ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q1. a) Define malnutrition. Enumerate different dimensions of malnutrition.
Ans. Malnutrition is an impairment of health resulting from a deficiency, excess or imbalance of nutrients.
Analyzing the Indian Demographic Health Survey Data (IDHS) there are four dimensions of malnutrition namely, Height Age Z-score (HAZ), Weight Age Z-score (WAZ), Weight Height Z-score (WHZ) and Body Mass Index (BMI).
b) “Dietary fiber plays an important role in our body”. Comment on this statement.
Ans. Dietary fiber plays an important role in our body’s ability to suckle all the healthful benefits from the vegetables we eat. If we want to get the most out of all the greens we consume, it’s best to eat them ‘whole’, not juiced or in supplement form.
Greens are loaded with calcium, iron, phosphates, magnesium, potassium and vitamins like A, C, and E and there’s no better time to eat them than over the next six months, when greens are literally erupting from our local farms beginning in the south.
Q2. Give reasons for the following:
a) Vitamin C helps in rapid wound healing
Ans. Vitamin C plays an important role in the formation of a special kind of protein called collagen. The formation of collagen at the site of wound or injury aids in its healing.
This protein is found in the connective tissue which holds together. different other tissues much like cement holds bricks together. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
For example, collagen present in blood vessels makes them firm. Deficiency of vitamin C in the diet may result in fragile blood vessels which can easily rupture.
b) Milk can help in meeting niacin needs
Ans. There’s a nutrient powerhouse in a variety of flavors that today’s kids love. That beverage is milk, delivering 9 essential nutrients, including some that are lacking in children’s diets today.
Low fat milk is an excellent source of calcium, vitamin D,riboflavin and phosphorus, and a good source of protein, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin B-12 and niacin.
c) Absorption of iron from plant food sources in low than animal food sources
Ans. Plant based food may contain less iron than animal food, but eating smaller amount throughout the day is a great way to increase absorption.
Probably the best known nutrition fact about iron is that meats—particularly red meats—are rich in iron. It is also true that a number of plant foods are also rich in iron.
It may come as a surprise that researchers have found that people eating plant-based diets eat as much or more iron as people who regularly rely on animal foods.
And, we’ll see that list of excellent iron sources is largely dominated by plant foods.
d) Iodine content of food is influenced by the iodine content of soil/water.
Ans. Much of the iodine in today’s diet comes from nonsalt sources in processed foods, such as iodine-containing food additives, processing aids, and foods grown in iodine-rich soil.
The iodine content of foods can vary tremendously.
The iodine content of water, soil, salt and cereals have been analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), titrimetry, Fusion and ion-selective electrode methods at Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Geosciences Laboratory Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Q3. Briefly explain how the nutrient needs of adults are influenced by the following factors.
a) Activity level
Ans. Young children are often the most at risk of being malnourished. They have very high energy and nutrient needs for their body size in comparison to adults.
Proper care and feeding is essential for their normal growth, development and activity.
Children need to maintain their diet of energy-rich and body-building foods throughout their growing years until they reach adulthood.ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
They should be encouraged to exercise and stay active so that the high energy intake does not result in obesity.
Children recovering from fevers and sickness should also be given plenty of energy and nutrient-rich foods to eat.
Eating habits are established early on, so it’s important to teach children at an early age how to get the best from food.
People with High/Low Activity Levels :
Food is the body’s fuel. It therefore follows that the more active people are the more fuel they need, whereas less active people will need less fuel. For most people their work- related activities determine energy expenditure.
Those who eat more food energy than they use will put on weight. Those who eat less than they use up in energy will lose weight.
When dietary energy intake balances with energy requirements, body weight remains fairly constant.
b) Body size/composition
Ans. Nutrient needs of men and women vary (sex difference). The energy and protein requirement of the woman is lower than that of a man of corresponding age and activity level.
Well, the basic difference lies in the body size/composition. In the case of the man, the body has more of active tissues such as the muscles.
The woman, on the other hand, has more of the relatively inactive fatty tissue. The muscle tissue requires more energy for its activity.
As a result, the basal metabolism of the man is higher than that of the woman and hence the energy requirement of the man increases. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
The RDIs for proteins, on the other hand, are linked to body weight. An adult requires 1 g protein per kg body weight.
Men (60 kg) weigh more than women (50 kg) of the corresponding age and hence have higher protein needs.
The iron requirement for women is much more than that of men. This is so because extra iron is required to compensate for iron losses through menstruation in the woman in the reproductive age group.
The requirement for all other nutrients is the same for both the man and the woman.
The age of the adult influences the requirement for some of the nutrients. With ageing there is a decrease in the body functioning and performance.
Hence, body metabolism is lowered. This factor, together with the reduced physical activity creates less demand for energy.
Ans. The science of nutrition is dedicated to learning about foods that the human body requires at different stages of life in order to meet the nutritional needs for proper growth, as well as to maintain health and prevent disease.
A baby is born with a very high requirement for energy and nutrient intake per unit of body weight to provide for rapid growth. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
The rate of growth is the highest during the first year and declines slowly after the age of two, with a corresponding decrease in nutrient and energy requirements.
During puberty, however, nutritional requirements increase sharply until this period of fast growth is completed.
Adulthood begins at about the age of fourteen or fifteen for girls, and eighteen or nineteen for boys.
An adult individual needs to balance energy intake with his or her level of physical activity to avoid storing excess body fat.
As teenagers reach adulthood, the basal energy needs for maintaining the body’s physiological functions (basal metabolic rate or BMR) stabilize, and so energy requirements also stabilize.
Q4. Explain how nutritional status of the mother influence birth weight of the infant?
Ans. Explanation: “Nutritional status of the mother influence birth weight of the infant” It has been studied that maternal malnutrition also affects the health and wellbeing of the foetus, the infant and the young child.
It often results in death of the child. Even if the child survives; it can condemn the child to a lifetime of poor health.ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Children born with weight less than ‘2.5 kg are considered underweight and are known as low birth weight babies The reasons that how Nutritional status of the mother influence birth weight of the infant are entitled as under:
A. Woman belonging to a low income group living in villages or urban slums, having an average, weighs height.
As a result of short stature the woman can have a difficult delivery and may even die during such difficult labour. It is also a fact that women with low body weights deliver babies who are underweight.
B. The prevalence of anemia is very high in pregnant women due to lack of specific nutrients such as iron and folic acid in the diet of the mother can also cause severe anemia leads to premature births (birth before 37 weeks of pregnancy) and low birth weights.
C. Poorly nourished women are more susceptible to urinary infection; they also suffer from diarrhea, malaria and hepatitis. Infection can slow down foetal growth and may lead to still birth or low birth weight.
D. In remote rural areas women have to participate in agricultural labour in addition to household activities and walk long distances to collect water or gather fuel wood.
The energy needs of such women are, therefore, higher. Since these women subsist on inadequate diets the weight gainduring pregnancy is low and they have smaller children?
Q5. List the dietary considerations that should be kept in mind while planning meals for each of the following:
a) Lactating mother
Ans. List any four of the following:
• Small frequent meals should be provided.
• Energy/protein-rich snacks should be included in-between meals.
• Extra fluids should be given so to help maintain adequate milk secretion. Fluids
like juices coconut-water milk etc. should be given
• Include more of cereals, pulses, milk, citrus fruits, green leafy vegetable, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables in the meals. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
• Increase the meal frequency to-5-6 meals a day
b) Adolescent girl
Ans.i) Adolescents sometimes adopt extreme or bizarre (strange) diet patterns in order to reduce weight in the case of girls or build muscles, in the case of boys.
takes a light-hearted look at the tendency of adolescent girls to try different diets” ia search of the ideal cure for overweight.
ii) Too much emphasis should not be placed on fat-or carbohydrate-rich items, particularly refined carbohydrate or sugar-rich items.
Consumption of too much ready-to-eat snacks and processed foods also needs to be avoided. Foods such as mik, dark green leafy vegetables, deep yellow vegetables and fruits and whole cereals should be emphasized.
Eating such foods helps to add valuable minerals and vitamins to the diet. Vitamin A and vitamin C-rich foods are frequently neglected and must be included in addition to iron and calcium-rich foods.
iii) Even in the palier of food, group accepiunde in wery important for the adolescent, They quickly adopt food patterns prcvalent among their friends.
They freqüchtly Cónsume snacks which are junk foods such as potato chips and fast foods such as noodles, pizzas, bamburgers, fish and chips.
You are alrcidy fumiliar with the term ‘junk food’. Let us also talk of the fast foods, Fast foods are generally not elaborate and can be prepared by relatively simple cooking mechóds.
They are commonly served at snack bars/pizza parlours in cities. The fast foods available commercially tend to be rich in energy and may not provide enough protein, vitamins, minerals and libre. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
However, these foods can disily be modified to improve their mutrient content.
Q6. What are the objectives and components of:
a) Mid-day meal programme
Ans. MDM Objective To boost Universalization of Primary education (class I-V) by improving enrolment, attendance, retention and learning levels of children especially those belonging to disadvantaged section.
To improve nutritional status of students of Primary stage and to provide nutritional support to students of Primary Stage of affected areas during summer vacations also.
• Supply of food grains, Wheat/rice at 100 grams per child per school.
• Cooking cost at Re 1.00 per child per school per day w.e.f.01-09-2004. ]
• Actual cost in transportation @ Rs.100 per quintal.
• Construction of Kitchen Shed in rural areas for which funds are made available under SGRY and in urban areas for which funds are available under NSDP and UWEP component of SJSRY. Proposal to be reflected in the Annual Action Plan.
Creation of drinking water facility for which funds are available under SSA and ARWSP. Creation of drinking water facility for which funds are available under SSA and ARWSP.
Ans. The specific objectives of ICDS are:
(i) to improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age group of 0 to 6 years and adolescents;
(ii) to lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child; ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
(iii) to reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school drop-out;
(iv) to achieve effective coordination of policy and implementation amongst the various departments to promote child development; and
(v) to enhance the capability of the mother to look after the health and nutritional needs of the child through proper nutrition and health education.
(i) Supplementary nutrition
(iii) Periodic health check-ups, treatment of minor ailments and referral services
(iv) Growth monitoring
(v) Non-formal preschool education
Q7. Explain the principle of food preservation involved in the following method:
a) Addition of sodium benzoate to fruit jelly
Ans. Sodium benzoate inhibits growth of mould in jelly.
b) Addition of large amount of salt in the pickle
Ans. Salt is added to pickle in large amount to preserve pickle by anaerobic fermentation producing lactic acid. Lactic acid preserve in pickle and give them characteristics flavour.
c) Addition of citric acid and phosphoric acid to beverages
Ans. Microorganisms are sensitive to acid. Some are much more sensitive than others. The acid produced by one organism during fermentation will inhibit the growth of another.
This is the principle of using controlled fermentation; the acid produced by fermentation will not allow the growth of other organisms. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Acids may be added directly to foods as chemicals, for example, citric acid and phosphoric acid added to beverages like carbonated drinks.
d) Boiling the milk before use
Ans. The practice of boiling milk destroys the microorganisms as well as the enzymes present in it and therefore hoiled milk can be kent at room temnerature for 6 to 12 hours Giving it a second boil after 6 hours or so during hot weather makes it last longer.
It is better to cover it with a netting of some kind to allow for ventilation when kept at room temperature. Inside a refrigerator milk can last 3 to 4 days or even more.
The cold temperature of the refrigerator does disturb the emulsified state of the milk allowing the cream to separate and collect at the top.
Q8. a) What is the importance of menu in a food service unit?
Ans. Consumer needs and organizational objectives are the initial driving force for a food service establishment.
Menu is the one essential, critical focal point of all activities in a food service establishment and requires careful planning.
It serves as a control and spells out the monetary prerequisites for purchasing food, personnel and equipment for production and service.
The goal of the menu is to maximize resources to produce highest quality products having greatest financial return.ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
b)What records would you maintain in a food service establishment? Enlist
Ans. The different records you would maintain in food service unit are follow in:
Supplier’s directory: List of suppliers with their names, addresses, telephone numbers and terms agreed.
Purchase order: List of the items that are to be purchased with their specifications and agreed price.
Invoice/cash memo: The list of items with the prices. This is given by the supplier along with his supplies.
Stock register: It is a register in which record of each item is maintained indicating its value, quantity, source of purchase, amount available in store, amount issued etc.
Requisition slip or indent: A requisition slip is a order form given to the store incharge by the person who wants to get issued anything from the store.
Menu book: Menu book maintains record of a day’s menu, standardised recipe for each item of menu and the number of servings produced in a day.
Food cost record: Record of cost of each menu item and hence the total number of servings produced in a day.
Sales record: A sales record indicates sales income on monthly or yearly basis.
Labour cost record: Record of expenditure on labour in terms of their wages and other facilities extended. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Overhead and maintenance: A record of money spent on these like gas, electricity etc.
Q9. List the different methods used for assessment of nutritional status. How are anthropometric measurements used in assessment of nutritional status?
Ans. The different methods used for assessment of nutritional Status:
1) Anthropometric measurements
2) Clinical Method
3) Biochemical Analysis
4) Diet Survey
Anthropometric Measurements : Anthropometric measures means measurements of body size.
Measuring body weight and height provide useful data for analysing growth and for determining body size and composition.
Growth as measured in terms of weight for age or height for age, reflects the sum total of what has occurred up to that point in time.
It aids in the identification of PEM and obesity. The four most commonly used and simple body measurements (which serve as good indicators of nutritional status), are:
i. Height for age
ii. Weight for age
iii. Weight for height
iv. Arm circumference for age.
This section presents a detailed study on these anthropometric measurements. A brief discussion on various other measurements (i.e. head circumference, chest circumference 10/21 and skin fold thickness) is also presented in Highlight 5,
which will give a complete picture of anthropometric measurements and their role in assessing nutritional status, ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Before we begin, we would like to draw your attention to the fact that the use of anthropometric measurements specially height and weight depends on two factors : 1) Accurate age assessment and 2) Appropriate normal values or standards for comparison.
Accurate age assessment is necessary simply, because the body measures (i.e. height, weight, body circumference) increase with age.
If the correct age is not known, it might not be possible to have an accurate assessment.
Furthermore, the use of body measurements become useful only if, the actual measurements obtained on an individual are compared with known values or standards.
What do we mean by standards? The average body measurements of well-nourished and healthy children (belonging to the well-to-do societies) who are medically and socially well-protected are referred to as standards and these values are used for the purpose of comparison.
If the body measurements for age are comparable with those of well-to-do and healthy children, the child is considered nutritionally healthy.
Tables providing standard measurement values of well nourished children are available. For example, Indian standards (data compiled by National Institute of Nutrition, NIN) and NCHS standards (USA).
We will be using NCHS (National Centre for Health Statistics) standards for comparison, since studies conducted in India have shown that at least until adolescence,
the growth pattern of wellto-do Indian children is comparable with that of American children. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Q10. Briefly discuss the dietary modifications/preventive measures for:
a) Diabetes Mellitus.
Ans. Before suggesting any modification in the diet, you should talk to the individual about his meal pattern, work schedule and likes and dislikes.
You should not give a very tight diet-schedule to an individual which the person may find it difficult to adhere to.
In fact, you should suggest only few dietary modifications in his/her earlier meal pattern (as few as possible to keep diabetes under control).
• Regulation of the meals consumed is essential. Diabetic individuals should be encouraged to have meals at regular intervals. It is advisable for him/her not to skip meals or keep a fast.
• All the main meals consumed should provide fairly even amount of calories.
• Care should be taken to include foods from all three basic food groups.
However, suitable modifications are needed within each group to ensure control.
DIETARY MANAGEMENT : Besides dietary management, oral drugs and insulin doses are also used for treatment of diabetes. The three measures commonly adopted for control of the disease are:
a) dietary management alone
b) dietary management and oral drugs
c) dietary management and insulin doses. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
b) Iron Deficiency Anaemia
Ans. Prevention : Given below are the few preventive measures which can help to prevent anaemias.
(a) Dietary measures : The most rational method of prevention of anaemia is to ensure consumption of diets adequate in iron by the population.
The women, particularly living in villages and urban slums, should be adequately educated about the importance of prevention of anaemia and should be encouraged to consume iron-rich foods regularly.
Inexpensive sources of iron are green leafy vegetables (palak, amaranth etc.), rice flakes, other vegetables like (lotus stem), groundnuts.
(b) Fortification of foods : One of the methods of ensuring adequate consumption of iron through diets is to add iron to a food item, that is consumed by one and all daily.
The method by which the nutritive value of diets is improved by the addition of one or more nutrients to a food item is known as fortification of food.
The food selected for this should be consumed by all, particularly the needy poorer segments of the populations,with very little daily variation in the quantities consumed.
(c) Distribution of iron and folic acid tablets : The Government of India has been implementing a programme called National Nutritional Anaemia Control Programme, since the year 1970.
Under the programme, the beneficiaries receive 100 tablets of iron and folic acid. This is expected to control the widespread prevalence of anaemia in the country.
Section B – Practical Activities
Q1. What is a balanced diet? List the steps involved in preparing a balanced diet. Using these steps plan a balanced diet for a pregnant women in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy belonging to low socio-economic group.
Ans. Balanced Diet: A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories,minerals, vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.
We have to remember that balanced diets are:
(ii) region-specific and ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
List the Steps of planning balanced diet :
(i) Identify the individual and his/her specific characteristics
(ii) Consult RDIS (Recommended Dietary Intakes) for energy and protein
(iii) Decide on total amounts of specific groups
(iv) Decide on number of meals to be consumed
(v) Distribute total amounts decided between meals
(vi) Decide on items and their amounts within each group for each meal
(vii) Check day’s diet for inclusion of specific food groups in the amounts decided
Balance diet for a pregnant woman in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy belonging to low socio-economic group.
Q2. Plan a snack rich in iron, energy and protein suitable for a 10-12 year old girl. Your answer must specify.
• Name of the snack
• List of ingredients
• Method of preparation
• Sources of iron, energy and protein included.
Ans.• Name of the snacks – Bread rolls
• List of ingredients – The ingredients of bread rolls as:
Bread pieces Potatoes (2-3) Tomatoes (1) Spinach (25g) Chana Dal Onion (1) Salt, Pepper, Oil Sauce (prepared separately readymade)
• Method of preparation – The steps for preparation
• Boil chana dal, and spinach
• Peel potatoes and mash them. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
• Also mash spinach and mix all these ingredients.
• Cut onion, tomatoes.
• Make a mix of all these ingredients. Now add salt, pepper etc.
• Take bread pieces and cut the corner of the pieces. Soak bread pieces into water.
• Take some oil in a pan. In every bread pieces, add and fill it with mixture. Put each bread roll on pan and prepare it till it turns brown.
• Serve it hot with sauce or chutney
• Sources of iron, energy and protein included.
• Iron – It is provided by potatoes, tomatoes and spinach.
• Protein- Chana dal and spinach
• Fiber – fiber is provided by chana dal and tomatoes in same quantity.
• Bread provides carbohydrates.
Q4. Look up Annexure 4, “Proforma on Regional Patterns”. Fill up the proforma as ( per the directions given and submit along with this assignment for assessment.
Your Name: Simran Kaur
Enrolment No.: XXXXXXXXXXX
State – India
Name of Village/town/city: Delhi
‘INFORMATION ON MEAL PATTERNS OF YOUR REGION
1) a) How many meals are taken in a day?
Ans. There are three main meals in India: breakfast, lunch and dinner.
b) List the meals with their names and timing.
- Breakfast 8 – 9 a.m. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Few common dishes served for breakfast include:
• Poha (Batata poha/kanda poha)
• Parantha (aloo parantha, pyaj parantha, gobhi parantha)
• Breadless Sandwich
• Aloo Puri
Lunch 1 – 2 p.m.
Lunch generally consists of the following:
• Vegetable Preparations: If one vegetable preparation is prepared generally dry preparation is made.
If two vegetable preparations are prepared then one dry vegetable preparation and one curry preparation is made.
Seasonal locally available vegetables are commonly cooked like peas, cauliflower, carrot, mustard, fenugreek, etc. in winter and bhindi (ladies finger), lauki (bottlegourd), tori, tinda, sitaphal (pumpkin), etc. in summer.
• Curd or Raita: (made from curd and any of the following: besan ki bundi, Lauki, onion, tomato and grated cucumber, etc.)
Dinner 8-9 p. m
Dinner generally consists of the following:
• Dal (moong, chana, urad are commonly eaten. Sometimes a mixture of two or three dals is also prepared like moong and masoor, urad and chana).
• One Vegetable preparation (optional) ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
2). a) Is there a fixed time for eating snacks with tea/coffee/milk? Yes. No.
b) If yes, when are such meals taken?
Ans. Evening tea
3) Give a day’s typical menu using this chart
• Urad dal (1 katori)
• Mustard oil (2 tablespoons)
• Ginger or garlic and salt
• Chopped tomato
• 1 tablespoon of malai
Description of dish and cooking method :
Pressure cook urad dal (1 katori)(mixed with mustard oil (2 tablespoons), ginger or garlic andsalt). Add chopped tomato to the ) cooked dal and keep it on slow fire. Add 1 tablespoon of malai to the dal and cook till it gets mixed well.
Similarly, add about 4 tablespoons of malai (cream) and simmer (on slow fire) tillsthe dal gets mixed well. Prepare baghar of onion and garlic and add to dal.
Section C- Objective Type Questions (OTQ)
Q1. Comment on the interrelationship of the following in 2-3 sentences:
i. Protein quality and Cereal-Pulse combination
Ans. When cereals are combined with pulses in the same meal then the quality of protein improves.
Protein quality of plant foods can be thus improved by the combination of one or more kinds of foods of plant origin. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
If we look at the traditional Indian diets, we will find many dishes which are prepared by using either a cereal-pulse combination as in dosa; dal-roti; rice-dal or cereal-animal food combinations as in dalia; rice-fish.
This is one of the ways of improving the quality of food proteins. By a judicious combination of foods of animal and plant origin, we can ensure that the protein consumed will be of good quality.
It must be remembered that even small amounts of animal protein with vegetable protein in a meal greatly improves protein quality.
A cereal-pulse combination is used to make the rotis. Cereals would provide energy. Both pulses and curd provide protein.
Addition of vegetable to the rotis can help or a fruit can be given so as to include the protective/regulatory group.
ii. Food fortification and salt
Ans. Addition of iodine to salt is an example of food fortification. Salt does not have iodine. Iodine is added to it.
iii. ORS and Diarrhoea
Ans. ORS is a solution made from sugar and salt dissolved in water. This solution helps replace the fluids and electrolytes lost in the stools during diarrhoea. You may be aware that in the market several electrolyte mixtures are available.
This mixture should be added to one litre of clean water (preferably boiled and cooled) and the child should be fed this solution as frequently as possible and after every loose stool. We can prepare this solution at home as well in the following manner:
Take one litre of clean water, add three finger pinch of common salt and four finger scoop of sugar and mix well. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
This mixture is as good as the electrolyte mixtures available in the market. it is now known that salt added to one litre of thin rice kanjee or barley water will also serve as well.
Low income mothers prefer this as they very often may not have a sugar or jaggery at home, but all homes will have some cereal or the other to make a kanjee solution. The child should be given this solution as frequently as possible.
Diarrhoea is a symptom characterized by the sudden onset of frequent stools of watery consistency, abdominal pain, cramping, weakness and sometimes fever and vomiting. Diarrhoea is very common among children.
As in the case of any other illness, diarrhoea can reduce the appetite of the child considerably. As a result, the child does not eat properly
iv. Amylase rich food (ARF) and digestibility
Ans. Amylase rich food (ARF) is nothing but flour obtained from germinated grain. Germinated grain flour contains a lot of amylase (an enzyme) which makes the porridge soft, thin and easy to eat, without taking away any of its nutritive value.
Digestibility is the proportion of a foodstuff absorbed from the digestive tract into the bloodstream, normally 90–95%. ANC 01 Free Solved Assignment
It is measured as the difference between intake and faecal output, with allowance being made for that part of the faeces that is not derived from undigested food residues (shed cells of the intestinal tract, bacteria, residues of digestive juices).
Digestibility measured in this way is referred to as ‘true digestibility’, as distinct from the approximate measure, ‘apparent digestibility’, which is simply the difference between intake and output.
v. Adolescence and Catch-up growth
Ans. Catch-up growth is common in infancy and childhood but data prior to the onset of growth restriction are needed for its identification.
The phenomenon is usually reported as a case study and seldom in group statistics.
In adolescence, catch-up growth can only be recognized in individuals followed carefully from childhood to adulthood, due to the variable course of growth and somatic development.
vi. Blanching and Food preservation
Ans. Blanching (scalding vegetables in boiling water or steam for a short time) is a must for almost all vegetables to be frozen.
It stops enzyme actions which can cause loss of flavor, color and texture. Blanching cleanses the surface of dirt and organisms, brightens the color and helps retard loss of vitamins.
It also wilts or softens vegetables and makes them easier to pack.
Food preservation is one of the methods to protect food from unwanted microbial growth. After the food is produced, we store and protect by covering the rice and curry with lids to keep away flies and other insects.
By this, we are protecting it from any infection caused by them. This is a short-term condition. Food preservation, on the other hand, is done to preserve food for a longer time.
vii. Lathyrus sativus and crippling paralysis
Ans. Kesari is a very hardy plant and the pulse derived from it is used to mix with bengal gram which is more expenswe, in order to make bengal gram flour.
In villages of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, it is also used as wages for farm labour. It can cause a form of crippling paralysis in boys and men 5 to 45 years old.
The disease is called lathyrism. The disease starts with stiffness of the knee joints and legs with pain arouna the knee and ankle jornh, as well as in the back thighs.
viii. Prophylaxis and nutrition programmes
Ans. In 1970, the National Prophylaxis Programme against Nutritional Blindness was initiated as a centrally sponsored scheme.
Under this scheme, all children between ages of one and three years were to be administered 200,000 IU of Vitamin A orally once in six months.
The nutrition programmes are specific nutrient supplementation programmes. They aim at the control and prevention of specific nutrient deficiency diseases like xerophthalmia, anaemia and iodine deficiency disorders.
But, it is observed that in economically poor communities malnutrition is not only due to the poor purchasing power of people.
Even faulty feeding habits due to ignorance or superstitions and repeated infections and worm infestations due to bad environment (causing diarrhoea, dysentery, cough and fever) are equally responsible.
ix. Dietary fat intake and coronary heart disease
Ans. Excessive dietary fat intake has been linked to increased risk of obesity, coronary heart disease and certain types of cancer.
High consumption of saturated-fatty acids is widely considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
x. Mid day meal programme and school enrolment
Ans. The Mid-Day Meal Programme (MDM) is also called the school lunch or school meal programme.
As the name indicates, the children attending elementary sections of schools are the chief beneficiaries.
Supply of one supplementary meal is the main purpose of this programme. The reason why the MDM programme was started was that the home diets of these children are often inadequate from the nutritional viewpoint.
Many, especially in rural areas, come to school partly hungry and some even on an empty stomach, trekking long distances.
They will, therefore, hardly be able to concentrate on the studies and benefit from the education, which is being provided at great cost to the exchequer.
Further, school age children are in the phase of rapid growth and development and hence their nutritional needs are considerable.
The schools provide easy access to a large number of vulnerable children for any organised welfare section, be it health or nutrition or education.
The programme has both health and educational objectives. These are:
(i) To improve the nutritional status and the attentiveness of school children attending primary sections (I to V classes).
(ii) To improve school enrolment and attendance on one hand and to reduce dropout rates on the other.
Q2. List the deficiency disorder(s) and rich food sources of the following nutrients/substance:
Ans. Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet. Iodine is an essential dietary mineral; the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine contain iodine.
Prevention includes adding small amounts of iodine to table salt, a product known as iodized salt.
Following are some foods sources that are high in iodine:
• Seaweed, whole or sheet (1 g): 16 to 2984mcg (between 11 and 1,989 percent DV, depending on the water source)
• Baked cod (3 oz): 99mcg (66 percent DV)
• Low-fat, plain yogurt (1 cup): 75mcg (50 percent DV)
• Iodized salt (1/4 teaspoon): 71mcg (47 percent DV)
• Medium white potato with skin: 60mcg (40 percent DV)
• Reduced-fat milk (1 cup): 56mcg (37 percent DV)
ii. Folic acid
Ans. Anemia, tiredness, having little energy (lethargy), feeling faint, and becoming easily breathless.
Less common symptoms include headaches, heartbeats suddenly becoming noticeable (palpitations), altered taste and ringing in the ears (tinnitus) Good sources of folic acid are Green leafy vegetables, fruits, milk and animal food.
Ans. Severe deficiency, called pellagra, can cause symptoms related to the skin, digestive, and nervous system. They include:
Thick, scaly pigmented rash on skin exposed to sunlight, swollen mouth and bright red tongue, vomiting and diarrhea, headache, apathy, fatigue, depression, disorientation, memory loss If not treated, pellagra can lead to death.
Good sources of niacin include red meat, fish, poultry, fortified breads and cereals, and enriched pasta and peanuts.
Ans. Acne, Muscle cramps, Boosting the immune system, Aging, Maintaining healthy skin and hair, Canker sores, Memory loss including Alzheimer’s disease.
v. Vitamin A
Ans. Deficiency disorders of Vitamin A: Prolonged deficiency may lead to night blindness, xerophthalmia (keratinization of cornea) and decreased defense against microorganisms because the mucous membranes cannot function properly.
Rich Food Sources of Vitamin A: It is found in food items like meat, milk, fish, etc. In animals, its highest concentration is found in the liver.
It is also present in plant sources like carrot, pumpkin and green leafy vegetables. The plant sources contain precursors of Vitamin A known as carotenoids, which are the orange and yellow pigments of fruits and vegetables,