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BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment July 2022 & Jan 2023

BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

Assignment – I

a. Discuss the historical background of the development of Social and Cultural anthropology

Ans. Social and cultural anthropology is a field that has evolved over time, with its roots dating back to the 19th century.

The origins of the discipline can be traced back to the work of European scholars and explorers who were interested in understanding the cultures and societies of colonized peoples.

One of the earliest anthropologists was the Frenchman Paul Broca, who in the late 19th century established the Society of Anthropology in Paris.

He aimed to study human society and culture through scientific methods and was one of the first anthropologists to argue that the discipline should be based on the study of human biology and evolution. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

Another important figure in the early development of anthropology was the British anthropologist Edward Tylor.

He is considered to be the father of cultural anthropology and developed the concept of “culture” as the defining characteristic of human societies.

Tylor argued that culture is a system of shared beliefs, values, and practices that shapes human behavior.

In the early 20th century, the German-American anthropologist Franz Boas established the first anthropology department in the United States at Columbia University. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

He is considered the “father of American anthropology” and was a strong advocate for the study of culture in its own right, rather than as a means to understanding race and evolution.

Boas also emphasized the importance of fieldwork and the study of living cultures, which became a defining feature of anthropological research.

The Boasian tradition, which emphasizes the importance of culture and cultural relativism, has had a significant influence on the development of social and cultural anthropology. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

This tradition is reflected in the work of many anthropologists in the mid-20th century, such as Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, and Clifford Geertz, who focused on the study of symbolic systems, language, and meaning in culture.

In the post-World War II period, social and cultural anthropology began to focus on issues of political economy, power, and inequality, leading to the development of subfields such as political anthropology and the anthropology of development.

The field also began to engage more deeply with issues of race, class, and gender, and the work of anthropologists such as Clifford Geertz, Mary Douglas, and Clifford Geertz helped to establish the subfields of symbolic anthropology and interpretive anthropology.

In recent years, social and cultural anthropology has continued to evolve and expand, with new subfields such as medical anthropology and the anthropology of globalization.

The field has also become increasingly interdisciplinary, engaging with fields such as sociology, history, and psychology. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment
BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

b. Describe fieldwork tradition in anthropology.

Ans. Fieldwork is a central aspect of anthropological research, and it has a long tradition within the discipline.

Fieldwork refers to the process of conducting research by living in and studying a community, culture, or society over an extended period of time.

It is an ethnographic method that allows anthropologists to study cultures and societies in their natural settings and to gain an understanding of the perspectives and experiences of the people they are studying.

The tradition of fieldwork in anthropology can be traced back to the early 20th century, with the work of Franz Boas and his students.

Boas and his students conducted extensive fieldwork among Indigenous peoples in North America and established the importance of studying living cultures and the need for anthropologists to immerse themselves in the communities they were studying. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

One of the key principles of fieldwork is the need for anthropologists to learn the local language and to understand the cultural context of the society they are studying.

This allows anthropologists to gain a deep understanding of the culture and society they are studying, and to develop relationships with the people they are studying.

Fieldwork also typically involves the collection of various types of data, including participant observation, in-depth interviews, and the collection of artifacts.

Participant observation is a method in which anthropologists observe and participate in the daily activities of the society they are studying.

In-depth interviews are a method of gathering qualitative data by conducting detailed and extended conversations with individuals in the society.

And the collection of artifacts is a method of gathering data through the examination of material culture. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

Fieldwork is a unique and challenging method of research and it requires a great deal of time, patience, and flexibility.

It also requires anthropologists to be open-minded, ethical and respectful of the cultures and communities they are studying.

Fieldwork is an important aspect of anthropology because it allows anthropologists to gain a deep understanding of the perspectives and experiences of the people they are studying.

This understanding is essential for anthropologists to produce accurate and reliable knowledge about the societies and cultures they study.

Fieldwork has also played a significant role in shaping the discipline of anthropology, and it continues to be an important method of research in anthropology today. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

Assignment – II

a. Discuss the Symbolic and Interpretive approach.

Ans. The Symbolic and Interpretive approach is a theoretical perspective within anthropology that emphasizes the importance of symbols, meanings, and cultural systems in shaping human behavior and society.

This approach is closely associated with the work of anthropologists such as Clifford Geertz and Mary Douglas, who argue that culture is a system of shared meanings and symbols that shape human behavior and social interactions.

The Symbolic and Interpretive approach is based on the idea that culture is a system of signs and symbols that people use to make sense of the world around them. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

This perspective emphasizes the importance of understanding the symbolic meanings that underlie cultural practices and beliefs.

For example, an anthropologist using this approach would study the symbolic meanings of rituals and ceremonies in a particular culture to understand the underlying beliefs and values of the society.

The Interpretive approach is closely related to the Symbolic approach, and it emphasizes the importance of understanding the meanings and intentions behind cultural practices and beliefs.

This perspective argues that people’s understanding of their own culture is important to understanding the culture itself.

This approach encourages anthropologists to engage in an interpretive analysis of the data they collect, focusing on the meanings and intentions behind cultural practices, rather than just describing them.

The Symbolic and Interpretive approach has been influential in shaping the discipline of anthropology, and it continues to be an important perspective in the study of culture. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

This approach allows anthropologists to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying beliefs and values that shape human behavior and society, and it also provides a framework for understanding the ways in which culture shapes and is shaped by individual and collective actions.

In summary, the Symbolic and Interpretive approach is a theoretical perspective in anthropology that emphasizes the importance of symbols, meanings, and cultural systems in shaping human behavior and society.

This approach allows anthropologists to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying beliefs and values that shape human behavior and society, and it also provides a framework for understanding the ways in which culture shapes and is shaped by individual and collective actions.

b. Write a note on kinship, family and marriage.

Ans. Kinship, family, and marriage are central concepts in anthropology, and they refer to the ways in which people relate to one another in terms of blood, marriage, and social ties. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

Kinship refers to the relationships between individuals based on blood, marriage, or adoption.

Anthropologists study kinship to understand the social, economic, and cultural factors that shape family relationships and the roles and obligations of family members.

Kinship systems vary widely across cultures and can include matrilineal and patrilineal systems, as well as more complex systems such as cognatic descent.

Family refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who share a common residence.

The concept of family is central to many cultures and societies, and it is often considered to be the basic unit of social organization.

Anthropologists study the family to understand the ways in which it shapes and is shaped by the larger society and culture.

Marriage is a social institution that creates and recognizes relationships between individuals. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

It is a cultural universal, meaning that it is found in all cultures, but the way in which it is practiced and the meaning it holds varies from culture to culture.

Anthropologists study marriage to understand the social, economic, and cultural factors that shape the institution and the roles and obligations of married individuals.

In summary, Kinship, family and marriage are central concepts in anthropology, and they refer to the ways in which people relate to one another in terms of blood, marriage, and social ties.

Anthropologists study these concepts to understand the social, economic, and cultural factors that shape family relationships, the roles and obligations of family members and the institution of marriage.

BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment
BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

Answer the following questions in about 75 words each.

a. Religious institution

Ans. A religious institution is an organization or establishment that is devoted to the worship or service of a particular religion or deity.

It can include churches, temples, mosques, synagogues, and other places of worship, as well as religious schools, monasteries, and other religious organizations. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

Religious institutions often play a central role in the lives of individuals and communities, providing a sense of community, spiritual guidance, and moral instruction.

b. Evolutionism

Ans. Evolutionism is a theoretical perspective in anthropology that emphasizes the role of biological and cultural evolution in shaping human behavior and societies.

It holds that human societies have evolved over time, from simple to complex forms, and that this process is driven by biological and cultural factors.

Evolutionism was a dominant perspective in anthropology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but it has since been largely discredited and replaced by other theoretical perspectives such as cultural ecology, structuralism and post-modernism. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

c. Structural- functionalism

Ans. Structural-functionalism is a theoretical perspective in anthropology that emphasizes the role of social structures and institutions in shaping human behavior and societies.

It holds that societies are made up of interdependent parts, each of which serves a specific function and contributes to the overall stability and functioning of the society.

Structural-functionalism was a dominant perspective in anthropology in the mid-20th century, but it has since been largely discredited and replaced by other theoretical perspectives such as cultural ecology, post-modernism and structural Marxism. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

d. Rapport Building

Ans. Rapport building is the process of establishing a positive and trusting relationship between a researcher and the individuals or communities being studied.

This is an important aspect of anthropological research, especially in ethnographic fieldwork.

It involves getting to know the people being studied, gaining their trust and understanding their culture and context.

This can help to ensure that the data collected is accurate and ethical, and it also helps to protect the researcher from any potential harm.

e. Tribes and Bands

Ans. Tribes and bands are terms used in anthropology to describe small-scale societies and communities. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

A tribe is generally considered to be a larger and more complex society, characterized by a more centralized political organization, a specialized division of labor, and a greater level of social stratification.

A band, on the other hand, is considered to be a smaller and more egalitarian society, characterized by a more informal political organization and a more equal distribution of resources.

Both tribes and bands are based on kinship ties and communal living, and they are often considered to be examples of traditional or pre-state societies.

Assignment – III

a. Select either Slums in India or Ethnography of a Village as a topic. Write the steps for preparing a synopsis emphasizing on the significance of your study, unit of study, methods, tools and techniques.

Ans. I have selected the topic of “Slums in India” as the focus for this synopsis.

Significance of the study: Slums in India are a significant issue, as they are home to a large proportion of the country’s urban population.

The conditions in these areas are often overcrowded, unsanitary, and lacking in basic services such as clean water and sanitation.

This study aims to understand the social, economic, and cultural factors that shape life in Indian slums, and the ways in which residents navigate and cope with these conditions. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

Unit of study: The unit of study for this research will be a specific slum community in an urban area in India.

The specific location will be chosen based on the availability of resources and the willingness of the community to participate in the study.

Methods: The research will be conducted using a combination of qualitative methods, including ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews.

The fieldwork will involve living in the community for an extended period of time, participating in daily activities, and observing social interactions.

In-depth interviews will be conducted with residents of the community to gather information about their experiences, beliefs, and perspectives.

Tools and techniques: Data will be collected using a variety of tools and techniques, including participant observation, in-depth interviews, and the collection of artifacts. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

The data will be analyzed using qualitative methods, such as content analysis, discourse analysis and ethnography.

Conclusion: This study aims to provide a detailed understanding of the social, economic, and cultural factors that shape life in Indian slums, and the ways in which residents navigate and cope with these conditions.

It will also provide insight into the ways in which policies and interventions can be developed to improve the living conditions in these communities.

b. Write a short essay in 500 words on your experience of spending time with your family during the lockdown owing to the pandemic COVID 19.

Ans. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented changes to the way we live and interact with one another.

One of the most significant changes for many people has been the experience of spending extended periods of time with their family, as lockdowns and quarantine measures have forced us to stay at home.

For me, the experience of spending time with my family during the lockdown was both challenging and rewarding. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

On one hand, the sudden disruption to our normal routine and the stress of the pandemic created tension and disagreements within our household.

On the other hand, being forced to slow down and spend more time together also allowed for deeper connections and a greater appreciation for one another.

One of the biggest challenges of spending time with my family during the lockdown was the lack of privacy and personal space.

With all of us at home all the time, it was easy for tensions to rise as we navigated the new reality of living and working together in close quarters. We had to find ways to coexist and be patient with each other.

Despite the challenges, spending time with my family during the lockdown also allowed for some valuable bonding experiences.

We spent more time cooking and eating meals together, playing games, and watching movies. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

It gave us an opportunity to understand and appreciate each other’s perspective and interests.

Additionally, the lockdown gave me an opportunity to reconnect with my family members whom I don’t get to see often due to our busy schedules.

We were able to have long conversations and catch up on what was going on in each other’s lives. It was a reminder of how important family is and how easily we can take it for granted.

The lockdown also forced me to rethink my priorities and to appreciate the simple things in life.

I realized that material possessions and social status are not as important as the love and support of my family.

It made me realize that sometimes it takes a crisis to appreciate what truly matters in life. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

In conclusion, my experience of spending time with my family during the lockdown was a mix of both challenges and rewards.

It was not always easy, but it allowed for deeper connections and a greater appreciation for one another.

It reminded me of the importance of family and the simple things in life. I hope that this experience will stay with me long after the pandemic is over and will continue to shape my perspective on what is truly important in life.

C. Correct the reference style and arrange them alphabetically

i. Illinois: Waveland Press. 1972. Kaplan, David and Robert A Manners. Culture Theory.

Ans. Kaplan, David and Robert A Manners. 1972. Culture Theory. Illinois: Waveland Press. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

ii. Oxford: The Clarendon Press Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1940. The Nuer.

Ans. Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1940. The Nuer. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.

iii. Fortes. Meyer, 1969. Kinship and the Social Order. Aldine Publishers. Chicago:

Ans. Fortes, Meyer. 1969. Kinship and the Social Order. Chicago: Aldine Publishers.

iv. 1985. Good to Eat: Riddles of Food and Culture. Waveland Press: Illinois. Harris, Marvin.

Ans. Harris, Marvin. 1985. Good to Eat: Riddles of Food and Culture. Illinois: Waveland Press. BANC 102 Solved Free Assignment

v. Cultural anthropology (7 th ed.)Mead, M. 1964 . Anthropology: A human science. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc. Miller, B.D. 2012 . Pearson.

Ans. Mead, M. 1964. Anthropology: A human science. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc. Miller, B.D. 2012. Cultural anthropology (7th ed.). Pearson.

BANC 101 Solved Free Assignment 2022-23

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