved on the walls of the caves depict the lives of the prehistoric human beings.

C. Write about some of the new directions in the anthropology of tourism.

Ans: New directions in the anthropology of tourism

Tourism has grown enormously in the last half century and has become the world’s largest industry. The dynamic and multidimensional character of this industry and the globalisation experience when taken together demand a new analysis.

It is seen that the effects of tourism are complex and contradictory.

Desirability of tourism as a method to achieve economic development especially in developing countries has raised many queries which resulted in impact assessment studies by anthropologists and social scientists.

The main question asked by anthropologists was, ‘Development for whom?’. The resorts or luxury hotels or golf courses that are built, ‘how would they benefit the indigenous/ local population?’.

Another question that is raised is,’ how do local communities view tourism industry?’.

These discussions brought major shifts and the issues of local participation, ecological sustainability, cultural integrity and environmental education were brought to the forefront.

Alternative Tourism and Future possibilities:

The new terminology like ‘Green Tourism’, ‘Cottage Tourism’, ‘Culture Tourism’, ‘Ecotourism’ ‘Sustainable Tourism’ etc have been used in Journals, tourist brochures and advertisements to appeal to the new informed consumer.

The alternate forms of tourism were encouraged and it was claimed that these alternate forms were an answer to the problems that were created as a result of unsustainable activities that occurred as a result of conventional mass tourism.

Anthropologists are proficient in this role and can make tourist development a community-based project. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

They can create research frameworks, broadly outline, within which the policy makers and development specialists can work.

Based on community’s perspective and evaluation, the role of applied anthropologists is to place the community’s concern on the forefront.

BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment
BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment
                        Assignment - III

A. Guest and the Host

Ans:Guest and the Host: A person who is staying with you in your home, or a person whom you have invited to a social occasion, such as a party or a meal:dinner/wedding guests.

A person who is staying in a hotel is also called a guest

A person who receives or entertains guests at home or elsewhere: the host at a theater party. a master of ceremonies, moderator, or interviewer for a television or radio program

A convivial guest-host relationship is characterized by well-being mutuality and hospitality mutuality. Such a relation can be built when the guest and the host form a tri-party of coalitions, namely, economic, experience and hospitality.

B. Culture and tourism

Ans: Culture and Tourism:

Culture is the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, encompassing language,religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts.

Tourism is a dynamic and competitive industry that requires the ability to adapt constantly to customers’changing needs and desires, as the customer’s satisfaction, safety and enjoyment are particularly the focus of tourism businesses.

Tourism and culture were viewed as largely separate aspects earlier. Cultural resources were seen as part of the cultural heritage of destinations, related to the education of the local population and the underpinning of local or national cultural identities.

Tourism, on the other hand, was largely viewed as a leisure-related activity separate from everyday life and the culture of the local population.

C. Ethnography

Ans:Ethnography:

Ethnography is a type of qualitative research that involves immersing yourself in a particular community or organization to observe their behavior and interactions up close.

The word “ethnography” also refers to the written report of the research that the ethnographer produces afterwards. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

Ethnography is a flexible research method that allows you to gain a deep understanding of a group’s shared culture, conventions, and social dynamics. However, it also involves some practical and ethical challenges.

Ethnographic research originated in the field of anthropology, and it often involved an anthropologist living with an isolated tribal community for an extended period of time in order to understand their culture.

The main advantage of ethnography is that it gives the researcher direct access to the culture and practices of a group. It is a useful approach for learning first-hand about the behavior and interactions of people within a particular context.

D. Commodification of culture in tourism

Ans: Commodification of culture in tourism:

The notion of authenticity is closely linked to the commodification of culture of the host society and has been much in debate in the tourism studies.

Where on one hand it is argued that tourism promotes authentic experiences, it is also pointed out that it commodifies cultural assets into consumable goods that can be marketed as authentic. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

For instance, local cultural items that are visible through costumes, folk and ethnic art and jewellery are often made specifically for tourist consumption and is often distant from the original item that is in actual use.

In this way many of these manufactured items lose their original meaning and are modified to suit the tastes of the tourists.

The product might then lose its authentic value and utility in the indigenous culture and emerge as a mere show piece. For example, the head gear of the Bison Horn Maria are still projected as their identity and something of great cultural value.

E. Sustainable development and tourism

Ans: Sustainable development and tourism:

The concept of sustainability has become a fundamental issue in tourism development and growth after the debate at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992.

Seeing the rapid changes in tourism and the world trends, we are now examining geopolitical, socio-economic, technological and environmental impacts of contemporary tourism.

It was realised that tourism requires an agenda of its own, and not as a part of the overall post structural adjustment process. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

This was reflected in the 7th Meeting of the Commission on Sustainable Development in 1999, which was devoted to tourism impacts around the world.

This was due, to a large extent, to the efforts of NGOs working in different parts of the world coming together to speak in one voice on what their experience had been through grassroots interaction, in the course of the phenomenal growth of tourism in the last two decades.

It, therefore, became a part of the evaluation of the implementation of the Agenda 21 set at Rio.

F. Heritage sites and tourism

Ans:Heritage sites and tourism:

Tourism is often perceived as a threat to conservation of World Heritage. In fact, tourism is a platform and a vehicle for presenting heritage to the public, conserving it and guaranteeing its economic and social viability.

Hence, tourism is in most cases a balancing mechanism that keeps and protects the heritage
itself.

The main premise of the TOURISM theme within the Our World Heritage initiative is that defining the key principles of Heritage-Tourism reciprocal relations is imperative.

Both tourism and heritage sites are exposed nowadays to critical exogenic and endogenic changes. BANS 183 Free Solved Assignment

Among these challenges are the ramifications of COVID-19, and the consequent global economic and social crises.

Hence, we argue that it is imperative to conceptually and practically pave a way for a major review of these interrelationships.

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