IGNOU BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22- helpfirst

BANC 132

FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

Q 1 Discuss aims and scope of physical/biological anthropology.

Ans. Aims of physical/biological anthropology:– The broad based understanding of human organism is the strength of physical anthropology. Not only this, physical anthropology integrates bio-cultural studies of human diversity, the ancestors of human species, comparative anatomy, ecology, behaviour and history of primates.

Physical anthropologists are interested in studying human genetics, growth and development and evolutionary history.

They attempt to accurately describe human physical structure both past and present and also investigate how function and behaviour are integrated into the environment in which human beings live.

Human biology has many times been erroneously used as a synonym for physical anthropology although,there is clear cut area for both the fields.

Human biology comprises structure and function of contemporary man, whereas physical anthropology refers to all that is chronological, racial, social and even pathological groupings of human.

They are very close knit, yet they maintain individual identity in working methods, techniques and objectives. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

Scope of physical/biological anthropology: With so much information getting unveiled, do you think physical anthropology is merely an academic subject? On the contrary, the recent years reflect an ever increasing recognition of what anthropology has discovered and can discover about humans.

The essence of physical anthropology right from its inception remains focused on man’s physical characters, their origin, how they evolved and their development to present state that is, whatever we are today is the result of past and present conditions.

Physical anthropology is widely accepted as the comparative science of man as a physical organism in context to his total surrounding be it social or cultural or physical; because development of his physical and cultural factors is reliant on the environment prevailing at that time. What makes physical anthropology so indispensable?

The answer lies in the very fact that the understanding and assessment of the degree of human variability along with the accounting of factors responsible for our current distribution have been of vital concern.

Major answer lies in the fields of genetics and anthropometry which has been used in approximating the causes of diversification and human variation.

Human variation is a specialised branch of physical anthropology. The stages of evolution particularly the’prehuman’ history of man to his present form is the basis of Primatology.

It also includes the study of human biology including anatomy, physiology and ethology. Undeniable is the contribution of Primate Palaeontology on extinct primates.

This entire phenomenon tracing the origin of man and his evolution comes under Palaeoanthropology. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

Appropriate evaluation of the remains of fossil men in evolutionary outlook requires the contribution of comparative anatomy as well as embryology or developmental anatomy and physiology of growth.

Human diversity, another important component of physical anthropology takes into account human taxonomy, which in anthropological perspective refers to study of races.

It was decided to replace the term ‘race’ with ‘ethnic group’ due to the misuse of the term, but then again the term is being revived.

The inclusion of human genetics as an essential component of physical anthropology has witnessed tremendous growth even occupying place in health magazine about a disease cell or gene therapy to treat diseases.

Whatever it may be, there would undoubtedly be some information related to the field of genetics.

Patterns of inheritance of trait in humans have generated tremendous interest. The assessment of the distribution and the gene frequency of the traits form an important basis for evaluating the continuous process of human differentiation.

Q 2 Describe bipedalism in brief.

Ans:Bipedalism: – Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.

Many primate and bear species will adopt a bipedal gait in order to reach food or explore their environment, though there are a few cases where they walk on their hind limbs only.

Bipedalism is one of the most common traits used when identifying what distinguishes what a human is. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment
BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

However, humans are not the only species that exhibit this trait. There are numerous species besides humans that exhibit bipedalism that are currently living or that have become extinct.

Bipedalism has been an important trait for humans and their past ancestors since bipedalism is a very primitive trait that has evolved quite some time ago..

Few modern species are habitual bipeds whose normal method of locomotion is two-legged. Within mammals, habitual bipedalism has evolved multiple times, with the macropods, kangaroo rats and mice, springhare, hopping mice, pangolins and hominin apes (australopithecines and humans) as well as various other extinct groups evolving the trait independently.

In the Triassic period some groups of archosaurs developed bipedalism, among the dinosaurs, all the early forms and many later groups were habitual or exclusive bipeds, the birds are members of a clade of exclusively bipedal dinosaurs, the theropods.

A larger number of modern species intermittently or briefly use a bipedal gait. Several lizard species move bipedally when running, usually to escape from threats.

Many primate and bear species will adopt a bipedal gait in order to reach food or explore their environment, though there are a few cases where they walk on their hind limbs only.

Several arboreal primate species, such as gibbons and indriids, exclusively walk on two legs during the brief periods they spend on the ground.

Many animals rear up on their hind legs while fighting or copulating. Some animals commonly stand on their hind legs to reach food, keep watch, threaten a competitor or predator, or pose in courtship, but do not move bipedally.

Ultimately, the most indicative traits that can be used to determine bipedalism is by studying the actual parts of the body that are involved in walking upright.

In bipedal humans and hominins the iliac blade has been shortened and is bent. The bent iliac produces a bowl shaped. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

With the evolution of bipedalism the arms are freed up to do other things since they are not needed for walking anymore.

One of these things is the creation and use of tools. Tools can be used for a variety of different things like gathering food or cutting objects etc.

Charles Darwin proposed a positive feedback loop where bipedalism leads to the creation of tools which leads to a more reliance on bipedalism. This hypothesis is okay but it has some problems.

Chimpanzees can use tools, but they are not bipeds. Also, bipedalism can be dated as 1.7 million years older than the oldest stone tools.

However, the fact that bipedalism and tool use are somehow connected cannot be ignored so this hypothesis has some validity to it. Another hypothesis is the connection between bipedalism and energy efficiency.

Humans, birds and apes walk bipedally. Humans, birds, many lizards and cockroaches run bipedally.

Kangaroos, some rodents and many birds hop bipedally, and jerboas and crows use a skipping gait. This paper deals only with walking and running bipeds.

Major morphological features diagnostic of bipedalism include the presence of a bicondylar angle, or valgus knee; a more inferiorly placed foramen magnum; the presence of a reduced or nonopposable big toe; a higher arch on the foot; a more posterior orientation of the anterior portion of the iliac. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment-II

Q 3 Characteristics of living primates.

Ans:Characteristics of living primates:
The following are the main characteristics of the living primates:

1.The anatomy of Primates enables them to maintain semi-erect and erect postures and locomotors patterns.

2. They have pentadactyl hands and feet.

3. They have flattened nails on each of their digits excepting tree shrews.

4.They possess a relatively low density of body hairs.

5. They have fewer tactile hairs.

6. The olfactory area of their brain is reduced. They thus have an increased dominance of vision over smell, and reduction in the length of the snout.

7. The visual area of their brain is expanded.

8. Their eye sockets are completely encircled by a bony ridge. Their eyes are more forwardly directed on the skull (for binocular vision) suggesting development of a stereoscopic vision.

9. They show an increased reliance on stereoscopic vision at the expense of smell (the dominant sensory system in majority of the mammals).

10. Some primates have developed a three color vision

11. They possess relatively larger and complex brains.

12. Most female primates have a simple unicornuate uterus.

13. They are placental mammals with longer gestation period and generally give birth to only one or two infants at a time. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

14. They have prolonged growth and maturation periods and long life spans.

15. They display a reduction in the number of teeth, i.e. they have an incisor and premolar less in each half of the upper and lower jaws unlike those in the primitive placental mammals.

Q 4 Discuss Methods to study human variations.

Ans:Methods to study human variations:

In recent years, new techniques have been developed. With these techniques, it has been possible to understand a lot about the mode of inheritance of a number of characters in human beings.

Pedigree records: Pedigree records are well-recorded and well maintained so it has become easier to trace the transmission of particular character through generation.

Population genetics: Population genetics has been used extensively in the study of human genetics.

So the methods by which fate of characters in population can be analysed, has overcome the limitation of small number of progeny in human.

Biochemical genetics: Biochemical genetics, cell culture technique and somatic cell genetic techniques have helped to understand the chemical bases of inheritance of large number of characters. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

Cell fusion technology: Cell fusion technology helps to produce a variety of combinations of human genetic material in the progeny clones.

By studying these clones, geneticists have been able to take a fresh approach to human genetics. With this technology it is possible to isolate the hybrids formed between the cells derived from mouse and man.

By comparing the phenotypes of identical and fraternal twins: By comparing the phenotypes of identical and fraternal twins, the hereditary basis of a number of characters has been established.

Heritable and environmentally induced traits can be by comparing comparative study of identical and fraternal twins.

In human cytology: In human cytology, new techniques of staining techniques have been developed.

With such advanced techniques correct human diploid chromosome number i.e., 46 has been found to be correct.

In absence of breeding experiments, information about human inheritance has been largely derived by studying the pedigree of naturally occurring traits. Such traits may be inconsequential or of importance to human health and well being.

BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment
BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

Q 5 Discuss the scope of human growth.

Ans: Scope of human growth: Three major goals of the developmental sciences are to describe, to explain, and to optimize development.

In pursuing the goal of description, human developmentalists carefully observe the behaviour of people of different ages, seeking to specify how people change over time.

Although there are typical pathways of development that virtually all people follow, no two persons are exactly alike Yet, this heavier focus on applied issues in no way implies that traditional descriptive and explanatory goals are any less important, because optimization goals often cannot be achieved until researchers have adequately described and explained normal and idiopathic pathways of development.

Pursue, let’s consider some of the conclusions they have drawn about the character of development. Thus, to adequately describe development, it is necessary to focus both on typical patterns of change. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

So, developmentalism seek to understand the important that developing humans resemble each other and how they are likely to differ as they proceed through life.

Adequate description provides us with the “facts about development, but it is only the starting point.

Physical growth and development: Physical growth means strengthening of body and muscles with better proficiency and coordination of motor organs.

If a person is able to do anything with accuracy in lesser time that means he/she is physically fit physical development also include increase in height and weight and various body proportions i.e. head, neck, trunk tec.

Social growth and Development: Social development means improvement and refinement of behavior of an individual in social situations.

Human baby is the only organism in the world which takes maximum and longer time to be socially and economically self-dependent.

This dependence of the child on others helps him to learn how to interact with others in diverse conditions. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment -III

Q 6 Relationship of biological anthropology and earth sciences.

Ans: Relationship of biological anthropology and earth sciences: Anthropology and Earth Sciences have intimate relationship. The earth sciences include geology and human geography.

Archaeology is closely linked to geology in analyzing the archaeological sites and in dating the past and finding out the chronological sequence.

Anthropology, cutting across the barriers of time and space, naturally takes interest in men past especially prehistoric past.

Thus archaeologists may be seen serving as the ‘historians’ among anthropologists involved in the cultural reconstruction of man’s past.

Till sometimes back the term prehistory or prehistoric archaeology has been popular.

Unlike a socio-cultural anthropologist, an archaeological anthropologist cannot observe human behavior and culture directly but reconstructs them from material remains like pottery, tools, cave/rock paintings, ruins of shelter,ornaments and so many other material remains that survive the wear and tear of climatic factors.

Q 7 Human genetics.

Ans:Human genetics: Human genetics is the study of the inheritance of characteristics by children from parents. Inheritance in humans does not differ in any fundamental way from that in other organisms. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

The study of human heredity occupies a central position in genetics. Much of this interest stems from a basic desire to know who humans are and why they are as they are.

At a more practical level, an understanding of human heredity is of critical importance in the prediction, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases that have a genetic component.

The quest to determine the genetic basis of human health has given rise to the field of medical genetics.

In general, medicine has given focus and purpose to human genetics, so the terms medical genetics and human genetics are often considered synonymous.

Q 8 Criticism of Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution.

Ans: Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution: Lamarck’s theory was subject to severe criticism. Two scientists Cuvier and Weismann were great critics of Lamarck.

Some objections raised against Lamarckism are as follows:

1.Though the tendency to increase in size has been shown in many forms, there are also instances where there is reduction in size. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

For example, trees that are primitive, are large in size, while the shrubs, herbs and grasses that evolved later are smaller in size.

2. If new organs were to develop in response to a new need, then man should have developed wings by now.

3. Changes acquired during the lifetime of an organism cannot be inherited by the offspring. For example, if a man loses his arm in war, he does not produce children without an arm.

4. Mendel’s law of inheritance also disproved Lamarck’s theory.

Q 9 Discuss in brief morphological criteria of classification of ” Races”.

Ans: Morphological criteria of classification of Races: Humans are often defined by easily observable physical traits like skin and hair colour, hair form, characteristic features of nose, eyes, lips and face.

In the beginning, only this criterion was used for the purpose of human taxonomy. The morphological traits have polygenic inheritance, where genotype-phenotype relationships are not clearly known. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

These characters are adaptive in nature, and that is a fundamental criticism used against these traits to measure genetic distance between human populations.

Oliver and Howells emphasised the use of metric traits and morphological averages as an exploratory device in human taxonomy.

The morphological traits fall into two major categories:

1) Somatoscopic traits, which do not easily lend themselves to exact measurement and based on visual observation alone.

2) Anthropometric traits, which can be exactly measured based on standardized methods, like stature, head length, head breadth and other body measurements.

Q 10 Adaptation to high altitude.

Ans: Adaptation to high altitude:-An elevation of 2400-2500 meters above mean sea level is referred to as high altitude. At high altitudes,humans encounter many significant environmental stresses like lower amount of oxygen level in the air, decrease in barometric pressure, cold and dry winds, limited availability of nutrients and rough topography.

Hypoxia, the reduced availability of oxygen at high altitude is one of the most important physiological challenges of high altitude. BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

Hypoxia is a severe environmental stress for human populations living at high altitude, one which is not readily modified by technological or behavioral responses.

Hypoxic condition gets worse as the barometric pressure falls at high altitude. Partially to compensate for this, humans need to breathe more often and more deeply at altitude.

But despite this, as the altitude increases, the concentration, or partial pressure, of oxygen in the blood falls to values that are not compatible with sustained human life at altitudes much above about 7,000 meters.

Q 11 How anatomy is related to movement?

Ans: From field studies we can learn the movements of each species and the ecological context in which they are used.

Understanding how anatomy is related to movements is complicated by the fact that most primates can move in many ways, most leap at some times and run quadrupedally at others and many occasionally suspend themselves from branches.

Anatomy hence reflects a series of compromises and an ability to do many things. Nevertheless differences in the frequencies with which primate species use different types of locomotion are reflected in muscles and bones.BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment

For example, two closely related species of larger Presbytis from Malaysia show differences in muscular and skeletal anatomy that are associated with the fact that one leaps about 20 per cent more frequently than the other.

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